Auburn Tigers men's basketball
The Auburn Tigers men's basketball team is the intercollegiate men's basketball program that represents Auburn University. The school competes in the Southeastern Conference in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the Tigers play their home games at Auburn Arena in Alabama on the university campus. The program began in 1906, is coached by Bruce Pearl. Auburn has won three SEC two SEC Tournament championships. Auburn has appeared in the NCAA Tournament ten times, making it as far as the Final Four in 2019. 11 Auburn players have been named Auburn has had 87 All-SEC selections. Auburn has produced 29 NBA Draft picks, including Chuck Person and Chris Morris, both of whom were selected with the fourth overall pick, the highest in Auburn history. Two Auburn players have been named SEC Player of the Year: Charles Barkley in 1984 and Chris Porter in 1999. Auburn has had five head coaches selected as SEC Coach of the Year a total of seven times, former Auburn head coach Cliff Ellis was named National Coach of the Year by multiple outlets in 1999.
Former Auburn player Charles Barkley was inducted into the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame in 2006. Auburn has had 20 head men's basketball coaches since the program was started in 1906 by Mike Donahue; the program is coached by Bruce Pearl. Mike "Iron Mike" Donahue was Auburn's first head men's basketball coach, starting the program in 1906, he coached the program for 16 seasons, the longest tenure of any men's basketball coach in Auburn history, finishing with a record of 74–80–1. In addition to coaching basketball, Donahue served as athletic director and coached the football, baseball and soccer teams while at Auburn. Though more famous for his career as a football coach at Auburn, Ralph "Shug" Jordan coached the Auburn men's basketball program for 10 seasons prior to becoming the head football coach. Jordan was a football assistant coach. After playing football and basketball for Auburn from 1929 to 1932, Jordan became the head men's basketball coach in 1933, he coached until 1942, when he was called overseas to fight as an officer in World War II.
Following his service, Jordan returned to Auburn to coach the 1945–46 team. He left Auburn to become the head men's basketball coach at Georgia after the season. Jordan finished with a record of 95–77 at Auburn. Joel Eaves was Auburn's 12th head men's basketball coach, coaching from 1949 to 1963. Eaves was a former Auburn football and basketball player, playing from 1934 to 1937 under head coach "Shug" Jordan. Auburn won its first SEC championship under Eaves in 1960, finishing 12–2 in the conference and 19–3 overall. Eaves was named SEC Coach of the Year following the 1960 season. Eaves finished with a 213–100 record at Auburn, making him the winningest men's basketball coach in Auburn history. Joel Eaves was inducted into the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame in 1978. Auburn's Memorial Coliseum was renamed after Eaves to Joel H. Eaves Memorial Coliseum in 1987, to Beard-Eaves-Memorial Coliseum in 1993. Sonny Smith was the 15th head men's basketball coach at Auburn, coaching for 11 seasons from 1978–1989.
Smith coached Auburn to the NCAA Tournament in 5 consecutive seasons, 1984 to 1988, including a run to the Elite Eight in 1986 before losing to eventual national champion Louisville. In addition to leading Auburn to its first NCAA Tournament in 1984, he coached Auburn to its first SEC Tournament championship in 1985. Smith is the only head men's basketball coach in Auburn history to coach three consecutive 20-win seasons, doing so from 1984 to 1986. Sonny Smith was named SEC Coach of the Year in 1984 and 1988. Smith coached his final season at Auburn in 1989, leaving to become the head men's basketball coach at VCU. Smith finished with a record of 173–154. Smith was inducted into the Alabama Sports Hall of Fame in 2007. Cliff Ellis was the 17th head men's basketball coach at Auburn, he coached for 10 seasons from 1994 to 2004. Ellis had some success early in his career, leading Auburn to the NIT three times in his first four seasons and being named SEC Coach of the Year in 1995, his most successful season at Auburn was the 1998–99 season, where he led the Tigers to an SEC regular season championship and the program's first #1 seed in the NCAA Tournament, in which they reached the Sweet Sixteen.
Ellis was named both SEC and National Coach of the Year in 1999. Ellis would take Auburn to the NCAA Tournament two more times: reaching the Second Round in 2000 and returning to the Sweet Sixteen in 2003. Ellis was fired following the 2003–04 season after finishing the season with a 14–14 record. Auburn faced NCAA sanctions over alleged recruiting violations during the season, but Ellis was not found at fault after the investigation. Ellis finished with a record of 186–125 at Auburn. Bruce Pearl became Auburn's 20th head men's basketball coach on March 18, 2014, he led Auburn to its third SEC regular season championship in the 2017–18 season and its second SEC Tournament championship in 2019, en route to leading Auburn to its first Final Four in the 2019 NCAA Tournament. Pearl's current record at Auburn is 100–72. National Coach of the Year Cliff Ellis SEC Coach of the Year Joel Eaves Bob Davis Sonny Smith Tommy Joe Eagles Cliff Ellis Alabama Sports Hall of Fame Joel Eaves Sonny Smith Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame Charles Barkley SEC Player of the Year Charles Barkley Chris Porter SEC Tournament MVP Charles Barkley Chuck Person Bryce Brown SEC Rookie of the Year Chris Porter Alabama Sports Hall of Fame John Mengelt (1995
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Auburn University Regional Airport
Auburn University Regional Airport with the Robert G. Pitts Field is a public use airport located two nautical miles east of the central business district of Auburn, a city in Lee County, United States; the airport is owned by Auburn University and was known as Auburn–Opelika Robert G. Pitts Airport, it is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a general aviation facility. The airport offers no commercial service out of Auburn; the closest airport of significance outside Auburn is the Columbus Airport in Columbus, Georgia, a one-hour drive to and from Auburn. The closest commercial airports are the Montgomery Regional Airport in Montgomery, the Birmingham–Shuttlesworth International Airport in Birmingham and the Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia; these airports are within a two-hour driving distance to/from Auburn and offer air service to most of the world's major airports. Daily bus/van shuttle service is available from the Auburn area to the Atlanta airport.
In its earliest days, the airport was nothing more than a grass field. The home to one airplane, the airport was different from its current status. Today, the airport is home to some 55 aircraft and Auburn University's Department of Aviation and Supply Chain Management; when first constructed in 1930, the Auburn–Opelika Airport was a private airfield built to serve the sister cities of Auburn and Opelika located in Lee County, Alabama. It was intended to serve the Alabama Polytechnic Institute renamed Auburn University. Over the next decade, the airport would go from a private airfield, to a stop along the mail route for the Civil Aeronautics Administration, become a training ground for the U. S. Military, it was during its time as a Navy/CAA War Training School that the Auburn School of Aviation would be developed. Over the next several decades, many improvements would be made to the airport, making it a standard of excellence in the general aviation field. A new terminal and administration building was constructed in 1950 consisting of both enclosed and open flight decks, a restaurant, flight ready rooms and operations offices with local and federal funds.
In the 1950s, Medium Intensity Runway Lights were installed, runways were resealed, an access road to Glenn Avenue was constructed. The 1960s continued to see major improvements to the airport. During the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s a concentrated effort was made to acquire the land and funding for the 18/36 runway extension. In addition and several improvements were made to the airport facilities, updating them to modern standards. In January 2002, the ribbon cutting ceremony was held to open the 1,332-foot runway extension; the runway was widened from 75 feet to 100 feet. As of August 2006, the Federal Aviation Administration gave clearance for the installation of a glideslope antenna and approach lighting system for runway 36; these improvements were completed in late 2007. Plans are being made for extensive crack repair, pavement rehab, painting of runway 11/29, along with minor crack repair and repainting of runway 18/36. Site prep work for four hangars, a new ramp area, a new terminal was started in January 2008.
These improvements will help the airport provide better service for the large crowds of people who fly in to attend college football games at Auburn University. In November 2009, the Auburn University Board of Trustees voted to rename the Auburn-Opelika Robert G. Pitts Airport as the Auburn University Regional Airport with the Robert G. Pitts Field. A new terminal was dedicated in September, 2010. Auburn University Regional Airport covers an area of 423 acres at an elevation of 777 feet above mean sea level, it has two runways with asphalt surfaces: 18/36 is 5,264 by 100 feet and 11/29 is 4,000 by 75 feet. For the 12-month period ending July 23, 2010, the airport had 65,445 aircraft operations, an average of 179 per day: 97% general aviation, 2% air taxi, 1% military. At that time there were 53 aircraft based at this airport: 77% single-engine, 13% multi-engine, 8% jet, 2% helicopter; the FBO at the Auburn University Regional Airport is staffed from 7:00 AM to 7:00 PM Central Time weekdays, 8:00 AM to 5:00 PM weekends.
Fuel services are available during this time, as are use of the airport facilities. Terminal Procedures, IFR Charts, Log Books, similar pilot supplies can all be purchased inside the terminal building. There are "call fees" for after hours assistance for fuel or supplies. Services include WSI weather, courtesy cars, aircraft maintenance, nitrogen, GPU availability, cable TV, computer workstations and wireless Internet, LAV service. Maintenance is available during normal working hours, from 7 AM to 4 PM local time. AUO's four mechanics, three of whom have their Inspection Authorization License, can service most all single engine, twin engine, turbo-prop aircraft, but provide only minor powerplant and airframe service. After hours and weekend service is available on demand at a rate of a half. Navaids TGE 117.3 055 14.4 nm to field CSG 117.1 269 20.6 nm to field LOC IAUO 110.1Airport Communications CTAF/UNICOM: 123.0 WX AWOS-3: 132.575 ATLANTA APPROACH: 126.55 ATLANTA DEPARTURE: 126.55 APP/P
Polo is a horseback mounted team sport. It is one of the world's oldest known team sports. A game of Central Asian origin, polo was first played in Persia at dates given from the 6th century BC to the 1st century AD. Polo was at first a training game for cavalry units the king’s guard or other elite troops. From there it spread beyond, it is now popular around the world, with well over 100 member countries in the Federation of International Polo. It is played professionally in 16 countries, it was an Olympic sport from 1900 to 1936. It is known as the sport of kings, it has become a spectator sport for equestrians and society supported by sponsorship. The game is played by two opposing teams with the objective of scoring goals by hitting a small hard ball with a long-handled wooden mallet, through the opposing team's goal; each team has four mounted riders, the game lasts one to two hours, divided into periods called chukkas. Arena polo has similar rules, is played with three players per team; the playing area is smaller, of compacted sand or fine aggregate indoors.
Arena polo has more maneuvering due to space limitations, uses an air inflated ball larger than the hard field polo ball. Standard mallets are used, though larger head arena mallets are an option. Although the exact origins of the game are unknown it most began as a simple game played by mounted Iranian nomads in Central Asia, from where it spread to Persia and beyond. In time polo became. Women played as well as men. During the period of the Parthian Empire, the sport had great patronage under the kings and noblemen. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, was a Persian ball game and an important pastime in the court of the Sasanian Empire, it was part of royal education for the Sasanian ruling class. Emperor Shapur II learnt to play polo when he was seven years old in 316 AD. Known as chovgan it is still played in the region today. Valuable for training cavalry, the game was played from Constantinople to Japan by the Middle Ages; the game spread south to Arabia and to India and Tibet.
The game continued to be supported by Mongol rulers of Persia in the 11th century, as well as under the Safavid dynasty. In the 17th century, Naqsh-i Jahan Square in Isfahan was built as a polo field by King Abbas I; the game was learnt by the neighbouring Byzantine Empire at an early date. A tzykanisterion was built by emperor Theodosius II inside the Great Palace of Constantinople. Emperor Basil I excelled at it. After the Muslim conquests to the Ayyubid and Mameluke dynasties of Egypt and the Levant, their elites favoured it above all other sports. Notable sultans such as Saladin and Baybars were known to encourage it in their court. Polo sticks were features on the Mameluke precursor to modern day playing cards; the game spread to South Asia where it has had a strong presence in the north western areas of present-day Pakistan since at least the 15th-16th century. The name polo is said meaning ball. Qutubuddin Aibak, the Turkic slave from Central Asia who became the Sultan of Delhi in Northern India, ruled as a Sultan for only four years, from 1206 to 1210, dying an accidental death during a game of polo when his horse fell and he was impaled on the pommel of his saddle.
Polo travelled via the Silk Road to China where it was popular in the Chinese Tang dynasty capital of Chang'an, played by women, who wore male dress to do so. According to the Oxford Dictionary of Late Antiquity, the popularity of polo in Tang China was "bolstered, no doubt, by the presence of the Sasanian court in exile". An archaic variation of polo, regionally referred to as buzkashi or kokpar, is still played in parts of Asia; the modern game of polo is derived from Manipur, where the game was known as'Sagol Kangjei','Kanjai-bazee', or'Pulu'. It was the anglicised form of the last, referring to the wooden ball, used, adopted by the sport in its slow spread to the west; the first polo club was established in the town of Silchar in Assam, India, in 1833. The origins of the game in Manipur are traced to early precursors of Sagol Kangjei; this was one of three forms of hockey in Manipur, the other ones being field hockey and wrestling-hockey. Local rituals such as those connected to the Marjing, the Winged-Pony God of Polo and the creation-ritual episodes of the Lai Haraoba festival enacting the life of his son, Khori-Phaba, the polo-playing god of sports.
These may indicate an origin earlier than the historical records of Manipur. According to Chaitharol-Kumbaba, a Royal Chronicle of Manipur King Kangba who ruled Manipur much earlier than Nongda Lairen Pakhangba introduced Sagol Kangjei. Further regular playing of this game commenced in 1605 during the reign of King Khagemba under newly framed rules of the game; however it was the first Mughal emperor, who popularised the sport in India and made a significant influence on England. In Manipur, polo is traditionally played with seven players to a side; the players are mounted on the indigenous Manipuri pony. There are no go
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, it was the longest and most widespread depression of the 20th century. In the 21st century, the Great Depression is used as an example of how intensely the world's economy can decline; the Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929. Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession; some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II; the Great Depression had devastating effects in countries both poor. Personal income, tax revenue and prices dropped, while international trade plunged by more than 50%.
Unemployment in the U. S. rose to 25% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most. Economic historians attribute the start of the Great Depression to the sudden devastating collapse of U. S. stock market prices on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 optimism persisted for some time. John D. Rockefeller said "These are days. In the 93 years of my life, depressions have gone. Prosperity has always returned and will again." The stock market turned upward in early 1930. This was still 30% below the peak of September 1929.
Together and business spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, many of whom had suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut back their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U. S. By mid-1930, interest rates had dropped to low levels, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment were depressed. By May 1930, automobile sales had declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices in general began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. A deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance; the decline in the U. S. economy was the factor. Frantic attempts to shore up the economies of individual nations through protectionist policies, such as the 1930 U.
S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries, exacerbated the collapse in global trade. By 1933, the economic decline had pushed world trade to one-third of its level just four years earlier. Change in economic indicators 1929–32 The two classical competing theories of the Great Depression are the Keynesian and the monetarist explanation. There are various heterodox theories that downplay or reject the explanations of the Keynesians and monetarists; the consensus among demand-driven theories is that a large-scale loss of confidence led to a sudden reduction in consumption and investment spending. Once panic and deflation set in, many people believed they could avoid further losses by keeping clear of the markets. Holding money became profitable as prices dropped lower and a given amount of money bought more goods, exacerbating the drop in demand. Monetarists believe that the Great Depression started as an ordinary recession, but the shrinking of the money supply exacerbated the economic situation, causing a recession to descend into the Great Depression.
Economists and economic historians are evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression. Today the controversy is of lesser importance since there is mainstream support for the debt deflation theory and the expectations hypothesis that building on the monetary explanation of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz add non-monetary explanations. There is consensus that the Federal Reserve System should have cut short the process of monetary deflation and banking collapse. If they had done this, the economic downturn would have been much shorter. British economist John Maynard Keynes argued in The General Theory of Employment and Money that lower aggregate expenditures in the economy contributed to a massive decline in income and to employment, well below the average.
In such a situation, the economy reached equilibrium at low levels of economic activity and high unemployment. Keynes' basic idea was simple
Jordan–Hare Stadium is the playing venue for the Auburn University Tigers football team located on campus in Auburn, Alabama. The stadium is named for Ralph "Shug" Jordan, who owns the most wins in school history, Cliff Hare, a member of Auburn's first football team as well as Dean of the Auburn University School of Chemistry and President of the Southern Conference. On November 19, 2005, the playing field at the stadium was named in honor of former Auburn coach and athletic director Pat Dye; the venue is now known as Pat Dye Field at Jordan–Hare Stadium. The stadium reached its current seating capacity of 87,451 with the 2004 expansion and is the 10th largest stadium in the NCAA. By the end of the 2006 season, it was estimated that 19,308,753 spectators had attended a football game in Jordan–Hare. Jordan–Hare Stadium makes lists of the best gameday atmospheres and most intimidating places to play. Before 1939, Auburn played its home games at Drake Field, a bare-bones facility seating only 700 people in temporary bleachers.
With such a tiny capacity, Auburn was only able to play one game on campus per year, had to play many of its "home" games at neutral sites. More or less out of necessity, school officials decided to build a permanent stadium; the stadium known as Auburn Stadium, hosted its first game on November 10, 1939, between the Auburn and Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets football freshmen teams. While the school was known as Alabama Polytechnic Institute until 1960, it had been popularly known as "Auburn" for years, the decision to name the stadium as such reflected this; the stadium was dedicated on Thanksgiving Day 1939 before the first varsity game played in the stadium, a 7–7 tie with the University of Florida under Auburn head coach Jack Meagher. The Auburn-Florida game was scheduled for December 2, 1939 in Montgomery; the game was rescheduled in order for the stadium to be dedicated on Thanksgiving Day, Auburn officials wanting the significance of the occasion to dovetail with America's established Thanksgiving Day football tradition, a plan nearly thwarted by Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Franksgiving" decree.
Had Alabama not chosen to observe Thanksgiving on its original date, the stadium would not have been dedicated until 1940. The stadium is said to have opened with a capacity of 7,500; this is cited as the stadium's original capacity because the west grandstands were the only permanent portion of the original facility. The actual original capacity of the stadium, taking into account the wooden east stand as well as bleachers behind each end zone, was 15,000—a figure, quoted by a number of official Auburn sources of the day; the official attendance of 7,290 for the dedication game, as quoted by then-athletics business manager and future athletic director Jeff Beard, came from the number of tickets printed for the game. However, a thanks-for-coming note from Meagher cited the actual attendance as 11,095, newspaper accounts reported that anywhere from 12,000-14,000 people were in attendance. In the fall of 1947, Auburn students lobbied to rename the stadium Petrie Stadium in honor of Dr. George Petrie, Auburn's first football coach, who died in October that year.
The first major expansion came in 1949, when the wooden bleachers on the east side were replaced with permanent seats and more seats were added to the west grandstand. This brought capacity to 21,500, the stadium was renamed Cliff Hare Stadium. Shug Jordan became head coach of the Tigers in 1951, he was still coaching when his name was added to the stadium in 1973, making it the first stadium in the United States to be named for an active coach. The stadium's capacity more than tripled via three expansions during his 25 years at Auburn. With the addition of the west upper deck in 1980 and the east upper deck in 1987, the stadium became the largest in the state of Alabama until the 2006 and 2010 expansion of Bryant–Denny Stadium at Alabama. For much of its history, Auburn played home games against their traditional rivals at neutral sites rather than Jordan–Hare Stadium; this occurred due to the difficulty in traveling to Auburn during the first half of the 20th century and the capacity of other stadiums.
In its first decade after the stadium opened, for instance, Auburn only played a total of 12 true home games. Until the 1970s, Until 1960, all home games against Georgia were played at Memorial Stadium in Columbus. Auburn played all home games against Georgia Tech at Legion Field in Birmingham. Georgia Tech first came to the Plains in 1970, while Tennessee came to Auburn for the first time in 1974; as Auburn became more accessible and the stadium expanded in capacity, more games were moved to Jordan–Hare Stadium. By the 1980s, Alabama was Auburn's last major rival to have yet to play a game at Jordan–Hare Stadium; the yearly Iron Bowl clash between Alabama and Auburn had been played at Legion Field since it was renewed on a permanent basis in 1948. However, Auburn fans felt chagrin at facing Alabama in Birmingham after the 1980s expansions made Jordan–Hare the largest stadium in the state. Although Legion Field was ostensibly a neutral site, it had long been associated with Alabama football. Indeed, it was only 45 minutes east of Alabama's campus in Tuscaloosa.
After years of negotiations, the two schools agreed to play the Iron Bowl in Auburn in odd-numbered years. Alabama first came to the Plains on December 2, 1989—a game that saw #11 Auburn
Richard B. Spencer
Richard Bertrand Spencer is an American neo-Nazi and white supremacist. He is president of the National Policy Institute, a white supremacist think tank, as well as Washington Summit Publishers. Spencer rejects the label of white supremacist and considers himself a white nationalist, white identitarian, the equivalent of a "Zionist" for white people. Spencer created the term "alt-right", which he considers a movement about "white identity". Spencer advocates white-European unity, a "peaceful ethnic cleansing" of nonwhites from America, the creation of "white racial empire," which he believes would resemble the Roman Empire. Spencer has publicly engaged in Nazi rhetoric on many occasions, for which he has been criticized by both the political mainstream, by fellow white nationalists, who argue Spencer's flamboyant rhetoric marginalizes their movement. In early 2016, Spencer was filmed giving the Nazi salute in a karaoke bar. In the weeks following the 2016 U. S. presidential election, at a National Policy Institute conference, Spencer quoted from Nazi propaganda and denounced Jews.
In response to his cry "Hail Trump, hail our people, hail victory!", a number of his supporters gave the Nazi salute and chanted in a similar fashion to the Sieg Heil chant used at the Nazis' Nuremberg rallies. Following Trump's election to the presidency, Spencer urged his followers to "party like it's 1933," a reference to the year in which Hitler came to power in Germany. Spencer's critics argue that his speech and conduct leads to violence, a charge that Spencer rejects. Spencer was a featured speaker at the August 2017 Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, during which an alt-right supporter drove his car into a group of counter-protesters, killing one and injuring at least 19 others. Spencer denies any role or culpability in the attack, but has been sued for acting as a "gang boss" at Charlottesville and inciting the killing. After three other supporters of Spencer were charged with attempted homicide following Spencer's October 2017 speech at the University of Florida, Ohio State and several other universities cancelled Spencer's appearances, describing his presence as a menace to public safety.
Spencer has been accused under oath of beating and verbally abusing his ex-wife Nina Kouprianova, who has provided the press hours of recordings to substantiate her allegations. Spencer denies the allegations, states that the ostensible threats he made to her were expressions of frustration with his wife and not intended to be interpreted literally; the majority of European nations, including the entire Schengen Area, nations with nationalist governments, have banned Spencer and condemned his "racial European" message and call for a "white racial empire". While promoting his message in a controversial speaking tour in Hungary, Spencer was mocked by the Hungarian newspaper Népszabadság for his call for "a white empire", through a revival of the Roman Empire, for his claim to be a "racial European", ideas that the newspaper called contrived and without any basis in European history. In the aftermath of the controversy, Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orbán pressed through legislative measures which banned and condemned Spencer.
The government of Poland has banned and condemned Spencer, citing Spencer's Nazi rhetoric and the Nazis' genocide of Slavic "Untermenschen" during World War II. In July 2018, Spencer was detained at Keflavik Airport in Reykjavík, Iceland en route to Sweden and was ordered by Polish officials to return to the United States. Spencer was born in Boston, the son of ophthalmologist Rand Spencer and Sherry Spencer, an heiress to cotton farms in Louisiana, he grew up in Preston Hollow, Texas. In 1997, he graduated from St. Mark's School of Texas. In 2001, Spencer received a Bachelor of Arts in English Literature and Music from the University of Virginia and, in 2003, a Master of Arts in the Humanities from the University of Chicago, he spent the summer of 2006 at the Vienna International Summer University. From 2005 to 2007, he was a PhD student at Duke University studying modern European intellectual history, where he was a member of the Duke Conservative Union, his website says he left Duke "to pursue a life of thought-crime".
From March to December 2007, Spencer was assistant editor at The American Conservative magazine. According to founding editor Scott McConnell, Spencer was fired from The American Conservative because his views were considered too extreme. From January 2008 to December 2009, he was executive editor of Taki's Magazine. In March 2010, Spencer founded AlternativeRight.com, a website he edited until 2012. He has stated. In January 2011, Spencer became executive director of Washington Summit Publishers. In 2012, Spencer founded Radix Journal as a biannual publication of Washington Summit Publishers. Contributions have included articles by Kevin B. MacDonald, Alex Kurtagić, Samuel T. Francis, he hosts a weekly podcast, Vanguard Radio. In January 2011, Spencer became president and director of the National Policy Institute, a think tank based in Virginia and Montana. George Hawley, an assistant professor of political science at the University of Alabama, has described NPI as "rather obscure and marginalized" until Spencer became its president.
In 2014, Spencer was deported from Budapest, after trying to organize the National Policy Institute Conference, a conference for white nationalists. On January 15, 2017, Spencer launched AltRi