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History of British newspapers

The history of British newspapers dates to the 17th century with the emergence of regular publications covering news and gossip. The relaxation of government censorship in the late 17th century led to a rise in publications, which in turn led to an increase in regulation throughout the 18th century; the Times began publication in 1785 and became the leading newspaper of the early 19th century, before the lifting of taxes on newspapers and technological innovations led to a boom in newspaper publishing in the late 19th century. Mass education and increasing affluence led to new papers such as the Daily Mail emerging at the end of the 19th century, aimed at lower middle-class readers. In the early 20th century the British press was dominated by a few wealthy press barons. In a bid to increase circulation many papers included more popular and human-interest stories, as well as sports and other features. In 1969 Rupert Murdoch bought and relaunched The Sun as a tabloid and soon added pictures of topless models on Page 3.

Within a few years the Sun was the UK's most popular newspaper. In the 1980s national newspapers began to move out of Fleet Street, the traditional home of the British national press since the 18th century. By the early 21st century newspaper circulation began to decline. In the early 2010s many British newspapers were implicated in a major phone hacking scandal which led to the closure of the News of the World after 168 years of publication and the Leveson Inquiry into press standards. During the 17th century there were many kinds of news publications that told both the news and rumours, such as pamphlets and ballads; when news periodicals emerged, many of these co-existed with them. A news periodical differs from these because of its periodicity; the definition for 17th century newsbooks and newspapers is that they are published at least once a week. Johann Carolus' Relation aller Fürnemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien, published in Strassburg in 1605, is regarded as the first news periodical.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the right to print was controlled in England. This was the reason why the first newspaper in the English language was printed in Rome by Joris Veseler around 1620; this followed the style established by Veseler's earlier Dutch paper Courante uyt Italien, Duytslandt, &c. However, when the English started printing their own papers in London, they reverted to the pamphlet format used by contemporary books; the publication of these newsbooks was suspended between 1638 by order of the Star Chamber. After they resumed publication, the era of these newsbooks lasted until the publication of the Oxford Gazette in 1665; the control over printing relaxed after the abolition of the Star Chamber in 1641. The Civil War escalated the demand for news. News pamphlets or books reported the war supporting one side or the other. A number of publications arose after the Restoration, including the London Gazette, the first official journal of record and the newspaper of the Crown.

Publication was controlled under the Licensing Act of 1662, but the Act's lapses from 1679–1685 and from 1695 onwards encouraged a number of new titles. Mercurius Caledonius founded in Edinburgh in 1660, was Scotland's short-lived newspaper. Only 12 editions were published during 1660 and 1661. There were 24 provincial papers by the 1720s; the Public Advertiser was started by Henry Woodfall in the 18th century. The first English journalist to achieve national importance was Daniel Defoe. In February 1704, he began his weekly, The Review, printed three times a week and was a forerunner of The Tatler and The Spectator. Defoe's Review came to an end in 1713. Between 1716 and 1720 he published a monthly newspaper with Mercurius Politicus; the Examiner started in 1710 as the chief Conservative political mouthpiece, which enjoyed as its most influential contributor, Jonathan Swift. Swift had control of the journal for 33 issues between November 1710 and June 1711, but once he became dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, he gave up regular journalistic work.

In 1702 Edward Lloyd, the virtual founder of the famous "Lloyd's" of commerce, started a thrice a week newspaper, Lloyd's News, which had but a brief existence in its initial form, but was the precursor of the modern Lloyd's List. The 76th issue of the original paper contained a paragraph mentioning the House of Lords, for which the publisher was told he would have to pay a fine, he preferred to discontinue his publication instead. In 1726 he in part revived it, under the title of Lloyd's List, published at first weekly, it would become a daily; the Edinburgh Courant was published out of Edinburgh, Scotland. Its first issue was sold for a penny, it was one of the country's first regional papers, second only to the Norwich Post. The paper was produced twice weekly for five years continued as the Scots Courant until April 1720; that same year, the Edinburgh Evening Courant began publication, it survived until the Evening News came into existence in 1873. The increasing popularity and influence of newspapers was problematic to the government of the day.

The first bill in parliament advocating a tax on newspapers was proposed in 1711. The duty imposed in 1712 was a halfpenny on papers of half a sheet or less and a penny on newspapers that ranged from half a sheet to a single sheet in size. Jonathan Swift expressed in his Journal to Stella on 7 August 1712, doubt in the ability of The Spectator to hold out against

Kings Mills, Ohio

Kings Mills is a census-designated place in the southwestern corner of Deerfield Township, Warren County, United States, on the western shore of the Little Miami River. Located along I-71 twenty miles northeast of Cincinnati, it is less than a mile east of Mason, two miles southwest of South Lebanon and one-half miles north of Fosters, two miles west of Hopkinsville. Another town, was platted on this site in 1815, but it did not prosper. Kings Mills was established in 1884 as a company town for the King Powder Company, the Peters Cartridge Company which ceased operations in 1944; the town is in the Mason telephone exchange and is served by the Kings Mills/Kings Island post office. It is in the Kings Local School District; the Little Miami Scenic Trail, which runs from Milford to Spring Valley, passes by the community on the eastern shore of the Little Miami River in the former Little Miami Railroad right-of-way. Kings Island amusement park and Great Wolf Lodge indoor water park are south of the community in Mason.

Kings Mills was the home of the College Football Hall of Fame, which moved to South Bend, Indiana in 1995

Fukiake Domain

Fukiage Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan, located in Shimotsuke Province, Japan. It was centered on Fukiage jin `. Fukiage was ruled through all of its history by a junior branch of the Arima clan; the Arima clan ruled Kurume Domain in Chikuzen Province. Arima Yoritsudo, the third son of the founder of the domain, Arima Toyouji, was allowed to found his own branch of the clan, served as a hatamoto to Shōgun Tokugawa Hidetada and to his son, Tokugawa Tadanaga, with revenues of 10,000 koku, although he was not formally styled as a daimyō, his descendants served the Kii-branch of the Tokugawa clan for several generations. In 1726, shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu raised Arima Ujinori to the status of daimyō of Ise-Saijō Domain. Five generations his descendants transferred the seat of the domain to Goi Domain in Kazusa Province in 1781. Another five generations in 1842, Arima Ujishige moved the seat of the domain once again, to Fukiage, his son, Arima Ujihiro, inherited the domain in 1862, but was only age 2 at the time, the administration of the domain remained in the hands of its Karō.

The domain attacked Ashikaga Domain in its support of the suppression of the Mito rebellion in 1864, but sided with the pro-imperial cause in the Boshin war of the Meiji restoration and fielded troops in suppression of the Ōuetsu Reppan Dōmei in 1868. In March 1869, a group of nine samurai of the domain stormed its Edo residence, assassinated the Karō, discovered to have embezzled funds provided by the government for the assistance of the families of the domain’s samurai who had fallen in battle. After the abolition of the han system in July 1871, Fukiage Domain became part of Tochigi Prefecture; the domain had a population of 6,826 people in 1473 households, of which 383 were samurai in 106 households per a census in 1870. As with most domains in the han system, Fukiage Domain consisted of several discontinuous territories calculated to provide the assigned kokudaka, based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. Due to its history, its territory was divided between Ise Provinces.

Shimotsuke Province 5 villages in Tsuga District 5 villages in Kawachi District 6villages in Moka District Ise Province 6 villages in Mie District 6 villages in Kawawa District 5 villages in Taki District Papinot, E.. Historical and Geographic Dictionary of Japan. Tuttle 1972. Fukiage on "Edo 300 HTML"

Mario Sorrenti

Mario Sorrenti is an Italian photographer and director best known for his spreads of nude models in the pages of Vogue and Harper's Bazaar. Sorrenti was born in Naples and moved to New York City at the age of ten where he is still based, he is the son of New York-based creative director, fashion photographer in the 90s Francesca Sorrenti. He is the older brother of fashion photographer Davide Sorrenti, who died from a heroin overdose in February 1997. Sorrenti has had exhibitions in London, Paris and New York City, he has undertaken campaigns and directed commercials for Calvin Klein, has shot Kate Moss for the Calvin Klein Obsession ads. Sorrenti met Moss whilst working on an early'Levis for Girls' campaign for The Design Corporation and Levi's, he has worked for Lancôme, Paco Rabanne and Pirelli Calendar 2012. He is signed with the agency Art Partner. Sorrenti is responsible for the photographs on several music releases, most notably Shakira's Fijación Oral Vol. 1, as well as R&B artist Maxwell's album Embrya and a solo album by John Taylor of Duran Duran.

His first musical project was the photography for rock group Del Amitri's 1995 album and its associated single releases. 2004: John Mayer - "Daughters" The Machine. Göttingen: Steidl. ISBN 3-88243-793-6. A photographic study of Davide Sorrenti, his younger brother and fashion photographer, who died in 1997 from a drug overdose. Draw Blood for Proof, Mario Sorrenti. Göttingen: Steidl, 2011. ISBN 978-3-86930-303-1. Kate. Phaidon, 2018. ISBN 978-07-148-7680-1. Les principales œuvres de Mario Sorrenti Mario Sorrenti photography @ Design Scene - The #1 Fashion, Style & Design blog Artpartner sample images Portfolio of photographs

William Thomas Berger

William Thomas Berger was a Christian starch manufacturer in London and owner of Samuel Berger & Co. a patent rice starch manufacturer, who became the first home director of the China Inland Mission with James Hudson Taylor in 1865. At this time the headquarters of the mission agency was located at Saint Hill Manor in East Grinstead, England; as the Home Director he was responsible for editing the Occasional Paper of the China Inland Mission and carrying on the work of sending more missionaries to follow Hudson Taylor to China. At the time of the Yangzhou riot that brought unwelcome notoriety to the mission activity in China, Berger had to defend Taylor and his group from the attacks of the British press, he had to assume this role with little or no knowledge of the current events in China due to the delay in communication with the missionaries overseas. The Bergers resigned due to failing health and due to his personal convictions which were similar to Andrew Jukes regarding the eternal punishment of non-Christians.

He remained a friend of Hudson Taylor until his death. List of China Inland Mission missionaries in China Christianity in China Benjamin Broomhall Historical Bibliography of the China Inland Mission Broomhall, Alfred. Hudson Taylor and China's Open Century: Survivors' Pact. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Broomhall, Marshall; the Jubilee Story of the China Inland Mission. London: Morgan and Scott. Guinness, Mary Geraldine; the Story of the China Inland Mission vol II. London: Morgan and Scott. Pollock, John. Hudson Taylor and Maria Pioneers in China. Steer, Roger. Hudson Taylor: A Man In Christ. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Taylor, Dr. and Mrs. Howard. Hudson Taylor and the China Inland Mission. London: Morgan and Scott

Simone Mariani

Simone Mariani is an Italian-American actor, writer and producer. He was born on April 1964 in Rome, Italy, he appeared in the Hollywood film Inferno directed by starring Tom Hanks. His short films have been shown at national and international festivals including the Clermont-Ferrand International Short Film Festival. In 2006, he produced and acted in the short film Iram la Città Dalle Alte Colonne, an interpretation of a text by Kahlil Gibran; this film won a Critics' Award at the 2006 Arab Film Festival. He is the author of The Juggler, selected for a world tour by the IFCT Festival 2007 in Miami, United States. In 2008 he debuted as a director for the short film The Artist, in which he played the lead male role, he is the author and performer in the short film The Father. A Journey on the Tabla is his first documentary film, he is a practitioner of Sunmudo— a martial art practiced by Korean Seon monks. The Italian Dream Inferno Il commissario Rex Distretto di polizia Enrico Mattei: The Man who Looked to the Future La contessa di Castiglione Mafia Signs Imperium: Saint Peter De Gasperi, l'uomo della speranza A Journey on the Tabla The Father L'Artista The Juggler, selected for world tour from IFCT Festival 2007 in Miami A Journey on the Tabla selected to screen in India Best Italian Documentary at Roma CineDoc for A Journey on the Tabla Critics Prize at Arab Film Festival 2006 for Iram, The City by the High Columns International Competition for Short Films & Student Short Films category at the All Lights India International Film Festival Simone Mariani on IMDb Simone Mariani's website A Journey on the Tabla - blog