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History of Esperanto

L. L. Zamenhof developed Esperanto in the 1870s and 80s and published the first publication about it, Unua Libro, in 1887; the number of Esperanto speakers has grown since although it has not had much support from governments and international organizations and has sometimes been outlawed or otherwise suppressed. Around 1880, while in Moscow and simultaneously with working on Esperanto, Zamenhof made an aborted attempt to standardize Yiddish, based on his native Bialystok dialect, as a unifying language for the Jews of the Russian Empire, he used a Latin alphabet, with the letters ć, h́, ś, ź and ě for schwa. However, he concluded there was no future for such a project, abandoned it, dedicating himself to Esperanto as a unifying language for all humankind. Paul Wexler proposed that Esperanto was not an arbitrary pastiche of major European languages but a Latinate relexification of Yiddish, a native language of its founder; this model is unsupported by mainstream linguists. Zamenhof would say that he had dreamed of a world language since he was a child.

At first he considered a revival of Latin, but after learning it in school he decided it was too complicated to be a common means of international communication. When he learned English, he realised that verb conjugations were unnecessary, that grammatical systems could be much simpler than he had expected, he still had the problem of memorising a large vocabulary, until he noticed two Russian signs labelled Швейцарская and Кондитерская. He realised that a judicious use of affixes could decrease the number of root words needed for communication, he chose to take his vocabulary from Romance and Germanic, the languages that were most taught in schools around the world and would therefore be recognisable to the largest number of people. Zamenhof taught an early version of the language to his high-school classmates. For several years, he worked on translations and poetry to refine his creation. In 1895 he wrote, "I worked for six years perfecting and testing the language though it had seemed to me in 1878 that it was completely ready."

When he was ready to publish, the Czarist censors would not allow it. Stymied, he spent his time in translating works such as the Shakespeare; this enforced delay led to continued improvement. In July 1887 he published a basic introduction to the language; this was the language spoken today. Unua Libro was published in 1887. At first the movement grew most in the Russian empire and eastern Europe, but soon spread to western Europe and beyond: to Argentina in 1889. In its first years Esperanto was used in publications by Zamenhof and early adopters like Antoni Grabowski, in extensive correspondence, in the magazine La Esperantisto, published from 1889 to 1895 and only in personal encounters. In 1894, under pressure from Wilhelm Trompeter, the publisher of the magazine La Esperantisto, some other leading users, Zamenhof reluctantly put forward a radical reform to be voted on by readers, he proposed the reduction of the alphabet to 22 letters, the change of the plural to -i, the use of a positional accusative instead of the ending -n, the removal of the distinction between adjectives and adverbs, the reduction of the number of participles from six to two, the replacement of the table of correlatives with more Latinate words or phrases.

These reforms were overwhelmingly rejected, but some were picked up in subsequent reforms and criticisms of the language. In the following decade Esperanto spread into western Europe France. By 1905 there were 27 magazines being published. A small international conference was held in 1904, leading to the first world congress in August 1905 in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. There were 688 Esperanto speakers present from 20 nationalities. At this congress, Zamenhof resigned his leadership of the Esperanto movement, as he did not want personal prejudice against himself to hinder the progress of the language, he proposed a declaration on founding principles of the Esperanto movement, which the attendees of the congress endorsed. World congresses have been held every year except during the two World Wars; the autonomous territory of Neutral Moresnet, between Belgium and Germany, had a sizable proportion of Esperanto-speakers among its small and multiethnic population. There was a proposal to make Esperanto its official language.

In the early 1920s, a great opportunity seemed to arise for Esperanto when the Iranian delegation to the League of Nations proposed that it be adopted for use in international relations, following a report by Nitobe Inazō, an official delegate of League of Nations during the 13th World Congress of Esperanto in Prague. Ten delegates accepted the proposal with only one voice against, the French delegate, Gabriel Hanotaux, who employed France's Council veto privilege to squash all League attempts at recognition of Esperanto, starting on the first vote on December 18, 1920 and continuing through the next three years. Hanotaux did not like how the French language was losing its position as the international language and saw Esperanto as a threat. However, two years the League recommended that its member states i

Manoly Lascaris

Emmanuel George "Manoly" Lascaris was the life partner of the Australian novelist and dramatist Patrick White. Lascaris met White. After the war and White lived together in Cairo moved to Sydney, Australia. Lascaris was born in Cairo, the son of a wealthy Greco-Egyptian father from Smyrna in Asia Minor and an American mother, he was raised in Alexandria. In 1941 he joined the Greek Army in exile in Egypt and soon after, in Alexandria, met White, serving with the Royal Australian Air Force. White and Lascaris lived together in Cairo for six years before moving to a small farm purchased by White at Castle Hill, in 1948. After the death of White's mother in 1963, they moved into a large house, Highbury, in Centennial Park, where they lived for the rest of their lives. Although it was known that they were lovers, such matters were not publicly discussed in Australia at that time. Lascaris was sometimes referred to as White's "housekeeper." The relationship was not discussed until White published his memoirs, Flaws in the Glass, in 1981.

After White's death in 1990, Lascaris was allowed, by the terms of the will, to stay in the house in Centennial Park and to receive income from White's share portfolio Although Lascaris claimed that White left him nothing, he was well provided for. Lascaris lived alone there until his health failed in 2003, he moved into a nursing home, White's childhood home. White's biographer David Marr wrote: A last coincidence was waiting; when it was time for Lascaris to move to a nursing home, he was taken to Lulworth, the old mansion at the back of Kings Cross, Patrick's childhood home before becoming a hospital after the war. The shades of so many of White's characters hung around the house. Aunt Theo gazed across the water to Darling Point. Laura Trevelyan waited here for the explorer Johann Ulrich Voss to call. Hurtle Duffield played under the bunya pine on the drive. Now the cast was joined by the original of all the dark, muscular Greeks of the novels. Manoly died at Lulworth on 13 November 2003, at the age of 91, oblivious to the closing of a great circle that had come to embrace Scone and Smyrna and Alexandria, the Whites and the Lascaris...

Highbury was given a state government heritage listing because of its association with Patrick White. Lascaris was considered in many ways the gentle and urbane face with the prickly and difficult White. David Marr credits Lascaris with being the driving force who kept White to his literary labours, including the string of novels that won White the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1973. White referred to Lascaris as "the small Greek of immense moral strength who became the central mandala in my life's hitherto messy design". Marr wrote in an obituary for Lascaris: Everyone loved Manoly, he was courtly and gentle. He protected people from White's outbursts of fury while remaining, at heart loyal to his lover.'There must be one person in the world Patrick can trust absolutely' Recollections of Mr Manoly Lascaris - Vrasidas Karalis The "housekeeper" who lived in White's shadow emerges as a learned, opinionated man in Recollections Of Mr Manoly Lascaris Manoly Lascaris - Patrick White's devoted companion, a source of good stories for his novels

Joseph Kofi Adda

Joseph Kofi Kowe Adda was a Member of Parliament in Ghana and the Minister for Energy in the New Patriotic Party government under President John Kufuor. He is a Financial Economist and a Management Consultant. Joseph Adda was born at Navrongo, the capital of the Kassena-Nankana District in the Upper East Region of Ghana, he had his secondary education at St. John's School and obtained a Bachelor of Science degree in politics and economics from the Indiana Wesleyan University, Indiana, United States, which he attended between 1979 and 1982. Between 1982 and 1984, he was at Columbia University, New York, where he studied for a Master's degree in International Affairs, specialising in Finance and Banking, he went on to get a graduate certificate in African Studies from the same university. In 1989, he obtained a certificate in French language and civilization from the Sorbonne University, France. Joseph Adda is a Management Consultant, he worked as an Executive officer at the Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ghana in 1979.

Between 1983 and 1984, he worked as a Research Analyst intern at the Third World Trade Institute, New York, USA. Over the next two years, he was an account Executive and Management trainee at the Equitable Financial Service, Inc. in New Jersey, USA. Mr. Adda has worked at Essex County College, New Jersey, USA, Thomson McKinnon Securities Inc. New York and with Deloitte and Touche Consulting, Accra. Since 1994, Joseph Adda has been the Director of Omni Consulting International Ltd. Between 1996 and 2000, he worked in various capacities at the Ministry of Ghana. Adda first became a Member of Parliament in 2003, he won the by-election for the Navrongo Central constituency after the death of the incumbent, John Achuliwor. He retained his seat in the 2004 parliamentary election, he was appointed the Minister for Manpower Development and Employment by President John Kufuor in 2005. On 28 April 2006, he was moved in a cabinet reshuffle to the position of Minister for Energy, he was replaced by Felix Owusu-Adjapong as Minister of Energy by President Kuffuor.

Joe Adda retained his seat when the NPP lost the general elections in 2008. He however lost the seat in the 2012 elections to Mark Woyongo. In May, 2017, President Nana Akufo-Addo named Joseph Kofi Adda as part of nineteen ministers who would form his cabinet; the names of the 19 ministers were submitted the Parliament of Ghana and announced by the Speaker of the House, Rt. Hon. Prof. Mike Ocquaye; as a Cabinet minister, Joseph Kofi Adda is part of the inner circle of the president and is to aid in key decision making activities in the country. Joseph Adda hails from Navro-Pungu Wusungu, he is the son of his second wife. Profile on Ghana government website

Telford steam tram

The Telford steam tram at the Telford Steam Railway of the Telford Horsehay Steam Trust, runs on a 2 ft narrow gauge track. This follows a short circular route. Prior to the completion of the circle after arriving near the loco shed, it paused briefly before returning, coach first, to the starting point near the entrance; the tram was built by Alan Keef Ltd in 1979 for the Telford Development Corporation and the coach, contemporary, was built by Alan Keef Ltd too. The tram and coach ran in Telford Town Park alongside Randlay Pool, on the trackbed of the former Coalport Branch Line, on the Telford Town Tramway, opened by the Reverend W. Awdry, who named the tram Thomas, on 9 April 1980 but did not last long there; the tram moved to its present site in the mid-1980s. Steam trams were at one time a familiar sight, as in the last years of the 19th century and the early years of the 20th century, they were used in several towns and cities in the UK. Most were replaced by electric trams; the steam tram at the Telford Steam Railway, in one of the few working examples, quite the only narrow gauge one in the UK.

Telford Steam Railway – official website

Vela Supernova Remnant

The Vela supernova remnant is a supernova remnant in the southern constellation Vela. Its source Type II supernova exploded 11,000–12,300 years ago; the association of the Vela supernova remnant with the Vela pulsar, made by astronomers at the University of Sydney in 1968, was direct observational evidence that supernovae form neutron stars. The Vela supernova remnant includes NGC 2736, it overlaps the Puppis A supernova remnant, four times more distant. Both the Puppis and Vela remnants are among the brightest features in the X-ray sky; the Vela supernova remnant is one of the closest known to us. The Geminga pulsar is closer, in 1998 another near-Earth supernova remnant was discovered, RX J0852.0-4622, which from our point of view appears to be contained in the southeastern part of the Vela remnant. One estimate of its distance puts it only 200 parsecs away, closer than the Vela remnant, it seems to have exploded much more in the last thousand years, because it is still radiating gamma rays from the decay of titanium-44.

This remnant was not seen earlier because in most wavelengths, it is lost because of the presence of the Vela remnant. CG 4 List of supernova remnants List of supernovae "NAME Vela XYZ". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg; the Vela Supernova Remnant on WikiSky: DSS2, SDSS, GALEX, IRAS, Hydrogen α, X-Ray, Sky Map and images NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Vela Supernova Remnant NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Vela Supernova Remnant NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Vela Supernova Remnant in Visible Light NASA Astronomy Picture of the Day: Filaments of the Vela Supernova Remnant Gum Nebula Bill Blair's Vela Supernova Remnant page

Laila Majnu (1949 film)

Laila Majnu is a 1949 Telugu historical film, based on the Sufi Legend of Laila-Majnu and directed by P. S. Ramakrishna Rao under the Bharani Pictures banner, it stars Akkineni Nageswara Rao and Bhanumathi Ramakrishna in the lead roles, with music composed by C. R. Subburaman; the film was released in Tamil with same title. The film was recorded as a Super Hit at the box office. S. D. Sundharam wrote the lyrics for the Tamil version. Laila is the son of Ameer Umri. Love blossoms between Laila and Khais as they grow up. Ameer Sarvaar, unable to dissuade his daughter from seeing Khais, shifts to Mecca. Khais roams in the streets uttering her name. People take him to throw stones at him; the story turns from here on. The King of Iraq, who comes on a visit to Mecca, decides to marry her. Meanwhile, Ameer Umri pleads with his erstwhile friend Sarvaar to save his son. Sarvaar agrees to get his daughter married to Khais. A test is conducted and Khais emerges successful. Just when the marriage is to be performed, Sarvaar receives a proposal from the King of Iraq that he wishes to marry Laila.

Sarvaar changes his mind, performs his daughter's marriage with the King. Laila leaves for Khais wanders aimlessly in the desert; the King has a mistress Zareena. On coming to know of Laila's story, she tries to help her. Soon thereafter, the Prince calls Laila his sister and sends her back to Khais; the lovers are about to meet in the desert, but fate wills it otherwise and a heavy sandstorm takes its toll. Cast according to the opening credits of the film Art: Kotkangar, K. Nageswara Rao Choreography: Vedantam Raghavaiah Story - Dialogues - Lyrics: Samudrala Sr Playback: Ghantasala, Bhanumathi Ramakrishna, R. Balasaraswathi Devi, P. Leela, Susarla Dakshinamurthy, Madhavapeddi Satyam, Kasthuri Siva Rao Music: C. R. Subburaman Cinematography: B. S. Ranga Presenter: Bhanumathi Ramakrishna Screenplay - Editing - Producer - Direction: P. S. Ramakrishna Rao Banner: Bharani Pictures Music composed by C. R. Subburaman. Lyrics by Samudrala Sr; the song Preme Neramouna is an evergreen blockbuster. Music released on AVM Audio Company.

Laila Majnu was first made as a silent film in 1922 by J. J. Madan and again in 1927 by Manilal Joshi. Noted filmmaker Kanjibhai Rathod made it in Hindi in 1931. J. J. Madan remade it in Hindi in 1931. In 1936, it was produced by East India Pictures in Persian. In 1940, Dharmaveer Singh made the same story in Punjabi, in 1941, Sarnad Pictures made a version in Pushtu language. In 1945 it was made in Hindi featuring Swaran Lata as Nazir Ahmed as Majnu, it was a box office hit. This verson made by Bhanumathi was dubbed into Tamil and released with the Telugu version. S. D. Sundharam wrote the lyrics for the Tamil version. F. Nagoor made another Laila Majnu in 1950 under the banner Balaji Pictures and shot at Newtone studios with T. R. Mahalingam and M. V. Rajamma in the lead roles; the story was again made in 1953, 1976, in 1982. Laila Majnu, an ancient epic of love, is an integral part of classic Sufi literature. Hashmet Shah has told it, so has Amir Khusro. Nizami Ganjavi's 12th century version in scintillating verse filled with allegorical flourishes has been translated into numerous languages.

Mian Mohammad Bakhsh's interpretation of the epic is held as an acclaimed treatise in Pakistan till this day. The tragic tale of Majnoon and Laila is said to have its foundations in true events that occurred in the 7th century. With his first film, turning a box office hit, studio owner and director Ramakrishna was on the lookout for a suitable subject for Bharani's next venture. Fascinated by the first Hindi talkie version of Laila Majnu, which he had seen in Bombay, he made the choice, his production chief D. L. Narayana agreed with him. A screening of the Hindi version was arranged for his actress-wife Bhanumathi and Akkineni Nageswara Rao, whom he had thought of for the protagonist's role. Samudrala Raghavacharya was assigned the job of writing the dialogue; the sandstorm scene is worth mentioning. Instead of veteran cameraman Jiten Banerjee, who cranked for Rathnamala, Ramakrishna took B. S. Ranga as the cameraman without knowing how efficient his work was. Ranga who bagged this assignment thanks to his brother Garudachari, a close friend of Ramakrishna, proved his worth and it was the turning point in his future life and career.

Besides excellent photography, sound designing, the period sets created by art directors Goadgoankar and K. Nageswara Rao. An article published in the Hindu wrote about this movie "While the opulent palace and other sets were put up in the floor, the desert set with a pond, palm trees and sand dunes were created in the open space between the studio and the recording theatre and the scenes were shot there during the nights for the right effect; the result of this entire effort was reflected in audience's appreciation of the movie." Randor Guy. "Tribute To A Legend". The Hindu. Retrieved 24 May 2017. Laila Majnu on IMDb Full Feature Film on YouTube