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History of East Asia

The History of East Asia encompasses the histories of China and Korea from prehistoric times to the present. East Asia is not uniform and each of its countries has a different national history, but scholars maintain that the region is characterized by a distinct pattern of historical development; this is evident in the interrelationship among East Asian countries, which not only involve the sum total of historical patterns but a specific set of patterns that has affected all or most of East Asia in successive layers. The study of East Asian history as an area study is a part of the rise of East Asian studies as an academic field in the Western World; the teaching and studying of East Asian history began in the West during the late 19th century. In the United States, Asian Americans around the time of the Vietnam War believed that most history courses were Eurocentric and advocated for an Asian-based curriculum. At the present time, East Asian History remains a major field within Asian Studies.

Nationalist historians in the region tend to stress the uniqueness of their respective country's tradition and history because it helps them legitimize their claim over territories and minimize internal disputes. There is the case of individual authors influenced by different concepts of society and development, which lead to conflicting accounts. These, among other factors, led some scholars to stress the need for broader regional and historical frameworks. There have been issues with defining exact parameters for what East Asian history which as an academic study has focused on East Asia's interactions with other regions of the world; these regions, or the civilizations of China and Korea, were under the rule of many dynasties or government systems and their boundaries changed due to inter dynasty wars on a same region or wars between regions. In prehistory, Homo Erectus lived in Southeast Asia from 1.8 million to 40,000 years ago. Many belief systems or religions which have evolved and spread in East Asia include Confucianism and Taoism.

China was under the rule of Xia and Zhou dynasties followed by the Qin and Han dynasties. During the prehistorical period, these three regions had their own style of inter-regional politics and trades, which were less affected by outside world. Recorded civilization dates to 2000 BC in China's Shang Dynasty along the Yellow River Valley. Civilization expanded to other areas in East Asia gradually. In Korea Gojoseon became the first organized state around 195 BC. Japan emerged as a unitary state with the creation of its first constitution in 604 AD; the introduction of Buddhism and the Silk Road were instrumental in building East Asia's culture and economy. Chinese dynasties such as the Sui and Song interacted with and influenced the character of early Japan and Korea. At the turn of the first millennium AD, China was the most advanced civilization in East Asia at the time and was responsible for the Four Great Inventions. China's GDP was the largest in the world as well. Japan and Korea had coalesced as centralized states in the regimes of Goryeo and Heian, The sudden rise of the nomadic Mongol Empire disrupted East Asia, under the leadership of leaders such as Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan brought the majority of East Asia under rule of a single state.

All of China and Korea were annexed under the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. The Mongols attempted and failed to conquer Japan in maritime invasions; the Mongol era in East Asia was short lived due to natural disasters and poor administrative management. In the aftermath of the Yuan Dynasty's collapse, new regimes such as China's Ming Dynasty and Korea's Joseon embraced Neo-Confucianism as the official state ideology. Japan at this time fell into feudal civil war known as the Sengoku Jidai which persisted for over a century and a half. At the turn of the 16th century European merchants and missionaries traveled to East Asia by sea for the first time; the Portuguese established a colony in Macau and attempted to Christianize Japan. In the last years of the Sengoku period, Japan attempted to create a larger empire by invading Korea only being defeated by the combined forces of Korea and China in the late 16th century. From the 17th century onward, East Asian nations such as China and Korea chose a policy of isolationism in response to European contact.

The 17th and 18th centuries saw great cultural growth. Qing China dominated the region but Edo Japan remained independent. At this time limited interactions with European merchants and intellectuals led to the rise of Great Britain's East India Company and the beginning of Japan's Dutch Studies; the 1800s however saw the rise of direct European Imperialism upon the region. Qing China was unable to defend itself from various colonial expeditions from Great Britain and Russia during the Opium Wars. Japan meanwhile choose the path of westernization under the Meiji Period and attempted to modernize by following the political and economic models of Europe and the Western World; the rising Japanese Empire forcibly annexed Korea in 1910. After years of civil war and decline, China's last emperor Puyi abdicated in 1912 ending China's imperial history which had persisted for over two millennium from the Qin to Qing. In the midst of the Republic of China's attempts to build a modern state, Japanese expansionism pressed onward in the first half of the twentieth century, culminating in the brutal Second Sino-Japanese War where over twenty million people died during Japan's invasion of China.

Japan's wars in Asia became a part of WWII after Japan's attack of the United States' Pearl Harbor. Japan's defeat in Asia by the hand of the allies contributed to the creation of a

Sisters Lake

The Sisters Lake is a lake in Alishan National Scenic Area, Alishan Township, Chiayi County, Taiwan. The lake is named Sisters because it was said there used to be two Taiwanese indigenous women of the Tsou tribe who committed suicide here because they could not find love; the lake is located at an altitude of 2,100 meters. The lake consists of two lakes, which are named Younger Sister Lake. Elder Sister Lake is the larger of the two lakes with a surface area of 530 m2, it has a shape of rectangular and it consists of two wooden pavilions built from Taxodium distichum. The Younger Sister Lake is the smaller of two with a surface area of 66 m2. Both lakes are separated by around 50 meters in distance; the two lakes is encircled by a 180 meter long foot path. Geography of Taiwan List of lakes of Taiwan

OpenSees

OpenSees is a proprietary object-oriented, software framework created at the National Science Foundation-sponsored Pacific Earthquake Engineering Center. It allows users to create finite element applications for simulating the response of structural and geotechnical systems subjected to earthquakes; this framework was developed by Frank McKenna and Gregory L. Fenves with significant contributions from Michael H. Scott, Terje Haukaas, Armen Der Kiureghian, Remo M. de Souza, Filip C. Filippou, Silvia Mazzoni, Boris Jeremic. OpenSees is written in C++ and uses several Fortran numerical libraries for linear equation solving; the license permits use, reproduction and distribution by educational and non-profit entities for noncommercial purposes only. Use and modification by other entities is allowed for internal purposes only; the UC Regents hold the copyright for OpenSees. Users of OpenSees create applications by writing scripts in the Tcl programming language; the TclModelBuilder class in the OpenSees framework extends an instance of the Tcl interpreter with commands for finite element model building and analysis.

OpenSees developers access the source code using Apache Subversion. Although anyone may check-out the source code anonymously, only a handful of individuals have check-in access; the proper acronym capitalization for the "Open System for Earthquake Engineering Simulation" is OpenSees, as opposed to OpenSEES. This reflects the same unconventional capitalization of Tcl. Prior to taking on the name "OpenSees," the framework was called "G3" in reference to the name of the PEER research group tasked with simulation development; the doctoral thesis of Frank McKenna on parallel object-oriented structural analysis formed the basis for "G3." OpenSees Webpage OpenSees Manual Infrastructure Risk Research Project at The University of British Columbia, Canada

Davis DA-1

The Davis DA-1 was a light aircraft designed in the United States in the 1950s which never progressed beyond the prototype stage. Davis was not successful. Davis constructed his DA-1 starting on 24 April 1957, it was a strut-braced high-wing single-engine all-aluminum airplane designed around the new Lycoming O-360 engine. The fixed-nosegear-equipped piston-engine DA-1 was of otherwise conventional configuration, but its V-tail was similar to that of the contemporary Beechcraft Bonanza, whose high cruise speed was attributed to its use of that empennage type. Wings and tail surfaces of the DA-1 used external heat treated ribs. Power for the DA-1 was a horizontally-opposed Lycoming O-360 of 180 hp, which gave a top speed of 125 mph. Initial test flights showed that there was not enough elevator authority with full flaps, the plane was loud. Soundproofing, aerodynamic modifications were applied. Data from Sport AviationGeneral characteristics Crew: One pilot Capacity: 4 passengers Length: 22 ft 3 in Wingspan: 32 ft 0 in Wing area: 167 ft2 Empty weight: 1,200 lb Gross weight: 2,370 lb Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-360, 180 hp Performance Maximum speed: 125 mph Range: 475 miles "Aircraft Da-Dy".

Aerofiles. Retrieved 2008-10-21. "Notable". Flying. 135: 112. November 2008

Villa St. Jean International School

Villa St. Jean International School named Collège Villa St. Jean, was a private Catholic school in Fribourg, Switzerland from 1903 to 1970. Prior to its closure it was the final remaining all-boys' boarding school in Switzerland. Founded in Switzerland in 1903, during an upheaval of anti-clericalism in France, as a boarding school for the scions of the French elite, Villa St Jean International School evolved over the decades into an international school educating students from around the world. Deceased illustrious alumni include the aviator and author Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, considered by many among the greatest French writers of the 20th century, Alfonso, Duke of Anjou and Cádiz, a 20th-Century claimant to both the French and Spanish thrones who served as both President of the Spanish Olympic Committee and Spanish Ambassador to Sweden. During the Second World War, the nephews of Charles de Gaulle were enrolled under pseudonyms to protect them from the Germans. Among prominent alumni living today are Juan Carlos I, the abdicated King of Spain, the famed soccer coach Anson Dorrance, chocolate entrepreneur, Michael Litton, Turkish historian Selim Deringil, Indonesian photographer Rio Helmi.

According to tradition, the school's François Kieffer. A Catholic priest of the Marianist teaching order, consciously modeled Villa St Jean on Rugby School as now an eminent English public school, noted at the time for intellectual rigour and rugged sportsmanship. Fr Kieffer built his school on a secluded clifftop bluff, surrounded on three sides by the sinuous Saane/Sarine River, bordered on the fourth by the quiet neighborhoods abutting the Boulevard de Pérolles, a main thoroughfare leading out of the medieval Swiss burg of Fribourg, considered one of the most beautiful cities in the country. In her biography of Saint-Exupéry, author Stacy Schiff described the campus as a "tidy red-roofed village unto itself" overlooking "sleepy" Fribourg. Ms Schiff's evocation of the self-contained, red-roofed village is quite accurate, but the campus did not overlook the city so much as it was perched on a flat, wooded plateau, nestled in an elbow high above the Sarine River, which over the eons had carved the bluff's curling cliffs.

At its edges, in the woods beyond the unmarked perimeter of the campus, the plateau, now the site of the Swiss lycée Collège St Croix, gives way to those cliffs which fall 200 feet to the winding Saane/Sarine River below. Despite their architectural and historical significance, most of the campus buildings were razed in 1981, a travesty which would not have been permitted under more enacted Swiss architectural preservation laws. Apart from a wooden-roofed outdoor basketball pavilion, the only building, left standing, which still stands today, is Gallia Hall, which served as the principal classroom and laboratory building, it is accepted, although not definitively proven, that Benito Mussolini, who spent a period during his youth as a construction worker living and working in Switzerland, contributed to the building of the Gallia. Villa St Jean, under the guidance of the Marianist brothers and priests who founded and administered it, was remarkable among elite Swiss boarding schools for its ability to reinvent itself as required by changing times.

Before the Second World War the school was distinctly Gallic in character, a pensionnat educating French aristocrats, many of whom today recall its sometimes strict ascetism. In the decades after the War, Villa St Jean was transformed, by a decade and a half after the war's end the school had become a metropolitan international institution, teaching principally a U. S. high school curriculum to a student body gathered from Europe, the Americas, the Near and Far East, conferring on its graduates either a U. S. high school diploma or a Swiss or French baccalaureate degree, as appropriate to the individual student. The principal year of transition from French to the United States style curriculum was 1962; the notion of looking on at life has always been hateful to me. What am I if I am not a participant? In order to be, I must participate. –Saint Exupéry During its incarnation as an international school, although nominally a Catholic institution, the Marianists administering Villa St Jean hired lay faculty and staff without reference to religious affiliation, admitted students on the same basis.

The student body was a diverse religious mix of Catholics and Protestants and Buddhists, consistent with its international character. Yet, despite this ability to adapt and change, like so many other boarding schools in Switzerland at that time, Villa St Jean was unable to weather the changes of the late 1960s, it closed its doors permanently in 1970; the students, as noted above a diverse mix of nationalities and character, lived in three main dormitory buildings, Sapinière and Bossuet and attended classes in the aforementioned Gallia Hall. Other functions were housed in other campus buildings. During the winter, the academic calendar was adjusted to accommodate the ski season at nearby Swiss resorts such as Chateau d'Oex and Zermatt and ski competition with other international schools. In historical terms, Villa St. Jean, at the end, was one of the last all-male boarding schools; the contrast with the culture of the United States at the end of the 1960s made for jarring adjustment for many Villa St. Jean graduates, a large number of whom lost contact with their classmates during subsequent college years and were only reunited some years after college graduation.

The Marianist creed for the school and its students was "the Whole Man." Auguring the upheaval that a year would seize colleges and univers

Biostasis

Biostasis or Cryptobiosis is the ability of an organism to tolerate environmental changes without having to adapt to them. Biostasis is found in organisms that live in habitats that encounter unfavorable living conditions, such as drought, freezing temperatures, change in pH levels, pressure, or temperature. Insects undergo a type of dormancy to survive these conditions, called diapause. Diapause may be obligatory for these insects to survive; the insect may be able to undergo change prior to the arrival of the initiating event. Biostasis in this context is synonymous for viable but nonculturable state. In the past when bacteria were no longer growing on culture media it was assumed that they were dead. Now we can understand that there are many instances where bacteria cells may go into biostasis or suspended animation, fail to grow on media, on resuscitation are again culturable. VBNC state differs from'starvation survival state'. Bacteria cells may enter the VBNC state as a result of some outside stressor such as "starvation, incubation outside the temperature range of growth, elevated osmotic concentrations, oxygen concentrations, or exposure to white light".

Any of these instances could easily mean death for the bacteria if it was not able to enter this state of dormancy. It has been observed that in may instances where it was thought that bacteria had been destroyed and caused spoilage or harmful effects to consumers because the bacteria had entered the VBNC state. Effects on cells entering the VBNC state include "dwarfing, changes in metabolic activity, reduced nutrient transport, respiration rates and macromolecular synthesis", yet biosynthesis continues, shock proteins are made. Most has been observed that ATP levels and generation remain high contrary to dying cells which show rapid decreases in generation and retention. Changes to the cell walls of bacteria in the VBNC state have been observed. In E.coli a large amount of cross-linking was observed in the peptidoglycan. The autolytic capability was observed to be much higher in VBNC cells than those who were in the growth state, it is far easier to induce bacteria to the VBNC state and once bacteria cells have entered the VBNC state it is hard to return them to a culturable state.

"They examined nonculturability and resuscitation in Legionella Pneumophila and while entry into this state was induced by nutrient starvation, resuscitation could only be demonstrated following co-incubation of the VBNC cells with the amoeba, Acanthamoeba Castellani" Fungistasis or mycostasis a occurring VBNC state found in fungi in soil. Watson and Ford defined fungistasis as "when viable fungal propagules, which are not subject to endogenous or constitutive dormancy do not germinate in soil at their favorable temperature or moisture conditions or growth of fungal hyphae is retarded or terminated by conditions of the soil environment other than temperature or moisture.". Several types of fungi have been found to enter the VBNC state resulting from outside stressors or from no observable stressors at all. On March 1, 2018, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency announced their new Biostasis program under the direction of Dr. Tristan McClure-Begley; the aim of the Biostasis program is to develop new possibilities for extending the golden hour in patients who suffered a traumatic injury by slowing down the human body at the cellular level, addressing the need for additional time in continuously operating biological systems faced with catastrophic, life-threatening events.

By leveraging molecular biology, the program aims to control the speed at which living systems operate and figure out a way to "slow life to save life."On March 20, 2018, the Biostasis team held a Webinar which, along with a Broad Agency Announcement, solicited five-year research proposals from outside organizations. The full proposals were due on May 22, 2018. In their Webinar, DARPA outlined a number of possible research approaches for the Biostasis project; these approaches are based on research into diapause in tardigrades and wood frogs which suggests that selective stabilization of intracellular machinery occurs at the protein level. In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist in the folding, assembly, or disassembly of other macromolecular structures. Under typical conditions, molecular chaperones facilitate changes in shape of macromolecules in response to changes in environmental factors like temperature, pH, voltage. By reducing conformational flexibility, scientists can constrain the function of certain proteins.

Recent research has shown that proteins are promiscuous, or able to do jobs in addition to the ones they evolved to carry out. Additionally, protein promiscuity plays a key role in the adaptation of species to new environments, it is possible that finding a way to control conformational change in promiscuous proteins could allow scientists to induce biostasis in living organisms. The crowdedness of cells is a critical aspect of biological systems. Intracellular crowding refers to the fact that protein function and interaction with water is constrained when the interior of the cell is overcrowded. Intracellular organelles are either membrane-bound vesicles or membrane-less compartments that compartmentalize the cell and enable spatiotemporal control of biological reactions. By introducing these intracellular polymers to a biological system and manipulating the crowdedness of a cell, scientists may be able to slow down the rate