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History of Burkina Faso

The history of Burkina Faso includes the history of various kingdoms within the country, such as the Mossi kingdoms, as well as the French colonisation of the territory and its independence as the Republic of Upper Volta in 1960. Recent archeological discoveries at Bura in southwest Niger and in adjacent southwest Burkina Faso have documented the existence of the iron-age Bura culture from the 3rd century to the 13th century; the Bura-Asinda system of settlements covered the lower Niger River valley, including the Boura region of Burkina Faso. Further research is needed to understand the role this early civilization played in the ancient and medieval history of West Africa. Loropéni is a pre-European stone ruin, linked to the gold trade, it has been declared as Burkina Faso's first World Heritage site. From medieval times until the end of the 19th century, the region of Burkina Faso was ruled by the empire-building Mossi people, who are believed to have come up to their present location from northern Ghana, where the ethnically-related Dagomba people still live.

For several centuries, Mossi peasants were both soldiers. During this time the Mossi Kingdoms defended their territory, religious beliefs and social structure against forcible attempts at conquest and conversion by their Muslim neighbors to the northwest; when the French troops of Kimberly arrived and claimed the area in 1896, Mossi resistance ended with the capture of their capital at Ouagadougou. In 1919, certain provinces from Ivory Coast were united into French Upper Volta in the French West Africa federation. In 1932, the new colony was split up for economic reasons. After World War II, the Mossi pressured the French for separate territorial status and on September 4, 1947, Upper Volta became a French West African territory again in its own right. A revision in the organization of French Overseas Territories began with the passage of the Basic Law of July 23, 1956; this act was followed by reorganizational measures approved by the French parliament early in 1957 that ensured a large degree of self-government for individual territories.

Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French community on December 11, 1958. On July 11, 1960 France agreed to Upper Volta becoming independent; the Republic of Upper Volta declared independence on 5 August 1960. The first president, Maurice Yaméogo, was the leader of the Voltaic Democratic Union; the 1960 constitution provided for election by universal suffrage of a president and a national assembly for 5-year terms. Soon after coming to power, Yaméogo banned all political parties other than the UDV. Yaméogo's government was viewed as corrupt and said to perpetuate neo-colonialism by favoring French political and economic interests which had allowed politicians to enrich themselves but not the nation's peasants or small class of urban workers; the government lasted until 1966 when - after much unrest including mass demonstrations and strikes by students, labor unions, civil servants - the military intervened and deposed Yaméogo in the 1966 Upper Voltan coup d'état. The coup leaders suspended the constitution, dissolved the National Assembly, placed Lieutenant Colonel Sangoulé Lamizana at the head of a government of senior army officers.

The army remained in power for 4 years. Lamizana remained in power throughout the 1970s as president of military or mixed civil-military governments, he faced a major crisis in the form of the Sahel drought and was sent in 1973 to the UN and the US in order to secure aid. After conflict over the 1970 constitution, a new constitution was written and approved in 1977, Lamizana was reelected by open elections in 1978. Lamizana's government faced problems with the country's traditionally powerful trade unions and on November 25, 1980, Colonel Saye Zerbo overthrew President Lamizana in a bloodless coup. Colonel Zerbo established the Military Committee of Recovery for National Progress as the supreme governmental authority, thus eradicating the 1977 constitution. Colonel Zerbo encountered resistance from trade unions and was overthrown two years on November 7, 1982, by Major Dr. Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo and the Council of Popular Salvation; the CSP continued to ban political parties and organizations, yet promised a transition to civilian rule and a new constitution.

Infighting developed between the right and left factions of the CSP. The leader of the leftists, Capt. Thomas Sankara, was appointed prime minister in January 1983, but subsequently arrested. Efforts to free him, directed by Capt. Blaise Compaoré, resulted in a military coup d'état on 4 August 1983; the coup brought Sankara to power and his government began to implement a series of revolutionary programs which included mass-vaccinations, infrastructure improvements, the expansion of women's rights, encouragement of domestic agricultural consumption and anti-desertification projects. On 4 August 1984, on President Sankara's initiative, the country's name was changed from Upper Volta to Burkina Faso. Sankara's government formed the National Council for the Revolution, with Sankara as its president, established popular Committees for the Defense of the Revolution; the Pioneers of the Revolution youth programme was established. Sankara launched an ambitious socioeconomic programme for change, one of the largest undertaken on the African continent.

His foreign policies were centred on anti-imperialism, his government denying all foreign aid, pushing for odious debt reduction, nationalising all land and mineral wealt

Zaccheus Gould House

The Zaccheus Gould House is a historic First Period house at 85 River Road in Topsfield, Massachusetts. The oldest part of the house was built c. 1670 for Zaccheus Gould by John Gould, one of the founders of Topsfield. The house is a 2.5 story five bay wood frame structure. The older portion of the house is on the right of the central chimney. 1700. The workmanship on the exposed framing elements inside the house suggests that the same workman worked on the Stephen Foster House; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990. Because the property was subdivided, it is no longer at 73 Prospect Street; the property contributes to the River Road-Cross Street Historic District, listed in 2005. National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts

Heritage Museums and Gardens

Heritage Museums and Gardens the Heritage Plantation of Sandwich, is located at 67 Grove Street, Massachusetts. The public garden, with its nationally significant collection of rhododendrons hybridized by Charles Dexter, over 1,000 varieties of daylilies and extensive hosta collection, is complemented by three gallery buildings containing a world-class collection of American automobiles, American folk art and a working 1919 carousel and rare carousel figures. Heritage is open April - October 7 days a week, on weekend evenings between Thanksgiving and Christmas for its annual Gardens Aglow festival; the museum's grounds were once the estate of noted rhododendron hybridizer Charles O. Dexter, where between 1921-1943 Dexter developed between 5,000 and 10,000 seedlings annually, he planted many on the site. In 1969, Josiah K. Lilly III and his wife established Heritage Plantation of Sandwich on the property; the gardens' principal interest is its collection of thousands of rhododendrons, which now include 125 of the known 145 Dexter cultivars.

Their typical bloom time is from Memorial Day Weekend to mid-June. This collection has been painstakingly recovered since 1972, as Dexter's own named cultivars had been scattered without records; each cultivar had to nurseries up and down the East Coast. The site was prepared in 1972, by the summer of 1977 it included over 300 plants representing nearly 100 cultivars, with an additional 25 cultivars as small plants in the nursery. All are now mature plantings. Other items of horticultural interest include: holly, herb and heather gardens, as well as more than a thousand varieties of trees and flowers, many labeled; the ground include the Old East Mill, a windmill built in Orleans, Massachusetts in 1800, extensively restored in 1999-2000. Visitors may view its interior on special days. In 2002 a labyrinth was added to the grounds, designed by Marty Cain, one of the best-known labyrinth designers in North America. Located on the grounds is the Hart Family Maze Garden established in 2005. A Cape Cod Hydrangea garden was added in the fall of 2008.

For children and families, Hidden Hollow was added in 2010. It is a Certified Outdoor Nature Classroom where children and families can rediscover the joy of being outside together. In 2015, an adventure park was added after much opposition from neighbors. Official website

Rachana circumdata

Rachana circumdata is a butterfly of the family Lycaenidae first described by Heinz G. Schroeder, Colin G. Treadaway and Hisakazu Hayashi in 1978, it is found in the Philippines. Rachana circumdata circumdata Schroeder, Treadaway & H. Hayashi, Rachana circumdata panayensis Schroeder, Treadaway & H. Hayashi, Schrőder, Treadaway, Colin G. & Hayashi, Hisakazu, 1981: Zur Kenntnis philippinischer Lycaenidae. Entomologische Zeitschrift. 24: 265-269. Treadaway, C. G. 1995. Checklist of the butterflies of the Philippine Islands Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo Suppl. 14: 7-118. Takanami, Yusuke & Seki, Yasuo. "Edition 12". A Synonymic List of Lycaenidae from the Philippines. Archived from the original on June 14, 2001 – via Internet Archive. Treadaway, Colin G. & Schrőder, Heinz G. 2012: Revised checklist of the butterflies of the Philippine Islands. Nachrichten des Entomologischen Vereins Apollo, Suppl. 20: 1-64

Vordingborg Castle

The Vordingborg Castle ruins are located in the town of Vordingborg and are the town's most famous attraction. The castle was built in 1175 by King Valdemar I of Denmark as a defensive fortress, as a base from which to launch raids against the German coast, his half-brother built another castle in a remote location, now Copenhagen. King Valdemar II used the castle for expansion into the Baltic, in 1241, it was where he created the reformed legal system, the Code of Jutland. By the time of King Valdemar IV, the castle had a defensive wall, 800 metres long. Large parts of the castle were demolished after the Swedish wars had ended, in order to construct a palace for Prince George, son of King Frederick III; the prince never took up residence, the palace too was demolished in the 18th century. Three manors were constructed nearby, including Iselingen, which became a meeting place for many leading artists and scientists during the 1800s. Today Vordingborg Castle is a ruin; the only preserved part of the castle, the 26 meter tall Goose Tower, is the symbol of the city.

The name comes from the golden goose. Although legend has it that Valdemar Atterdag used the symbol to taunt the Hanseatic League, the truth is the goose was first erected in 1871; the tower was transferred into the national trust on December 24, 1808, was thus the first, protected historic monument in Denmark. Next to the castle is a botanical garden and a museum. A larger museum is planned. Excavations of the castle ruins continue. Regular archaeological digs take place here. Many of the finds are displayed in the exhibition at the Danish Castle Centre. In 2004, the National Bank of Denmark issued a 20 DKK commemorative coin for the tower. List of castles and palaces in Denmark Tourism in Denmark Museums website The Association of Castles and Museums around the Baltic Sea

McAuley High School (Toledo, Ohio)

McAuley High School was an all-girls Catholic high school in Toledo, Ohio. It was named for the founder of the Sisters of Mercy, it began classes in 1958 and was one of three all-girls Catholic high schools in the city, the other two being Notre Dame Academy and St. Ursula Academy; the McAuley Lions were members of the Toledo City League and joined circa 1976. Girls' sports competition between schools had begun in the early 1970s for Toledo high schools. Due to financial problems and low enrollment, McAuley closed its doors at the end of the 1987-88 school year, they had a peak of 551 during the 1969-70 school year. In 1988, Toledo Christian Schools bought and moved into the McAuley building, which has remained a Pre-K to 12th grade Christian faith-based school since. TCS History City League Track History McAuley High to Close, Sept 26, 1987