History of Equatorial Guinea

The History of Equatorial Guinea is marked by centuries of colonial domination by the Portuguese and Spanish empires, by the local kingdoms. The first inhabitants of the region, now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Río Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal groups and the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who emigrated to Bakugan from Cameroon and Río Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations; the Igbo of Nigeria slave traders arrived and founded small settlements in Bioko and Rio Muni which expanded the Aro Confederacy in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Annobón population from Angola, were brought by the Portuguese via São Tomé; the Portuguese explorer Fernão do Pó, seeking a path to India, is credited as being the first European to discover the island of Bioko in 1472. He called it Formosa, but it took on the name of its European discoverer.

The islands of Fernando Pó and Annobón were colonized by Portugal in 1474. In 1778, Queen Maria I of Portugal and King Charles III of Spain signed the Treaty of El Pardo which ceded the Bioko, adjacent islets, commercial rights to the Bight of Biafra between the Niger and Ogoue rivers to Spain. Spain intended to gain access to a source of slaves controlled by British merchants. Between 1778 and 1810, the territory of Equatorial Guinea was administered by the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, based in Buenos Aires From 1827 to 1843, the United Kingdom had a base on Bioko to combat the slave trade, moved to Sierra Leone upon agreement with Spain in 1843. In 1844, on restoration of Spanish sovereignty, it became known as the "Territorios Españoles del Golfo de Guinea". Spain had neglected to occupy the large area in the Bight of Biafra to which it had treaty rights, the French had been expanding their occupation at the expense of the area claimed by Spain; the Treaty of Paris in 1900 left Spain with the continental enclave of Rio Muni, a mere 26,000 km2 out of the 300,000 stretching east to the Ubangi River, which the Spaniards had claimed.

At the beginning of the 20th century, the plantations of Fernando Po were in the hands of a black Creole elite known as Fernandinos. The British had settled some 2,000 Sierra Leoneans and freed slaves during their brief occupation of the island in the early 19th century, a small current of immigration from West Africa and the West Indies continued after the departure of the British. To this core of settlers were added Cubans, Spaniards of various colours deported for political or other crimes, some assisted settlers. There was a trickle of immigration from the neighbouring Portuguese islands: escaped slaves and prospective planters. Although a few of the Fernandinos were Catholic and Spanish-speaking, about nine-tenths of them were Protestant and English-speaking on the eve of the First World War, pidgin English was the lingua franca of the island; the Sierra Leoneans were well placed as planters while labour recruitment on the Windward coast continued, for they kept family and other connections there and could arrange labour supplies.

During World War I, due to Spain's neutrality, Rio Muni and Fernando Po were host to large numbers of German troops and refugees who fled German Kamerun after the Entente conquered the colony. They were well-treated by the Spanish authorities because the 180-man militia was not large enough to forcibly intern them. Most of the Cameroonian natives stayed in Muni. From the opening years of the 20th century, the Fernandinos were put on the defensive by a new generation of Spanish immigrants. New land regulations in 1904-5 favoured Spaniards, most of the big planters of years arrived in the islands from Spain following these new regulations; the Liberian labour agreement of 1914 favoured wealthy men with ready access to the state, the shift in labour supplies from Liberia to Rio Muni increased this advantage. In 1940, it was estimated that only 20 per cent of the colony's cocoa production remained in African hands, nearly all of it in the hands of Fernandinos; the greatest constraint to economic development was a chronic shortage of labour.

The indigenous Bubi population of Bioko, pushed into the interior of the island and decimated by alcoholic addiction, venereal disease and sleeping sickness, refused to work on plantations. Working their own small cocoa farms gave them a considerable degree of autonomy. Moreover, the Bubi were protected from the demands of the planters from the late 19th century by the Spanish Claretian missionaries, who were influential in the colony and organised the Bubi into small mission theocracies reminiscent of the famous Jesuit Reductions of Paraguay. Catholic penetration was furthered by two small insurrections protesting the conscription of forced labour for the plantations, in 1898 and 1910, which led to the Bubi being disarmed in 1917 and left them dependent on the missionaries. Towards the end of the 19th century Spanish, Portuguese and Fernandino planters started developing large cacao plantations. With the indigenous Bubi population decimated by disease and forced labour, the island’s economy came to depend on imported agricultural contract workers.

A Labour Treaty was signed with the Republic of Liberia in 1914, the transport of up to 15,000 workers was orchestrated by the German Woermann-Linie. The Liberian labour supply was cut off in 1930 after an International Labour Organization commission discovered that contract workers had "been recruited under conditions of criminal compulsion scarcely distinguishable from slave raiding and slave

Powder Town

Powder Town is a 1942 comedy about an eccentric scientist thrust into danger and romance. Max Brand published a novelisation under his own name. Young J. Quincy Pennant is a brilliant but absent-minded scientist, experimenting with an explosive method which directs a shock wave past obstructions to impact a distant target, he is sent to a growing "powder town" being developed around an arsenal and munitions factory where population growth has attracted criminals, foreign spies and saboteurs. Pennant is placed in a boarding house where he is the only male sharing with five female entertainers who work at a local casino run by gangsters; the rambuctious and physically imposing Jeems O'Shea, head of the powder monkeys at the factory, his sycophant Billy arrive at the house. O'Shea plays rough with the ladies, chasing them around the boarding house and playfully molesting them. Pennant gives O'Shea a casual punch, putting him off-balance and tumbling down the stairwell—knocking him out cold, to everyone's amazement.

When Pennant reports to the factory, he formally meets O'Shea who at first is surprised that Pennant is not the giant he thought he was. He attempts to intimidate Pennant, too absent-minded to understand the threats. O'Shea perceives this as nonchalant courage, a respected quality among munitions workers; as Pennant develops his shock-wave explosive concept, he is given his own pistol and assigned O'Shea as a bodyguard. Pennant falls in love with Sally Dean who lives at the boarding house. Unknown to him, she has been paid by the gangster boss, Oliver Lindsay, to steal the explosive formula. Things come to a head; the muddleheaded scientist is oblivious to several assassination and abduction attempts by enemy agents. O'Shea takes this as a display of coolness. Pennant is introduced to his first alcoholic drink, after which he breaks the bank at the casino, winning $900 and the admiration of all the women; the gangsters start a brawl in order to attack Pennant and retrieve their money but O'Shea demolishes both them and the casino.

Dr Wayne, who runs the munitions factory, threatens to fire Pennant when he finds out that Pennant has been gambling and involved with the "gay" women at the casino but Pennant insists he wants to at least continue to see Sally, to whom he has given the secret formula to for safe-keeping. During this time the enemy agents as well as Lindsay continue efforts to obtain Pennant's formula; the gangsters find O'Shea in the way. They attempt to blow up the factory and set a 5-minute timer with explosives on a cart inside the dynamite room after they bind O'Shea and Pennant, they flee on the arrival of the guards and the girls. O'Shea and Pennant are released in time to push the explosives cart down the hill, where it collides with and destroys the getaway car; the two heroes return to Dr Wayne and the girls who embrace their men, the movie ends with them kissing. Dr Wayne is shown the coded formula written on a wall in the office of the factory. Victor McLaglen... Jeems O'Shea Edmond O'Brien... J. Quincy'Penji' Pennant June Havoc...

Dolly Smythe Dorothy Lovett... Sally Dean Eddie Foy Jr.... Billy Meeker Damian O'Flynn... Oliver Lindsay Marten Lamont... Chick Parker Roy Gordon... Dr. Wayne Marion Martin... Sue Mary Gordon... Mrs. Douglas Frances E. Neal... Carol Julie Warren... Betty Jane Woodworth... Helen George Cleveland... Gus the Janitor Powder Town on IMDb

Catalina 320

The Catalina 320 is an American sailboat, designed by Gerry Douglas and first built in 1993. The design is out of production; the boat was built by Catalina Yachts in the United States. The Catalina 320 is a small recreational keelboat, built predominantly of fiberglass, it has an internally-mounted spade-type rudder and a fixed fin bulb keel. It carries 4,000 lb of ballast; the design has a hull speed of 7.09 kn. Catalina 320 Original model introduced in 1993; this version has a draft of 6.46 ft with the standard keel and 4.25 ft with the optional shoal draft wing keel. This model is fitted with a Japanese Yanmar 3GM30F diesel engine of 27 hp; the fin keel model has a PHRF racing average handicap of 159 with a high of 170 and low of 147. The wing keel model has a PHRF racing average handicap of 153 with a high of 165 and low of 141, it has a hull speed of 7.09 kn. Catalina 320 Mark II Improved model introduced in 2006; this version has a draft of 6.25 ft with the standard keel and 4.33 ft with the optional shoal draft wing keel.

This model is fitted with a Japanese Yanmar diesel engine of 29 hp. The fuel tank holds 19 U. S. gallons and the fresh water tank has a capacity of 51 U. S. gallons. List of sailing boat typesSimilar sailboats Bayfield 30/32 B Boats B-32 Beneteau Oceanis 321 C&C 32 C&C 99 Douglas 32 Hunter 32 Vision Hunter 326 J/32 Mirage 32 Nonsuch 324 Ontario 32 Ranger 32 Media related to Catalina 320 at Wikimedia Commons