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History of Dominica

The History of Dominica concerns the history of this Caribbean island. The Arawaks were guided to Dominica, other islands of the Caribbean, by the South Equatorial Current from the waters of the Orinoco River; these descendants of the early Taínos were overthrown by the Kalinago tribe of the Caribs. The Caribs, who settled here in the 14th century, called the island Wai‘tu kubuli, which means "Tall is her body." Christopher Columbus named the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it - a Sunday - which fell on 3 November 1493 on his second voyage. Daunted by fierce resistance from the Caribs and discouraged by the absence of gold, the Spanish did not settle the island. Many of the remaining Carib people live in Dominica's Carib Territory, a 3,700-acre district on Dominica's east coast. In 1632, the French Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique claimed Dominica along with all the other'Petite Antilles' but no settlement was attempted. Between 1642 and 1650 a French missionary Raymond Breton became the first regular European visitor to the island.

In 1660 the French and English agreed that both Dominica and St. Vincent should not be settled, but instead left to the Caribs as neutral territory. Dominica was neutral for the next century, but the attraction of its resources remained. Spain had little to no success in colonizing Dominica and in 1690, the French established their first permanent settlements in Dominica. French woodcutters from Martinique and Guadeloupe begin to set up timber camps to supply the French islands with wood and become permanent settlers, they brought the first enslaved people from West Africa to Dominica. In 1715, a revolt of "poor white" smallholders in the north of Martinique, known as La Gaoulé, caused an exodus of them to southern Dominica, they set up smallholdings. Meanwhile, French families and others from Guadeloupe settled in the north. In 1727, the first French commander, M. Le Grand, took charge of the island with a basic French government. Installed in Martinique and Guadeloupe and cultivating sugar cane, the French developed plantations in Dominica for coffee.

They imported African slaves to fill the labor demands replacing the less cooperative indigenous Caribs. In 1761, during the Seven Years' War a British expedition against Dominica led by Lord Rollo was successful and the island was conquered along with several other Caribbean islands. After France was defeated by Britain in the Seven Years' War, it ceded the island to the British under the Treaty of Paris. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, the French mounted a successful invasion with the active cooperation of the population; the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, returned the island to Britain. French invasions in 1795 and 1805 ended in failure; as part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years' War, the island became a British possession. In 1778, during the American War of Independence, the French mounted a successful invasion with the active cooperation of the population, French; the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, returned the island to Britain.

French invasions in 1795 and 1805 ended in failure. The 1805 invasion burned much of Roseau to the ground. In 1763, the British established a legislative assembly. In 1831, reflecting a liberalization of official British racial attitudes, the Brown Privilege Bill conferred political and social rights on free nonwhites. Three Blacks were elected to the legislative assembly the following year; the abolition of slavery in 1834 enabled Dominica by 1838 to become the only British Caribbean colony to have a Black-controlled legislature in the 19th century. Most Black legislators were small holders or merchants who held economic and social views diametrically opposed to the interests of the small, wealthy English planter class. Reacting to a perceived threat, the planters lobbied for more direct British rule. In 1865, after much agitation and tension, the colonial office replaced the elective assembly with one composed of one-half elected members and one-half appointed; the elected legislators were outmaneuvered on numerous occasions by planters allied with colonial administrators.

In 1871, Dominica became part of the Leeward Island Federation. The power of the Black population progressively eroded. Crown Colony government was re-established in 1896. Following World War I, an upsurge of political consciousness throughout the Caribbean led to the formation of the representative government association. Marshaling public frustration with the lack of a voice in the governing of Dominica, this group won one-third of the popularly elected seats of the legislative assembly in 1924 and one-half in 1936. Shortly thereafter, Dominica was transferred from the Leeward Island Administration and was governed as part of the Windwards until 1958, when it joined the short-lived West Indies Federation. In 1961, a Dominica Labor Party government led by Edward Oliver LeBlanc was elected. After the federation dissolved, Dominica became an associated state of the United Kingdom on February 27, 1967 and formally took responsibility for its internal affairs. LeBlanc retired in 1974 and was replaced by Patrick John who became the islands' first Prime Minister.

In August 1979, Hurricane David, packing winds of 150 mph, struck the island with devastating force. Forty-two people were killed and 75% of the islanders' homes were destroyed or damaged. Hurricane David was the most powerful and devastating hurricane recorded in Dominica until Hurricane Maria struc

Angströmquelle Karlsruhe

ANKA is a synchrotron light source facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The KIT runs ANKA as a national synchrotron light source and as a large scale user facility for the international science community. Being a large scale machine of the performance category LK II of the Helmholtz Association, ANKA is part of a national and European infrastructure offering research services to scientific and commercial users for their purposes in research and development; the facility was opened to external users in 2003. In 1997, the decision was formed to realize the project of building the large scale facility ANKA on the premises of the former Research Center Karlsruhe. By the end of 1998, the outer structure of ANKA was erected, in 1999, the first electrons were inducted into the storage ring. After a few more years of machine and laboratory development, in March 2003 ANKA opened its doors for users from the science community and industry featuring seven beamlines: six analytical beamlines and one for the generation of microstructures using X-ray lithography.

Since further improvements and extensions were continuously developed and implemented: Currently 15 beamlines are in operation, three more are in the process of installation. The machine itself saw the implementation of several updated generations of its insertion devices that were in part developed at ANKA. Moreover, a developed infrastructure supports users at ANKA, as for example equipped user apartments on the premises of the KIT Campus North can be booked by external ANKA users. Since an institutional reorganization in 2012, the synchrotron research at the KIT has been divided into three separate but related units: - The large scale synchrotron facility ANKA with its attached beamlines has now the status of an independent unit, directly subordinate to the directory board of the KIT; the technical development of the facility as well as the in-house research by the beamline scientists are conducted by the board of ANKA. The support and accommodation of external users is provided by the user office of ANKA.

- The former Institute for Synchrotron radiation, responsible for the development and maintenance of ANKA has now been transformed into the Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron radiation. Albeit still conducting intensive research at ANKA, IPS is now institutionally separated from the synchrotron facility. - The independent service unit ANKA Commercial Services supports customers from research and industry in the preparation and conduction of their research projects in fields such as development, quality management and micro fabrication. ANKA features a storage ring with a circumference of 110.4 m that stores electrons at the energy of 2.5 GeV. For this purpose, electrons are generated by a triode and preaccelerated to 500 MeV via a “Racetrack Microtron” and a booster; the actual working energy is reached in the storage ring, where the electrons are now spinning at the speed of light. The storage ring contains an ultra-high vacuum of 10−9 mbar; the synchrotron light is thereby generated by the constant deflection of 16 magnets that keep the electrons focused in the center of the tube.

In addition to that and undulators – specialized magnet configurations with alternating straight and reverse polarity – are used to deflect the electrons into a sinus-curve-like course on which they emit synchrotron radiation. A special feature of the ANKA synchrotron configuration is the super conducting SCU15 undulator, – as its predecessor SCU14 – co-developed at the ANKA facility; this new undulator does not only generate synchrotron light of enhanced brilliance, but a much more variable spectrum of radiation adjustable to the respective research requirements. IMAGE Use of X-rays for imaging procedures in 2D- and 3D-fields, static as well as dynamic – in the state of installation MPI-MF Conducted by the Max-Planck-Institute for Intelligent Systems, Specialized on in situ analyses of interfaces and thin films NANO High definition in-situ X-ray diffraction – in the final phase of installation PDIFF Analysis using the Debye-Scherrer-Powder diffraction (examination and identification of crystalline substances in powdered samples SCD Analysis of X-ray diffraction on single crystals TOPO-TOMO Topography and microtomography using polychromatic light and X-rays FLUO X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, non-destructive qualitative and quantitative identification of the elemental composition of a sample INE Installed and conducted by the KIT Institute for Nuclear Waste Disposal for the sake of actinide-research IR1 Infrared spectroscopy and infrared ellipsometry including terahertz radiation IR2 Infrared spectroscopy and infrared microscopy including terahertz radiation SUL-X Absorption, fluorescence- and diffraction analysis as part of the synchrotron environmental laboratory UV-CD12 Conducted by the KIT Institute for Biological Interfaces, UV-circular dichroism-spectroscopy WERA Soft X-ray analysis conducted by the KIT Institute for Solid-State Physics XAS X-ray absorption spectroscopy, XANES and EXAFS (Number and type of neighboring atom LIGA I, II, III Deep X-ray lithography according to the LIGA-procedure developed at the KIT.

The three beamlines differ regarding the level of available energy In comparison to conventional radiation sources, synchrotrons produce light in a far broader spectrum and a much higher intensity. The generated radiation consists of a broad continuous electromagnetic spectrum cov

Bay of Morto

Bay of Morto is a small bay in Turkey known for several military activities in the past. The bay is at 40°3′4″N 26°12′28″E in the north west coast of Dardanelles strait which connects the Sea of Marmara to Aegean Sea. Gallipoli Peninsula is to the north of the bay. Administratively it is a part of Çanakkale Province; the width of the bay is about 2.6 kilometres The name of the bay is of Italian origin. On 18 March 1915 during the naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign, the British battleship HMS Ocean was struck by a naval mine, it drifted to the Bay of Morto, sank. During the land battles of the Dardanelles Campaign, the Allies of World War I landed at five different beaches of Hellespont, they were called V, W, X and Y by the Allies. The S-beach, known as Eski Hisarlık in Turkish, is the east border of the bay and Sedd el Bahr, the tip of the peninsula is to the west; the V beach, the main landing point, known as Ertuğrul in Turkish is close to the west border of the bay. British troops landed at both beaches on 25 April 1915.

However, after the French troops drew back from the Anatolian side, the British troops in Eskihsarlık was replaced by the French troops. Now, the only French war cemetery in Gallipoli peninsula is to the north of Morto Bay. British battleship HMS Goliath, situated in the Bay of Morto, was tasked to bomb Turkish positions. On the night of 12–13 May, 1915, Ottoman destroyer Muavenet-i Milliye torpedoed her; this event caused the resignation of Admiral Jıhn Fisher from his post as First Sea Lord, followed by the resignation of Winston Churchill from the cabinet.27 years on 14 July 1942, Turkish submarine TCG Atılay was struck by a World War I naval mine and sank

Leopold, Count von Thun und Hohenstein

Leopold Graf von Thun und Hohenstein was a leading Austrian statesman from the Thun und Hohenstein family. He was born in Děčín as the third son of Count Franz von Thun und Hohenstein. After studying law and philosophy at the University of Prague he traveled through Europe, among other countries he visited England, where he became acquainted with James Hope-Scott and other leaders of the Tractarian party, he was much affected by the Ultramontane revival. In 1847 he married a Countess Clam-Martinic. After his return home interested himself in the revival of Czech language and Czech literature and the growth of Bohemian nationalism, he formed a personal friendship with other Czech leaders. He helped in the foundation of schools in which Czech should be taught, set himself to acquire some knowledge of the language, he was interested in prison reform, on which he wrote, other philanthropic work. After serving under Stadion in Galicia, he was appointed in 1848, after the outbreak of the revolution, Regierungspräsident and acting Statthalter in Bohemia.

He had scarcely entered on his duties. In order to avoid bloodshed, he went down to the insurgents on the barricade, but was seized by them and for some time his life was in danger. On his release he vigorously supported Alfred I, Prince of Windisch-Grätz, in command of the troops, in the restoration of order, but thereby lost his popularity and was superseded, he still defended the Bohemian national movement, in one of his writings laid down the principle that nationality was one of the interests outside the control of the state. In 1849 he accepted the office of minister of religion and education, which he held in 1860 under the autocratic and centralizing administration of Schwarzenberg and Baron Alexander von Bach. At first he threw himself with great energy into the task of building up an adequate system of schools, he summoned experienced teachers, Protestant as well as Catholic, from Germany, established middle and higher schools in all parts of the empire, superseded the antiquated textbooks and methods of instruction, encouraged the formation of learned societies and the growth of a professional spirit and independence among the teachers.

It is noticeable that at this time he insisted on the use of the German language in all schools of higher education. As minister of religion he was to a certain extent responsible for the concordat which again subjected the schools to the control of the Church: to a certain extent he thereby undid some of his work for the extension of education, it was of him that Grillparzer said, "I have to announce a suicide; the minister of religion has murdered the minister of education." But during his administration the influence of the Church over the schools was much less than, by the theory of the concordat, it would have appeared to be. The crisis of 1860, when the office he held was abolished, was the end of his official career. For the rest of his life he was a prominent leader of the Federalist party in Bohemia, his high social position, his influence at court, his character, as well as his undoubted abilities and learning, not in Austria found in a man of his rank, gave him great influence. He supported the claims of Bohemia to a full autonomy.

With the old Czechs he refused to recognise the constitution of 1867. In order to found a strong Conservative party he established a paper, the Vaterland, the organ of the Clerical and Federalist party, he protested against the ecclesiastical legislation of 1867 and 1873. He died in Vienna on 17 December 1888. Regarding personal names: Until 1919, Graf was a title, translated as Count, not a first or middle name; the female form is Gräfin. In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names

Alone in the Dark (1982 film)

Alone in the Dark is a 1982 American slasher film co-written and directed by Jack Sholder in his directorial debut, starring Jack Palance, Martin Landau, Donald Pleasence, Dwight Schultz, Erland Van Lidth. The plot tells about a psychiatrist's family who are besieged by four escaped mental patients during a power blackout. Dr. Dan Potter is the replacement for Dr. Harry Merton, a psychiatrist at Dr. Leo Bain's psychiatric haven. Dr. Merton has taken a position at a psychiatric hospital in the nearby city of Philadelphia. Dan, his wife Nell, daughter Lyla, have moved into a house in the area. Dan's sister Toni arrives for a visit. Leo operates the haven through lenient methods; the 3rd floor patients--paranoid former POW Frank Hawkes, pyromaniac preacher Byron "Preacher" Sutcliff, obese child molester Ronald Elster, homicidal maniac John "The Bleeder" Skagg--initially treat Dan with mixed hostility. Dan learns from staff worker Ray Curtis that the 3rd floor patients believe he has killed Dr. Merton.

The four men on the 3rd floor talk of killing Dr Potter. That evening, Dan and Toni go to a punk rock club. Lyla and her babysitter, remain home. A regional power blackout occurs. Frank realizes; the four men begin to carry out their plan. Preacher and Robert kill Ray; the four escape in a doctor's car. They drive to a store in the middle of a looting raid to pick up new clothes. Skagg runs away; the others drive off. Dan arrives at the hospital to discuss the people they killed, with Leo; the next morning, with the blackout still in effect, Preacher arrives at the Potter residence to deliver a telegram, but Dan is at the hospital. Nell and Toni are arrested. Lyla arrives home from school and discovers Ronald there, claiming to be the replacement babysitter for Bunky. Nell calls Dan from jail to tell him she and Toni were arrested. Dan phones Bunky to have her go to the Potter residence to stay with Lyla. Bunky finds Lyla asleep, she invites her boyfriend Billy over to have sex. After hearing a noise, Billy is dragged and killed underneath the bed by Preacher, Bunky is strangled by Ronald.

Dan arrives home with Nell and Tom Smith, a man who Nell and Toni met in jail, claiming he was arrested at the same demonstration they were at and allowed them to take his turn on the phone to call Dan. When they see police all over the house, they are concerned about the family's safety. Lyla wakes up unharmed; the police haven't found out about the murdered Bunky and Billy, nor do they find anyone else in the house. The police leave. Barnett is killed by Frank's crossbow. With the phone line out, the family barricades the windows from the crossbow bolts. Dan recalls Curtis telling him that the four men want to kill him because they believe he killed Harry. Dan screams at the men outside, telling them that he did not murder Dr. Merton, but he gets no reply. Barnett's dead body is thrown through a window by Ronald, the group stacks furniture against it as Frank shoots his crossbow through the broken window. Preacher sets a fire in the basement, prompting Dan to the basement where he injures Preacher and extinguishes the fire.

Ronald attacks the group before getting killed by a meat cleaver. While Dan starts Leo's car, Tom's nose bleeds, revealing his identity as Skagg, the fourth patient in the group, he attempts to strangle Toni. Dan grabs Tom away from his sister. Nell stabs Tom. Preacher comes out of the basement and Dan struggles with him, though Dan manages to stab Preacher and throw him back into the basement; as Dan, Nell and Toni gather together for comfort, Frank reappears standing in the kitchen doorway with his crossbow aimed at them and shouts "It's not just us crazy ones who kill!" Dan pleads with Frank to spare his family. The electricity comes back on and Frank sees Harry being interviewed in a news report on television. Upset, Frank breaks the TV, leaves the house, escapes into the night. Frank walks through the town and enters the club. While Frank watches the punk rock band perform, a drugged out girl walks up to him, he pulls out his pistol and points it at her neck, she looks at it and laughs, so does Frank.

Alone in the Dark was the first film produced by New Line Cinema, a film distribution company. According to director Jack Sholder, he had listened to New Line founder Robert Shaye mull over the idea of getting into production of low-budget horror films, pitched the idea of "a group of criminally insane guys escaping from a mental hospital during a blackout in NYC and creating mayhem and getting rounded up by the mafia," citing a New York City blackout he had experienced several years prior as an inspiration; the script was considered too expensive to produce, so it was re-written as a home-invasion thriller. While New Line raised money for the film, Sholder worked as the editor of the 1981 slasher The Burning, which he credits with helping him learn about "building scares and how to build suspense and tension."Sholder has said that the character of Dr. Leo Bain is based on Scottish psychiatrist R. D. Laing, who espoused a similar philosophy regarding the treatment of mentally ill patie

Fuglsang Art Museum

Fuglsang Art Museum is an art museum set in rural surroundings in Guldborgsund Municipality on the island of Lolland in Denmark. It is part of the Fuglsang Cultural Centre; the museum features Danish art with an emphasis on motifs of local provenance. The museum is located in a purpose-built building, designed by Tony Fretton. Noted for its integration with the surrounding architecture and landscape, the museum building won a 2009 RIBA European Award and was short-listed for the Stirling prize the same year. An architecture competition for the design of a building was won by Tony Fretton in May 2005. Construction started in August 2006 and the museum was inaugurated in January 2008; the Fuglsang Art Museum is located in a whitewashed, modernistic building, designed to fit into the existing architecture of the Fuglsang estate and the surrounding landscape. The galleries are arranged around a long corridor which itself serves as a significant exhibition space. At the end of the corridor is a small room with three large windows, one of, offset from the axis and visible from the corridor.

With no artworks displayed, it is dedicated to contemplation and viewing of the exterior landscape. On one side of the corridor are small galleries with gold ornaments inspired by the architecture of the adjoining Fuglsang manor house; these are dedicated to smaller scale works. On the other side of the corridor are larger toplit galleries; the museum houses a notable collection of Danish art ranging from the end of the 18th century to the current day and includes paintings and sketches. The collection has an emphasis on local motifs; the museum holds 500 paintings, with a few dating from the late 18th century and the Danish Golden Age during the first half of the 19th century, while the main focus of the collection is on paintings from around 1900. Represented are important Danish artists like the Skagen Painters, the Fynboerne, Theodor Philipsen, L. A. Ring and Vilhelm Hammershøi; the collection features around 199 sculptures, dating from the late 19th century to 1950. The main emphasis is on the period 1930-50.

The museum's extensive collection of drawings and graphic works are from the 20th century. Fuglsang Art Museum has regular shows of its works and arranges several special exhibitions annually. Moreover, the shows and special exhibitions are complemented with a diverse programme of arrangements and presentations. There is an interdisciplinary school service attached to the museum