Pedro I of Brazil
Dom Pedro I, nicknamed "the Liberator", was the founder and first ruler of the Empire of Brazil. As King Dom Pedro IV, he reigned over Portugal, where he became known as "the Liberator" as well as "the Soldier King". Born in Lisbon, Pedro I was the fourth child of King Dom João VI of Portugal and Queen Carlota Joaquina, thus a member of the House of Braganza; when their country was invaded by French troops in 1807, he and his family fled to Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, Brazil. The outbreak of the Liberal Revolution of 1820 in Lisbon compelled Pedro I's father to return to Portugal in April 1821, leaving him to rule Brazil as regent, he had to deal with threats from revolutionaries and insubordination by Portuguese troops, all of which he subdued. The Portuguese government's threat to revoke the political autonomy that Brazil had enjoyed since 1808 was met with widespread discontent in Brazil. Pedro I chose the Brazilian side and declared Brazil's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.
On 12 October, he was acclaimed Brazilian emperor and by March 1824 had defeated all armies loyal to Portugal. A few months Pedro I crushed the short-lived Confederation of the Equator, a failed secession attempt by provincial rebels in Brazil's northeast. A secessionist rebellion in the southern province of Cisplatina in early 1825, the subsequent attempt by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to annex it, led the Empire into the Cisplatine War. In March 1826, Pedro I became king of Portugal before abdicating in favor of his eldest daughter, Dona Maria II; the situation worsened in 1828. During the same year in Lisbon, Maria II's throne was usurped by Prince Dom Miguel, Pedro I's younger brother; the Emperor's concurrent and scandalous sexual affair with a female courtier tarnished his reputation. Other difficulties arose in the Brazilian parliament, where a struggle over whether the government would be chosen by the monarch or by the legislature dominated political debates from 1826 to 1831.
Unable to deal with problems in both Brazil and Portugal on 7 April 1831 Pedro I abdicated in favor of his son Dom Pedro II, sailed for Europe. Pedro I invaded Portugal at the head of an army in July 1832. Faced at first with what seemed a national civil war, he soon became involved in a wider conflict that enveloped the Iberian Peninsula in a struggle between proponents of liberalism and those seeking a return to absolutism. Pedro I died of tuberculosis on 24 September 1834, just a few months after he and the liberals had emerged victorious, he was hailed by both contemporaries and posterity as a key figure who helped spread the liberal ideals that allowed Brazil and Portugal to move from Absolutist regimes to representative forms of government. Pedro was born at 08:00 on 12 October 1798 in the Queluz Royal Palace near Portugal, he was named after St. Peter of Alcantara, his full name was Pedro de Alcântara Francisco António João Carlos Xavier de Paula Miguel Rafael Joaquim José Gonzaga Pascoal Cipriano Serafim.
He was referred to using the honorific "Dom" from birth. Through his father, Prince Dom João, Pedro was a member of the House of Braganza and a grandson of King Dom Pedro III and Queen Dona Maria I of Portugal, who were uncle and niece as well as husband and wife, his mother, Doña Carlota Joaquina, was the daughter of King Don Carlos IV of Spain. Pedro's parents had an unhappy marriage. Carlota Joaquina was an ambitious woman, who always sought to advance Spain's interests to the detriment of Portugal's. Reputedly unfaithful to her husband, she went as far as to plot his overthrow in league with dissatisfied Portuguese nobles; as the second eldest son, Pedro became his father's heir apparent and Prince of Beira upon the death of his elder brother Francisco António in 1801. Prince Dom João had been acting as regent on behalf of his mother, Queen Maria I, after she was declared incurably insane in 1792. By 1802, Pedro's parents were estranged. Pedro and his siblings resided in the Queluz Palace with their grandmother Maria I, far from their parents, whom they saw only during state occasions at Queluz.
In late November 1807, when Pedro was nine, the royal family escaped from Portugal as an invading French army sent by Napoleon approached Lisbon. Pedro and his family arrived in Rio de Janeiro, capital of Brazil Portugal's largest and wealthiest colony, in March 1808. During the voyage, Pedro read Virgil's Aeneid and conversed with the ship's crew, picking up navigational skills. In Brazil, after a brief stay in the City Palace, Pedro settled with his younger brother Miguel and their father in the Palace of São Cristóvão. Although never on intimate terms with his father, Pedro loved him and resented the constant humiliation his father suffered at the hands of Carlota Joaquina due to her extramarital affairs; as an adult, Pedro would call his mother, for whom he held only feelings of contempt, a "bitch". The early experiences of betrayal and neglect had a great impact on the formation of Pedro's character. A modicum of stability during his childhood was provided by his aia, Maria Genoveva do Rêgo e Matos, whom he loved as a mother, by his aio friar António de Arrábida, who became his mentor.
Both attempted to furnish him with a suitable education. His instruction encompassed a broad array of subjects that included mathematics, political economy, logic and geography, he learned to speak and write not only in Por
Lúcio Marçal Ferreira Ribeiro Lima Costa was a Brazilian architect and urban planner, best known for his plan for Brasília. Costa was born in Toulon, the son of Brazilian parents, his father Joaquim Ribeiro da Costa, from Salvador, was a naval engineer, his mother Alina Ferreira da Costa, was from Manaus, Amazonas. He was educated at the Royal Grammar School, Newcastle upon Tyne, at the Collège National in Montreux, until 1916, he graduated as an architect in 1924 from the National School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro. After some early works in the eclectic manner, he adopted Modernism in 1929. In 1930 Costa established a partnership with Russian-born Brazilian architect Gregori Warchavchik, became the Director of the National School of Fine Arts where he had studied. Though he found students eager to be taught in the "new style," his ruthless administration won him the opposition of the faculty and student body, Costa had to resign after a year in office, he joined the newly created SPHAN in 1937 under Rodrigo Melo Franco de Andrade.
He remained at the National Heritage Service until retirement, acceding to the top post of director, where he was followed by his granddaughter Maria Elisa Costa. During his tenure as regional and national director, he became involved in numerous controversial decisions. Costa became a figure associated with reconciling traditional Brazilian forms and construction techniques with international modernism the work of Le Corbusier, his works include the Brazilian pavilion at the New York World's Fair of 1939, the Parque Guinle residential complex in Rio of 1948, the Hotel do Park São Clemente in Nova Friburgo of 1948. Among his major works are the Ministry of Education and Health, in Rio, designed with Niemeyer, Roberto Burle Marx, among others, consulted by Le Corbusier, the Pilot Plan of Brasília, a competition winner designed in 1957 and built in 1958–1960. Costa taught geometry and drawing at the Liceu de Artes e Ofícios of Rio from 1938–1954; the Liceu was affiliated with the Associação Académica de Coimbra where Costa taught until 1966, received a Medal of Merit from the Portuguese government.
During his long tenure as regional national chief of the Brazilian Historic and Artistic Heritage Institute, Costa pushed for systematic documentation of existing architectural and urbanistic heritage, but his critics allege that he let his personal preferences and political opinions interfere with the bases of his decisions. In 1975, he created a public controversy by refusing to sign the landmarking act of Palácio Monroe, the former seat of the Brazilian Senate, built in 1906; the building was slated for demolition because of the construction of the subway but in the face of public and media outcry, the construction company shifted the line to preserve the building. This effort, was in vain since landmark status was denied and a developer razed the building shortly thereafter. Costa preferred the heritage of the Portuguese colonization over that of any other time or ethnic group; because of that attitude, inculcated on younger preservationists thanks to Costa's influence in the architecture schools, much of 19th- and early 20th-century architecture, including the architecture of German and Italian immigrants, was lost to urban renewal in the 1960s and 1970s.
In 1936, when the competition to design the new Ministry of Education and Health was held, the winner was an eclectic design by architect Arquimedes Memória. Costa used his political connections within the government to scrap the competition result and instead form a new design team headed by himself, the Roberto Brothers and a young architect, Costa's intern, Niemeyer. Costa is located in Brazil's hinterland. Costa won the job in a 1957 public competition in order to replace Rio de Janeiro as the capital of Brazil, his Plano Piloto for Brasília, is in the shape of an irregular cross, suggesting an airplane or dragonfly. While the majority of the project's architecture was designed by Oscar Niemeyer, Costa's own Parque Guinle project was the model for Brasília's many residential tower-in-a-park superblocks; the new city was inaugurated on April 21, 1960 and represents one of the largest adoptions of Modernism in a singular project to the present day. Although named as an UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987, the city is notorious for its windswept emptiness and anti-pedestrian layout.
Some streets are badly lit because the height and the spacing of light standards were not changed with the advent of mercury-vapor lamps, World Heritage Site designation has prevented remediation. Overall, despite the city's positive features, the concept and execution have sparked controversy, explored in The Modernist City. Brasilia has been expressed as an attempt at a utopian city or in the nickname ilha da fantasia, indicating the sharp contrast between the city and the surrounding regions, marked by poverty and disorganization; the middle of the 20th century saw urban struggles for Brazil. Brazilian cities Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo had seen an increase of problems regarding transportation, sufficient housing, public utilities, distribution of essential goods such as food. By the 1950s, the frustration of the upper class residents of these locations had convinced the political elite that a long term solution w
Brasília is the federal capital of Brazil and seat of government of the Federal District. The city is located atop the Brazilian highlands in the country's center-western region, it was founded on April 1960, to serve as the new national capital. Brasília is estimated to be Brazil's 3rd most populous city. Among major Latin American cities, Brasília has the highest GDP per capita. Brasília was planned and developed by Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and Joaquim Cardozo in 1956 to move the capital from Rio de Janeiro to a more central location; the landscape architect was Roberto Burle Marx. The city's design divides it into numbered blocks as well as sectors for specified activities, such as the Hotel Sector, the Banking Sector and the Embassy Sector. Brasília was chosen as a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to its modernist architecture and uniquely artistic urban planning, it has been named "City of Design" by UNESCO in October 2017 and has been part of the Creative Cities Network since then. All three branches of Brazil's federal government are centered in the city: executive and judiciary.
Brasília hosts 124 foreign embassies. The city's international airport connects it to all other major Brazilian cities and many international destinations, is the third busiest airport in Brazil. Brasília is the most populous Portuguese-speaking capital city, it was one of the main host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and hosted some of the football matches during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. The city has a unique status in Brazil, as it is an administrative division rather than a legal municipality like other cities in Brazil. Although Brasília is used as a synonym for the Federal District through synecdoche, the Federal District is composed of 31 administrative regions, only one of, the area of the planned city called Plano Piloto; the rest of the Federal District is considered by IBGE to make up Brasília's metro area. From 1763 until 1960, Rio de Janeiro was Brazil's capital. At this time, resources tended to be centered in Brazil's southeast region near Rio de Janeiro and most of its population was concentrated near to the Atlantic Coast.
Brasília's geographically central location fostered a more regionally neutral federal capital. An article of the country's first republican constitution dating back to 1891 stated the capital should be moved from Rio de Janeiro to a place close to the country's center; the plan was conceived in 1827 by José Bonifácio, an advisor to Emperor Pedro I. He presented a plan to the General Assembly of Brazil for a new city called Brasília, with the idea of moving the capital westward from the populated southeastern corridor; the bill was not enacted because Pedro I dissolved the Assembly. According to legend, Italian saint Don Bosco in 1883 had a dream in which he described a futuristic city that fitted Brasília's location. In Brasília today, many references of Bosco, who founded the Salesian order, are found throughout the city and one church parish in the city bears his name. In 1955 Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president of Brazil. Upon taking office in January, 1956, in response to his campaign pledge, he initiated the planning and construction of the new capital.
In 1957 an international jury selected Lúcio Costa's plan to guide the construction of Brazil’s new capital, Brasília. Costa's plan was not as detailed as some of the plans presented by other architects and city planners, it did not include land use schedules, population charts or mechanical drawings, however, it was chosen by five out of six jurors because it had the features required to align the growth of a capital city Even though the initial plan was transformed over time, his plan oriented much of the construction and most of its features survived. Brasília's accession as the new capital and its designation for the development of an extensive interior region inspired the symbolism of the plan. Costa used a cross-axial design indicating the possession and conquest of this new place with a cross described by some as a dragonfly, an airplane or a bird. Costa's plan included the Monumental Axis and the Residential Axis; the Monumental Axis was assigned political and administrative activities and is considered the body of the city with the style and simplicity of its buildings, oversized scales, broad vistas and heights, producing the idea of Monumentality.
This axis includes the various ministries, national congress, presidential palace, supreme court building and the television and radio tower. The Residential Axis was intended to contain areas with intimate character and is considered the most important achievement of the plan; the urban design of the communal apartment blocks was based on Le Corbusier's Ville Radieuse of 1935 and the superblocks on the North American Radburn layout from 1929. Visually, the blocks were intended to appear absorbed by the landscape because they were isolated by a belt of tall trees and lower vegetation. Costa attempted to introduce a Brazil, more equitable, he designed housing for the working classes, separated from the upper and middle-class housing and was visually different, with the intention of avoiding slums (f
Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira, known by his initials JK, was a prominent Brazilian politician who served as the 21st President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. His term was marked by economic prosperity and political stability, being most known for the construction of a new capital, Brasília. Kubitschek was born into a poor family in Minas Gerais, his father, João César de Oliveira, who died when Juscelino was two years old, was a traveling salesman. He was raised by his mother, a schoolteacher named Júlia Kubitschek, of Roma descent, he was educated at a seminary school in Diamantina. Kubitschek attended the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Belo Horizonte, he became a licensed medical doctor after seven years of schooling. He went to live in Europe for a few years after graduating returning to Brazil after the revolution of 1930 that marked the ascension of President Getúlio Vargas. Kubischek served as a doctor in the military police and saw patients at a military hospital in Minas Gerais.
Kubischek befriended the Governor of Minas Gerais, Benedito Valadares who named Kubischek his Chief of Staff in 1932. Two years in 1934 Kubischek ran for office for the first time, becoming a member of the Federal Chamber of Deputies of Brazil with the support of Partido Progressivo. In 1940, he was appointed Mayor of Belo Horizonte, it was his term as Mayor of Belo Horizonte that he would establish a strong, professional relationship with the renowned architect Oscar Niemeyer, who would become instrumental in designing Brasilia. Kubitschek at this time commissioned Oscar Niemeyer to design several municipal buildings in Belo Horizonte, he would run again for the Federal Chamber of Deputies in 1945, in 1950 run for Governor of the state of Minas Gerais. As Governor he was noted with focusing on addressing transportation and energy establishing a government energy corporation that built five new power plants, he promoted improving roads, bridges and hospitals. After President Getúlio Vargas committed suicide in 1954, his Vice President João Café Filho fulfilled the rest of his term until the elections of 1955 which were held in October.
Juscelino Kubitschek decided to run for President in a race with two other candidates. He ran with the slogan of “fifty years progress in five” and developed a platform that highlighted energy, industry and transportation, he stressed a wish to diversify Brazil’s economy and open it up to foreign investment. He was a vocal supporter of moving the government capital out of Rio De Janeiro and to a more central location in the country to promote regional development. Before Kubitschek was inaugurated however, rumors of a military coup brewing were and the opposition party União Democrática Nacional became vocal over his close ties to Vargas and his alleged sympathy towards communists. Minister of War Henrique Lott and a coalition of high ranking military officers staged a countercoup to insure that Juscelino Kubitschek was inaugurated... Juscelino Kubitschek would be inaugurated as the 21st President of Brazil on January 31, 1956; the plan had 31 goals distributed in six large groups: energy, food, base industries and the main goal, the construction of Brasilia.
This plan sought to diversify and expand of the Brazilian economy, based on industrial expansion and integration of the national territory. His government was marked by a time of political maintenance of the democratic regime. Kubitschek used his outstanding political ability to reconcile Brazilian society, he managed to rebuild the government structure, as he transferred the capital from Rio de Janeiro to its new location in Brasilia. He avoided any direct clash with his political adversaries, like the UDN, the main opposition party of the Kubitschek administration, he gave political amnesty to the men who took part in the "revolta de Jacareacanga". As a practicing Doctor, Juscelino was passionate about reforming healthcare. Kubitschek campaigned on establishing a central health bureaucracy that did not exist to address rural health issues more adequately; the most notable is DNERU, an agency created to address tuberculosis and issue vaccines in areas of the Brazilian backcountry where access to healthcare was scarce.
He oversaw the reorganization of SUS. Although his main project was to develop the national industry, it was with the "Goals plan", launched in 1956, that there was a greater opening of the national economy for foreign capital, he exempted from taxes all the machines and industrial equipments imports, as well as to the foreign capital. However, the exemption was made only if the foreign capital was associated with the national capital. To amplify the internal market, he developed a generous credit policy, he promoted the development of the automobile industry, naval industry, heavy industry, the construction of hydro-electric power stations. With the exception of the hydro-electric industry, Juscelino created an economy without state-owned companies, he had a progressive agenda on the Education front, however, never carried out. Kubitschek cared a lot for the construction of the great transregional roads, he was criticized for putting aside the rail transportation. Today, this
Roberto Burle Marx
Roberto Burle Marx was a Brazilian landscape architect whose designs of parks and gardens made him world-famous. He is accredited with having introduced modernist landscape architecture to Brazil, he was known as a public urban space designer. His work had a great influence on tropical garden design in the 20th century. Water gardens were a popular theme in his work, he was deftly able to transfer traditional artistic expressions such as graphic design and folk art into his landscape designs. He designed fabrics and stage sets, he was one of the first people to call for the conservation of Brazil's rainforests. More than 50 plants bear his name, he amassed a substantial collection of plants including more than 500 philodendrons. Roberto Burle Marx was born in São Paulo, he was the fourth son of Rebecca Cecília Burle, a member of the traditional Pernambuco family of French ancestry, Burle Dubeux, Wilhelm Marx, a German Jew born in Stuttgart and raised in Trier. The family moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1913.
Burle Marx's first landscaping inspirations came while studying painting in Germany, where he visited the Botanical Garden in Berlin and first learned about Brazil's native flora. Upon returning to Brazil in 1930, he began collecting plants around his home, he went to school at the National School of Fine Arts in Rio in 1930 where he focused on visual arts under Leo Putz and Candido Portinari. While in school he associated with several of Brazil's future leaders in architecture and botanists who continued to be of significant influence in his personal and professional life. One of these was his professor, Brazilian Modernism's Lucio Costa, the architect and planner who lived down the street from Burle. In 1932, Burle Marx designed his first landscape for a private residence by the architects Lucio Costa and Gregori Warchavchik; this project, the Schwartz house was the beginning of a collaboration with Costa, enriched by Oscar Niemeyer who designed the Brazilian Pavilion at the New York World's Fair in 1939.
Niemeyer designed the Pampulha complex in 1942 for which Marx designed gardens. His first garden design was completed in 1933. In 1937, Burle Marx gained international recognition and admiration for this abstract design of a roof garden for the Ministry of Education building; the design highlighted elements of drama. In 1949 he acquired the Sítio de Santo Antonio da Bica, a 365,000m² estate in the Barra de Guaratiba neighborhood on the outskirts of Rio de Janeiro. Burle Marx began taking expeditions into the Brazilian rain forest with botanists, landscape architects and other researchers to gather plant specimens, he learned to practice studying plants in situ from the botanist Henrique Lahmeyer de Mello Barreto and established his garden and tropical plant collection at Guaratiba. This property became a national monument. Now called Sítio Roberto Burle Marx, under the direction of IPHAN-Instituto do Patrimônio Histórico e Artístico Nacional / Ministério da Cultura, it houses over 3,500 species of plants.
The house was rebuilt in a valley on the site of a garden house belonging to the original plantation estate. Roberto Burle Marx founded a landscape studio in 1955 and in the same year he founded a landscape company, called Burle Marx & Cia. Ltda, he opened an office in Caracas, Venezuela in 1956 and started working with architects Jose Tabacow and Haruyoshi Ono in 1968. Marx worked on commissions thorough out Brazil, Argentina, in Chile and many other South American countries, South Africa, Washington D. C. and Los Angeles. Additionally his artwork can be found displayed throughout the city of Rio de Janeiro "it is an open-air museum of works displaying his unmistakable style, one wholly his own". Roberto Burle Marx's 62-year career ended when he died June 4, 1994 two months before his 85th birthday, he spent time in the Brazilian forests where he was able to explore. Burle Marx was one of the first Brazilians to speak out against deforestation; this enabled him to add to the botanical sciences, by discovering new rocks and plants for example.
At least 50 plants bear his name. Marx was involved in efforts to protect and conserve the rain forest from the destructive commercial activities of deforestation for bananas and other crops and clear cutting of timber. Burle Marx's artistic style was modern. Much of his work has a sense of timelessness and perfection, he explored an anti-mimitec and skeptical aesthetic developed from modernism with a distinctly Brazilian style. His designs were influenced by cubism and abstractionism. Another strong influence was Brazilian folk art, his aesthetics were nature based, for example, never mixing flower colours, utilisation of big groups of the same specimen, using native plants and making a rocky field into a relaxing garden. He was interested in each plant's character and what effect that has on the whole garden, he sought a depth in his designs by understanding how animals interacted with plants and how they bloomed, amongst other plant characteristics. Burle Marx had a great skill in utilising the sculptural form of plants.
Burle Marx was mindful of the dynamic of walking through a garden. The sensation of mobility is an important element of experiencing his landscapes, he made clever use of enormous scale and reflection in his use of water. Burle Marx was able to extend the architecture of a building into the garden, he preferred to work on public spaces because, in his words, they are able to provide dignity for the masses. Marx's work
The Federal Senate is the upper house of the National Congress of Brazil. Created by the first Constitution of the Brazilian Empire in 1824, it was similar to the United Kingdom's House of Lords. Since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889 the Federal Senate has resembled the United States Senate; the Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms. Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later; when one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate. The candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected; the current president of the Brazilian Senate is Davi Alcolumbre, from the Democrats of Amapá. He was elected in early 2019 for a two-year term; the Federal Senate of Brazil was established as the Senate of the Empire by the Constitution of 1824, first enacted after the Declaration of Independence.
Following independence, in 1822, Emperor Pedro I ordered the convocation of a National Assembly to draft the country's first Constitution. Following several disagreements with the elected deputies, the Emperor dissolved the Assembly. In 1824, Pedro I implemented the first Constitution which established a Legislative branch with the Chamber of Deputies as the lower house, the Senate as an upper house; the first configuration of the Senate was a consulting body to the Emperor. Membership was for life and it was a place of great prestige, to which only a small part of the population could aspire. Members of the Senate were elected, but they had to be at least 40 years old and have an annual income of 800,000 contos-de-réis, which limited candidates to wealthy citizens. Voters faced an income qualification. Voting in an election for the Senate was limited to male citizens with an annual income of at least 200,000 contos-de-réis; those who qualified for this did not vote directly for Senators. To be a Senate elector required an annual income of 400,000 contos-de-réis.
Once elected, these electors would vote for senator. The election itself would not result in a winner automatically; the three candidates receiving the most votes would make up what was called a "triple list", from which the Emperor would select one individual that would be considered "elected". The Emperor chose the candidate with the most votes, but it was within his discretion to select whichever of the three individuals listed; the unelected Princes of the Brazilian Imperial House were senators by right and would assume their seats in the Senate upon reaching age 25. The original Senate had 50 members, representing all of the Empire's Provinces, each with a number of senators proportional to its population. Following the adoption of the 1824 Constitution the first session of the Senate took place in May 1826; the Emperor had delayed calling the first election, which had led to accusations that he would attempt to establish an absolutist government. The Senate comprises 81 seats. Three Senators from each of the 26 states and three Senators from the Federal District are elected on a majority basis to serve eight-year terms.
Elections are staggered so that two-thirds of the upper house is up for election at one time and the remaining one-third four years later. When one seat is up for election in each State, each voter casts one vote for the Senate; the candidate in each State and the Federal District who achieve the greatest plurality of votes are elected. The current composition of the Board of the Federal Senate is as follows: The current composition of the House is as follows: Federal institutions of Brazil Official website of the Brazilian Senate Photos 360° of the Brazilian Senate List of all Brazilian senators
President of Brazil
The President of Brazil the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil or the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces; the presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory; the Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election. Jair Bolsonaro is the current President, he was sworn in on 1 January 2019 following the 2018 presidential election. As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court.
The president is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias, an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law. A provisional measure comes into effect before Congress votes on it, remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it; the 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch; the provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period, or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress. Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to appoint and dismiss the ministers of state; the Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, a member of a political party.
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years