History of Brunei

The history of Brunei concerns the settlements and societies located on the north coast of the island of Borneo, under the influence of Indianised kingdoms and empires for much of its history. Local scholars assume that the Islamisation of Brunei started in the fifteenth century, with the formation of the Bruneian Empire, a thalassocracy which covered the northern part of Borneo and the southern Philippines. At the end of the 17th century, Brunei subsequently entered a period of decline brought on by Brunei Civil War and European colonial expansion. There was a brief war with Spain, in which Brunei lost Manila and evacuated their capital for a brief period until the Spanish withdrew; the empire lost much of its territory with the arrival of the Western powers, such as the Spanish in the Philippines and the British in Labuan and North Borneo. The decline of the Bruneian Empire accelerated in the nineteenth century when Brunei gave much of its territory to the White Rajahs of Sarawak, resulting in its current small landmass and separation into two parts.

Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin appealed to the British to stop further annexation in 1888. In the same year, the British signed a "Treaty of Protection" and made Brunei a British protectorate until 1984 when it gained independence and prospered due to the discovery of oil; the history of Brunei before the arrival of Magellan's ships is based on speculation, the interpretation of Chinese sources, local legends. Historians believe. One possible predecessor state was called Vijayapura, which existed in northwest Borneo in the 7th century, it was a subject state of the powerful Srivijaya empire based in Sumatra. One predecessor state was called Po-ni. By the 10th century Po-ni had contacts with first the Song dynasty and at some point entered into a tributary relationship with China. By the 14th century Po-ni fell under the influence of the Javanese Majapahit Empire; the book of Nagarakretagama, canto 14, written by Prapanca in 1365 mentioned Berune as a vassal state of Majahpahit. However this may have been nothing more than a symbolic relationship, as one account of the annual tribute owed each year to Majahpahit was a jar of areca juice obtained from the young green nuts of the areca palm.

The Ming dynasty resumed communications with Po-ni in the 1370s and the Po-ni ruler Ma-na-jih-chia-na visited the Ming capital Nanjing in 1408 and died there. The greater part of the official historical record for early Brunei until the arrival of Pigafetta is based on legends and assumptions; the historical account – lacking any real evidence – has been constructed in such a way that around 1370, Zhu Yuan Zhang sent representatives to Brunei and Indonesia, Brunei paid tribute to the Ming Chinese, which signified the strong influence of the Ming Dynasty and accounts for the combination of Ong Sum Ping's influence in Brunei. The account that follows below is the version accepted in Brunei, but challenged by a number of scholars because it lacks factual substance. In 1402, after the death of Sultan Muhammad Shah, his son Abdul Majid Hasan ascended the throne. Ong Sum Ping and Pengiran Temenggong became regents. Bruneian history has treated Hasan as the second Sultan. In 1406, after the death of Sultan Majid Hasan, there existed a two-year power vacuum.

During this two years, Bruneian nobles were locked in a power struggle. Ahmad thus became the second Sultan in Bruneian official History. Sultan Ahmad was married to a sister of Ong Sum Ping. To further cement his influence on the new sultan, Ong Sum Ping advised the sultan that a visit to China, a regional Asian power at that time was good. Thus, the new sultan sent Ong Sum Ping and several court officials as representatives to China to assure the new Ming Dynasty of continued tributary relationship. Ong Sum Ping and his entourage landed in the coastal region of Fujian. Advanced in age, Ong Sum Ping could not make the long journey back to Brunei, died in Nanjing. Prior to his death, he had pleaded with Emperor Yong Le to grant several wishes among which that Brunei continued to be a tributary kingdom, Sungai Kinabatangan and the surrounding area, decades ago under the province of the Mongol Yuan dynasty of China, be re-annexed as Chinese territory, that the highest mountain in the territory be named "Kinabalu" or "new China" or alternatively some say "Chinese Widow".

Emperor Yong Le granted his wish and further conferred upon Ong's son Awang as the new ruler, named the mountain of Brunei as Chang Ning Mountainجبل السلام – mean Jabel Alsalam in Arabic. In 1408, Awang returned to Brunei under the escort of Chinese Imperial eunuchs and soldiers. Awang succeeded to the position of Ong Sum Ping in Brunei, continued to exercise political power and influence upon the sultan; the Chinese still referred to him as Chung Ping – General. In 1412, he paid tribute to Emperor Yong Le; the wife of Ong Sum Ping was buried in Brunei at a location which the local Malays called Bukit Cina. The sister of Ong Sum Ping, the wife of Sultan Ahmad gave birth to a daughter; this daughter inherited the throne and her consort became Sultan Sharif Ali, who came from the Arabian Peninsula. Sultan Sharif Ali was a descendant of Muhammad; the granddaughter and the Arabian were the ancestors of today's sultan of Brunei. Bru

Endo contractualization

Endo refers to a short-term employment practice in the Philippines. It is a form of contractualization which involves companies giving workers temporary employment that last them less than six months and terminating their employment just short of being regularized in order to skirt on the fees which come with regularization; some examples of such benefits contractual workers don't get as compared to regularized workers are the benefits of having an employer and employee SSS, the Pag-ibig housing fund contribution, unpaid leaves, the 13th Month Pay, among others. Since the initial drafts of the Philippine Labor Code up until today, there has been no drastic action on contractualization; this topic on Endo has been the subject of many debates ranging through various presidencies each promising to end this exploitative labor practice with each presidents contribution being a minute change to the Philippine Labor Code. Stances on this issue are divided, there are some who point out how the practice is exploitative and illegal, others who say it's Contractualization is essential to economic growth, while there are others talking about how it affects the workers who are subject to it.

Despite its history having made the practice legal revisions to Philippine Labor Laws have deemed the practice illegal. However, despite the controversy it is still employed by major companies in the Philippines to cheapen labor fees; the word Endo is derived from an abridged version of the phrase "end of contract". Endo is sometimes referred to "5-5-5", referring to the number of months until a non-regular employee's termination or end of contract. Under the Labor Code of the Philippines, employers may employ people under a probationary status of not exceeding six months. Under this system, the worker's employment contract ends before the six month by their employer. After the six-month period, employees become regular workers, entitled to several health and insurance benefits prescribed by law. Contractualization is one of the most controversial labor practices in the Philippines. Since its adoption in 1974, the Labor Code has been amended and attached with several implementing texts; as of June 2016, there are an estimated 356,000 probationary workers in the Philippines.

A regular employee is defined by the 1974 Labor Code as one, “engaged to perform activities which are necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer,”There are two types of regular employees as per the Labor Code of the Philippines: those who are engaged to perform activities which are necessary or desirable in the usual business or trade of the employer. A regular employee is entitled to the following benefits: Social Security System Private companies are required to register all regular employees in the system; the SSS provides health insurances. Philippine Health Insurance Corporation Both private and public sector workers ought to be contributors to this service; the corporation sets aside contributions for medical insurance. Home Development Mutual Fund This agency allows provides housing loans with low interest, payable up to 30 years. Private and public firms are mandated to contribute to the fund on behalf of all its regular employees. 13th month pay, service leaves and maternity benefits, etc. union dues The above-mentioned pecuniary benefits are deducted by the employer from the gross monthly salary of the employee.

In addition to regular employment, probationary employment is possible through the Code. Under Article 2B1, probationary employment shall not exceed six months “unless it is covered by an apprenticeship agreement stipulating a longer period.” This would mean that any employee working over the stated or agreed period shall be considered as a regular employee. However, both regular and non-regular employees still enjoy security of tenure, pertaining to the Constitutional guaranty found in Sec. 3, Art. XIII of the 1987 Constitution that no employee, whether regular or non-regular shall be terminated without just causes authorized by the law under Art. 2B2 and Art. 2B3 of the Labor Code. Probationary employees in this case are not entitled to grants enumerated in preceding paragraphs. Department Order No. 3 explicitly prohibits labor-only contracting, defined to be a type of employment wherein: “the contractor or subcontractor recruits, supplies or places workers to perform a job, work or service for a principal, the following elements are present: The contractor or subcontractor does not have substantial capital or investment to perform the job, work or service under its own account and responsibility.

Contractualization has its roots tracing back to 1974 under the rule of Ferdinand Marcos when Ernesto “Boy” Herrera helped draft Presidential Decree 442. This decree which Marcos passed, would give the provisions and grounds for the contractualization of workers in the Philippines; the Labor Code of 1974 introduced the concept of probationary employment to the Philippines and Under Article 281 it states that "employers are allowed to hire people under a probationary status for up to six months. These 6 months are used as a trial period for the emplo

White Factory

The White Factory is the classicist building in Łódź, constructed in 1835-1839 to host a textile factory which belonged to Ludwik Geyer. It hosts the Central Museum of Textiles and Folk Dance Ensemble "HARNAM", it is considered a fine example of early industrial architecture in Łódź. The building is located at the southern end of Piotrkowska Street, south of the city center. In the first half of the 19th century Łódź, a part of the Russian Empire and a small town, experienced a rapid economic and industrial development; the city was open for migrants, Geyer, a German from Saxony, moved to the city to start textile production. The building still retains its original plan. In 1955, the decision was taken to host the Central Museum of Textiles in the building, in 1958 the reconstruction works which made the building usable as a museum started; the museum was established as an independent institution in 1960. The building was still exploited as a factory until 1990, when the production in the eastern wing stopped.

The wing was transferred to the museum in the 2002. White Factory is a four-wing building with a courtyard; the oldest wing is the western one. The northern wing is from 1838, the southern one is from 1847, the eastern wing was built in 1886. In the courtyard, the Old Boiler House is constructed; the complex has a high chimney, two dust towers, two water towers, an unusual solution for the first half of the 19th century. South of the building, a pond is made. Next to the White Factory, still on industrial grounds, the Open Air Museum of Łódź Timber Architecture was opened in 2009; the building was classified as a cultural heritage monument