History of Gabon

Little is known of the history of Gabon prior to European contact. Bantu migrants settled the area beginning in the 14th century. Portuguese explorers and traders arrived in the area in the late 15th century; the coast subsequently became a center of the slave trade with Dutch and French traders arriving in the 16th century. In 1839 and 1841, France established a protectorate over the coast. In 1849, captives released from a captured slave ship found in Libreville. In 1862-1887, France expanded its control including the interior of the state, took full sovereignty. In 1910 Gabon became part of French Equatorial Africa and in 1960, Gabon became independent. At the time of Gabon's independence, two principal political parties existed: the Gabonese Democratic Bloc, led by Léon M'Ba, the Gabonese Democratic and Social Union, led by Jean-Hilaire Aubame. In the first post-independence election, held under a parliamentary system, neither party was able to win a majority. In the February 1961 election, held under the new presidential system, M'Ba became president and Aubame became foreign minister.

The single-party solution disintegrated in 1963, there was a single-day bloodless coup in 1964. In March 1967, Leon M'Ba and Omar Bongo were elected vice president. M'Ba died that year. Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state, dissolved the BDG and established the Gabonese Democratic Party. Sweeping political reforms in 1990 led to a new constitution, the PDG garnered a large majority in the country's first multi-party elections in 30 years. Despite discontent from opposition parties, Bongo remained president until his death in 2009. Gabon was settled from the 14th century by Bantu peoples. Little is known of tribal life before European contact, but tribal art suggests a rich cultural heritage. Gabon's first confirmed European visitors were Portuguese explorers and traders who arrived in the late 15th century; the Portuguese settled on the offshore islands of São Tomé, Príncipe, Fernando Pó, but were regular visitors to the coast. They named the Gabon region after the Portuguese word gabão — a coat with sleeve and hood resembling the shape of the Komo River estuary.

The coast became a center of the slave trade. Some Portuguese adventurers established themselves as rulers of areas in Gabon. One such was Ogandaga é Butu, son of a Portuguese father and a Gabonese mother, he ruled some islands along the coast, which are still controlled by his descendant Mbourou Eranga Yanelle Prunella. Dutch and French traders came in the 16th century. In 1838 and 1841, France established a protectorate over the coastal regions of Gabon by treaties with Gabonese coastal chiefs. American missionaries from New England established a mission at the mouth of the Komo River in 1842. In 1849, the French authorities freed the captives on board; the captives were released near the mission station, where they founded a settlement, called Libreville French explorers penetrated Gabon's dense jungles between 1862 and 1887. The most famous, Savorgnan de Brazza, used Gabonese bearers and guides in his search for the headwaters of the Congo river. France occupied Gabon in 1885, but did not administer it until 1903.

Gabon's first political party, the Jeunesse Gabonais, was founded around 1922. In 1910 Gabon became one of the four territories of French Equatorial Africa. On 15 July 1960 France agreed to Gabon becoming independent. On 17 August 1960 Gabon became an independent country. At the time of Gabon's independence in 1960, two principal political parties existed: the Gabonese Democratic Bloc, led by Léon M'Ba, the Gabonese Democratic and Social Union, led by Jean-Hilaire Aubame. In the first post-independence election, held under a parliamentary system, neither party was able to win a majority; the BDG obtained support from three of the four independent legislative deputies, M'Ba was named Prime Minister. Soon after concluding that Gabon had an insufficient number of people for a two-party system, the two party leaders agreed on a single list of candidates. In the February 1961 election, held under the new presidential system, M'Ba became president and Aubame became foreign minister; this one-party system appeared to work until February 1963, when the larger BDG element forced the UDSG members to choose between a merger of the parties or resignation.

The UDSG cabinet ministers resigned, M'Ba called an election for February 1964 and a reduced number of National Assembly deputies. The UDSG failed to muster a list of candidates able to meet the requirements of the electoral decrees; when the BDG appeared to win the election by default, the Gabonese military toppled M'Ba in a bloodless coup on 18 February 1964. French troops re-established his government the next day. Elections were held in April 1964 with many opposition participants. BDG-supported candidates won 31 seats and the opposition 16. Late in 1966, the constitution was revised to provide for automatic succession of the vice president should the president die in office. In March 1967, Leon M'Ba and Omar Bongo were elected President and Vice President, with the BDG winning all 47 seats in the National Assembly. M'Ba died that year, Omar Bongo became president. In March 1968 Bongo declared Gabon a one-party state by dissolving the BDG and establishing a new party: the Gabonese Democratic Party.

He invited all Gabonese, regardless of previous political affiliation. Bongo was elected President in February 1973.

Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort

Emmanuel-Félicité de Durfort, duc de Duras was a French politician, peer and Freemason. Aged 18, by his father's abdication of the title, he was a duke and a musketeer, he took part in all Louis XV's campaigns – that in Italy, on the Rhine, in Bavaria, in Flanders and in Germany. He served as French ambassador to Spain, after which he was made a peer of France in December 1755 and marshal of France in March 1775, he was given command of Brittany, the governorship of Franche-Comté and the post of premier gentilhomme de la chambre du roi. In 1755, he was made governor of Château Trompette. In 1757, he was made head of the "Comédie-Française" and the "comédie italienne", he was elected to seat 34 of the Académie française on 2 May 1775. It is said. A bibliophile, his library was dispersed at auction in 1790, his first marriage, in May 1733, was to Charlotte Antoinette de la Porte Mazarin, only daughter of the duc de Mazarin. His second, in June 1736, was to Louise Maclovie de Coëtquen, daughter of Malo III de Coëtquen, the phantom of Combourg mentioned by Chateaubriand.

In 1761 he sold part of her dowry, including the county of Combourg to the father of Chateaubriand. Guy Aldonce de Durfort de Lorges, his great-grandfather Académie française


Hypsarrhythmia is chaotic and disorganized brain electrical activity with no recognizable pattern, whereas a normal brain electrical activity shows clear separation between each signal and visible pattern. It is an abnormal interictal pattern, consisting of high amplitude and irregular waves and spikes in a background of chaotic and disorganized activity seen on electroencephalogram, encountered in infants diagnosed with infantile spasms, although it can be found in other conditions. Gibbs and Gibbs spikes; these spikes vary from moment to moment, both in location. At time they appear to be focal, a few seconds they seem to originate from multiple foci; the spike discharge becomes generalized, but it never appears as a rhythmically repetitive and organized pattern that could be confused with a discharge of the petit mal or petit mal variant type". In most cases of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia either disappears or improves during a cluster of spasms and/or REM sleep. Hypsarrhythmia persists beyond the age of 24 months.

Through the use of video EEG and continuous monitoring, five variants of the "classical" hypsarrhythmic pattern have been identified: Hypsarrhythmia with increased interhemispheric synchronization. Characterized by symmetric and synchronized activity, seen in patients with longstanding evolution in those with West syndrome that changes to Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Asymmetric hypsarrhythmia. Associated with a brain structural abnormality, does not predict the affected hemisphere. Hypsarrhythmia with a consistent focus of abnormal discharge. Hypsarrhythmia with episodes of voltage attenuation. Seen during nonrapid eye movement sleep; when the episodes of voltage attenuation appear at the same time as an epileptic spasm does, they are called electrodecrements. Hypsarrhythmia with little spike or sharp activity; the "H" in PEHO syndrome stands for hypsarrhythmia. Together with developmental regression and infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia is one of the diagnostic criteria for West syndrome