History of Guinea

The modern state of Guinea did not come into existence until 1958, but the history of the area stretches back well before European colonization. Its current boundaries were determined during the colonial period by the Berlin Conference and the French, who ruled Guinea until 1958. What is now Guinea was on the fringes of the major West African empires; the Ghana Empire is believed to be the earliest of these which grew on trade but contracted and fell due to the hostile influence of the Almoravids. It was in this period; the Sosso kingdom flourished in the void but the Islamic Mandinka Mali Empire came to prominence when Soundiata Kéïta defeated the Sosso ruler, Sumanguru Kanté at the semi-historical Battle of Kirina in c. 1235. The Mali Empire was ruled by Mansa, the most famous being Kankou Moussa, who made a famous hajj to Mecca in 1324. Shortly after his reign the Mali Empire began to decline and was supplanted by its vassal states in the 15th century; the most successful of these was the Songhai Empire, expanding its power from about 1460, surpassing the Mali Empire in both territory and wealth.

It continued to prosper until a civil war over succession followed the death of Askia Daoud in 1582. The weakened empire fell to invaders from Morocco at the Battle of Tondibi just 3 years later; the Moroccans proved unable to rule the kingdom however, it split into many small kingdoms. After the fall of the major West African empires, various kingdoms existed in. Fulani Muslims migrated to Futa Jallon in Central Guinea and established an Islamic state from 1735 to 1898 with a written constitution and alternate rulers; the Wassoulou empire was a short-lived empire, led by Samory Touré in the predominantly Malinké area of what is now upper Guinea and southwestern Mali. It moved to Ivory Coast before being conquered by the French; the slave trade came to the coastal region of Guinea with European colonialists in the 16th century. Slavery had always been part of everyday life but the scale increased as slaves were exported to work elsewhere in the triangular trade. Guinea's colonial period began with French military penetration into the area in the mid-19th century.

French domination was assured by the defeat in 1898 of the armies of Samori Touré, Mansa of the Ouassoulou state and leader of Malinké descent, which gave France control of what today is Guinea and adjacent areas. France negotiated Guinea's present boundaries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries with the British for Sierra Leone, the Portuguese for their Guinea colony, Liberia. Under the French, the country formed the Territory of Guinea within French West Africa, administered by a governor general resident in Dakar. Lieutenant governors administered the individual colonies, including Guinea. In 1958 the French Fourth Republic collapsed due to political instability and its failures in dealing with its colonies Indochina and Algeria; the founding of a Fifth Republic was supported by the French people, while French President Charles de Gaulle made it clear on 8 August 1958 that France's colonies were to be given a stark choice between more autonomy in a new French Community and immediate independence in the referendum to be held on 28 September 1958.

The other French colonies chose the former but Guinea — under the leadership of Ahmed Sékou Touré whose Democratic Party of Guinea had won 56 of 60 seats in 1957 territorial elections — voted overwhelmingly for independence. The French withdrew and on October 2, 1958, Guinea proclaimed itself a sovereign and independent republic, with Sékou Touré as president. U. S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower was hostile to Touré, so the African nation turned to the Soviet Union--making it the Kremlin's first success story in Africa. Following France's withdrawal, Guinea aligned itself with the Soviet Union and adopted socialist policies; this alliance was short lived, however. President John F. Kennedy and his Peace Corps director Sargent Shriver tried harder than the Kremlin's Nikita Khrushchev. By 1963 Guinea had shifted away from Moscow into a closer friendship with Washington. Guinea relied more and more on aid and investment from the U. S; the relationship with France improved, after the election of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing as president, trade increased and the two countries exchanged diplomatic visits.

By 1960, Touré had declared the PDG the only legal party. For the next 24 years, the government and the PDG were one. Touré was reelected unopposed to four seven-year terms as president, every five years voters were presented with a single list of PDG candidates for the National Assembly. Advocating a hybrid African Socialism domestically and Pan-Africanism abroad, Touré became a polarising leader, his government became intolerant of dissent, imprisoning hundreds, stifling free press. At the same time, the Guinean government nationalised land, removed French appointed and traditional chiefs from power, broke ties with French government and companies. Vacillating between support for the Soviet Union and the United States, Guinea's economic situation became as unpredictable as its diplomatic line. Alleging plots and conspiracies against him at home and abroad, Touré’s regime targeted real and imagined opponents, driving thousands of political opponents into exile. In 1970, Portuguese forces, from neighboring Portuguese Guinea, staged Operation Green Sea, a raid into Guinea with the support of exiled Guinean opposition forces.

Among other goals, the Portuguese military wanted to kill or capture Sekou Toure

Chalo Chatu

Chalo Chatu translated as our world in the Zambian language is an English-language wiki-based free encyclopaedia project created by Jason Mulikita dedicated to documenting the entire Zambia only and try to preserve the history and pride of Zambia covering historical events and current events, notable public figures, organizations, national monuments and other notable key features of Zambia. The site uses MediaWiki software to maintain a user-created database of information; the site's content is under a Creative Commons license which means that it is available free to the public, but cannot be used for commercial purposes and should not be modified by people who are not part of the community of the website. Chalo Chatu is a work-in-progress, with articles in various stages of completion; the web site has been active since then. The website was launched with the ".org" top-level domain denoting its non-commercial nature. Chalo Chatu Foundation is documenting an entire nation which no easy task according to the site itself.

Because of that, they have a number of passionate writers and contributors who have voluntarily come on board to gather information from various locations of the country. The main aim of the project is to document everything to-do with Zambia; the stated aim of the project is "preserving the History and Pride of Zambia ". According to Chalo Chatu's C. O. O Chabota Kanguya he said in interview with Zambian Hype Magazine that Chalo Chatu is a highly-efficient non-profit project driven by a dedicated team of volunteers from all across Zambia and so it gets fundings through the donations that people make. In order to research and gather information on various topics from all parts of the country, they use logistical costs such as travel and internet bandwidth; this organization that runs the project does not have its own equipment and is relying on individual volunteers to use their own equipment, such as computers and cameras, to gather information. Website Official Facebook Page Official YouTube Channel Official Twitter Account

Season of the Dead

Season of the Dead is the first full length studio album by the death metal band Necrophagia. It was released in 1987 on New Renaissance Records, it is the only album to feature Joe Blazer on drums, Larry Madison on guitar, Bill James on bass. It is the band's last album until 1998; the album was released a few months before Death's Scream Bloody Gore debut release which makes it one of the first full-length death metal albums and is therefore seen as being important to collectors. "Season of the Dead/Forbidden Pleasure" - 6:05 "Bleeding Torment" - 4:50 "Insane for Blood" - 3:10 "Reincarnation" - 2:20 "Ancient Slumber" - 5:15 "Mental Decay" - 3:35 "Abomination" - 4:31 "Terminal Vision" - 4:30 "Painful Discharge" - 3:10 "Beyond and Back" - 4:10 The introduction of "Mental Decay" is the theme from Night on Bald Mountain by Modest Mussorgsky. The album's closing track, "Beyond and Back", was inspired by a sequence from the 1978 Sunn Classic Pictures"deathsploitation' film Beyond and Back. Like the song, part of the film tells the story of a person who endures a near death experience after committing suicide.

The person visits hell, only to be spared to return to the world of the living shortly thereafter. Metal Archives Official website of the band