History of Jamaica

The Caribbean island of Jamaica was inhabited by the Arawak tribes prior to the arrival of Columbus in 1494. Early inhabitants of Jamaica named the land "Xaymaca", meaning "Land of wood,water and god"; the Spanish enslaved the Arawak, who were so ravaged by their conflict with the Europeans and by foreign diseases that nearly the entire native population was extinct by 1600. The Spanish transported hundreds of West African slaves to the island. In 1655, the English invaded Jamaica. African slaves took advantage of the political turmoil and escaped to the island's interior, forming independent communities. Meanwhile, on the coast, the English built the settlement of Port Royal, which became a base of operations for pirates and privateers, including Captain Henry Morgan. In the 19th century, sugar cane replaced piracy as British Jamaica's main source of income; the sugar industry was labour-intensive and the British brought hundreds of thousands of enslaved Africans to Jamaica. By 1850 the black Jamaican population outnumbered the white population by a ratio of twenty to one.

Enslaved Jamaicans mounted over a dozen major uprisings during the 18th century, including Tacky's revolt in 1760. There were periodic skirmishes between the British and the mountain communities, culminating in the First Maroon War of the 1730s and the Second Maroon War of the 1795 The first inhabitants of Jamaica came from islands to the east in two waves of migration. About 600 CE the culture known as the “Redware people” arrived. Alligator Pond in Manchester Parish and Little River in St. Ann Parish are among the earliest known sites of this Ostionoid people, who lived near the coast and extensively hunted turtles and fish. Around 800 CE, Arawak arrived settling throughout the island. Living in villages ruled by tribal chiefs called caciques, they sustained themselves on fishing and the cultivation of maize and cassava. At the height of their civilisation, their population is estimated to have numbered as much as 60,000; the Arawak brought from South America a system of raising yuca known as "conuco."

To add nutrients to the soil, the Arawak burned local bushes and trees and heaped the ash into large mounds, into which they planted yuca cuttings. Most Arawak lived in large circular buildings, constructed with wooden poles, woven straw, palm leaves; the Arawak did not have writing. Some of the words used by them, such as barbacoa, kanoa, yuca and juracán, have been incorporated into Spanish and English. Https:// Christopher Columbus is believed to be the first European to reach Jamaica. He landed on the island on 5 May 1494, during his second voyage to the Americas. Columbus returned to Jamaica during his fourth voyage to the Americas, he had been sailing around the Caribbean nearly a year when a storm beached his ships in St. Ann's Bay, Jamaica, on 25 June 1503. For a year Columbus and his men remained stranded on the island departing in June 1504; the Spanish crown granted the island to the Columbus family, but for decades it was something of a backwater, valued chiefly as a supply base for food and animal hides.

In 1509 Juan de Esquivel founded the first permanent European settlement, the town of Sevilla la Nueva, on the north coast. A decade Friar Bartolomé de las Casas wrote Spanish authorities about Esquivel's conduct during the Higüey massacre of 1503. In 1534 the capital was moved to Villa de la Vega, now called Spanish Town; this settlement served as the capital of both Spanish and English Jamaica, from its founding in 1534 until 1872, after which the capital was moved to Kingston. The Spanish enslaved many of the Arawak; the Spaniards introduced the first African slaves. By the early 17th century, when no Taino remained in the region, the population of the island was about 3,000, including a small number of African slaves. Disappointed in the lack of gold on the isle, the Spanish used Jamaica as a military base to supply colonising efforts in the mainland Americas; the Spanish colonists did not bring women in the first expeditions and took Taíno women for their common-law wives, resulting in mestizo children.

Sexual violence against the Taíno women by the Spanish was common. Although the Taino referred to the island as "Xaymaca", the Spanish changed the name to "Jamaica". In the so-called Admiral's map of 1507 the island was labeled as "Jamaiqua" and in Peter Martyr's work "Decades" of 1511, he referred to it as both "Jamaica" and "Jamica". In late 1654, English leader Oliver Cromwell launched the Western Design armada against Spain's colonies in the Caribbean. In April 1655, General Robert Venables led the armada in an attack on Spain's fort at Santo Domingo, Hispaniola. After the Spanish repulsed this poorly-executed attack, the English force sailed for Jamaica, the only Spanish West Indies island that did not have new defensive works. In May 1655, around 7,000 English soldiers landed near Jamaica's Spanish Town capital and soon overwhelmed the small number of Spanish troops. Spain never recaptured Jamaica, losing the Battle of Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Battle of Rio Nuevo in 1658. In 1660, the turning point was when some Spanish runaway slaves, who became Jamaican Maroons, switched sides from the Spanish to the English.

For England, Jamaica was to be the'dagger pointed at the heart of the Spanish Empire,' although in fac

Balyan family

The Balyan family was a prominent Ottoman Armenian family of court architects in the service of Ottoman sultans and other members of the Ottoman dynasty during the 18th and 19th centuries. For five generations, they designed and constructed numerous major buildings in the Ottoman Empire, including palaces, konaks, yalis, mosques and various public buildings in Constantinople. Mason Bali, a masonry craftsman from the Belen village of Karaman in central Anatolia, was the founder of the dynasty, he moved to Constantinople, where he learned of an Armenian palace architect of Sultan Mehmed IV, whom he met and replaced as armenian himself. When Bali died in 1725, his son Magar took his place as architect at the sultan’s court. Architect Magar was charged with important projects and was frequently promoted to higher ranks. However, as a result of a denunciation, he was driven away from the court of Sultan Mahmud I to exile in the eastern Anatolian town of Bayburt. There, Magar taught his elder son Krikor architecture before being pardoned and returning to Constantinople.

Following his retirement, his son Krikor took over his position. Magar’s second son Senekerim collaborated with his brother Krikor. Magar died in Bayburt. Bali Magar Krikor Balyan Senekerim Balyan Garabet Amira Balyan Nigoğayos Balyan Levon Balyan Sarkis Balyan Hagop Balyan Simon Balyan Sinan Balian Kourken balyan SimonBalyan Armen Balyan Krikor Balyan was the first member of the family to use the surname Balyan, he was called Baliyan or Balyan after his grandfather and adopted this as the family name Balyan. He was the son-in-law of Mason Minas and father-in-law of Ohannes Amira Severyan, both of whom were palace architects. Krikor received his credential of architecture from Sultan Abdul Hamid I, he became unofficial advisor to Sultan Selim III, was close to Sultan Mahmud II. He was exiled in 1820 to Kayseri in central Anatolia, because of his involvement in a dispute between Gregorian and Catholic Armenians, he was pardoned and allowed to return to Constantinople shortly after a friend of his in the palace, Amira Bezjian.

Krikor died in 1831 after serving the empire during the reigns of four sultans, Abdul Hamid I, Selim III, Mustafa IV ), Mahmud II. His young and inexperienced son Garabet Amira succeeded him. Krikor's major works include Sarayburnu Palace Beşiktaş Palace Çırağan Palace Arnavutköy Valide Sultan Palace Defterdar Sultan Palace Aynalıkavak Pavilion Tophane Nusretiye Mosque Taksim Military Barracks Selimiye Barracks Davutpaşa Barracks Beyoğlu Barracks Istanbul Mint Valide Dam Topuzlu Dam Senekerim Balyan was the son of Architect Magar and the younger brother of Krikor Balyan, he remained in the background. He rebuilt the Beyazit Fire Tower, constructed in wood in 1826 by his brother Krikor, but destroyed after a fire, he was buried in the Armenian church yard. Senekerim's works include the Beyazıt Fire Tower and the Surp Asdvadzazdin Armenian Church in Ortaköy. Garabet Amira Balyan was born in Constantinople. At his father's death, he was young and not experienced enough to take over his father's position by himself.

Thus he served alongside his uncle-in-law Mason Ohannes Serveryan. Garabet served during the reigns of Mahmud II, Abdul Mecid I, Abdulaziz, constructed numerous buildings in Constantinople; the best known of his works is Dolmabahçe Palace, which he built in collaboration with his son Nigoğayos. Another notable architectural work of his is Beylerbeyi Palace, built in cooperation with his other son Sarkis. Garabet Balyan was active in the Armenian community's educational and administrative matters and carried out research work on Armenian architecture, his four sons, Nigoğayos, Sarkis and Simon, succeeded him after he died of a heart attack in 1866 while conversing with friends. Garabet’s notable works: Dolmabahçe Palace, with Nigoğayos Balyan New Çırağan Palace Yeşilköy Hünkar Kiosk Old Yıldız Palace Ortaköy Mosque, with Nigoğayos Balyan Nusretiye Clock Tower Beşiktaş Soorp Asdvadzazin Armenian Church Kuruçeşme Soorp Nişan Armenian Church Beyoğlu Soorp Yerrortutyun Church Kumkapı Soorp Asdvadzazin Church Academy of Fine Arts building in Tophane Fındıklı Cemile and Münire Sultan Palaces İzmit Hünkar Palace Academy of War Mausoleum of Mahmut II with fountain Bakırköy textile factory Beykoz tannery Hereke textile factory Armenian hospital Nigoğayos Balyan was the first son of Garabet Armira Balyan.

In 1843, he was sent to Paris together with his brother Sarkis to study architecture at the Collège Sainte-Barbe de Paris. Due to an illness, however, he and his brother had to return to Constantinople in 1845. Working alongside his father Garabet, Nigoğayos gained experience, he was appointed arts advisor to Sultan Abdulmecid I. He founded a school for domestic architects in order to t

Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir

Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir was a body of representatives elected in 1951 to formulate the constitution of Jammu and Kashmir. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved on January 26 1957, based on Mir Qasim resolution it adopted and ratified on November 17 1956. In 1947, British rule in India ended with the creation of two new nations, the Union of India and the Dominion of Pakistan and the abandonment of British suzerainty over the 562 Indian princely states. According to the Indian Independence Act 1947, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States", so the states were left to choose whether to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Jammu and Kashmir had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu ruler, was the largest of the princely states, its ruler was the Dogra King Hari Singh. In October 1947, Pashtun tribals at the behest of invaded Kashmir.

Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja signed The Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 and, accepted by the Government of India on 27 October 1947. India subsequently sent its forces into Kashmir leading to Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. In January 1948 India moved the U. N. which led to United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 of 21 April 1948. This resolution required among other things that Pakistan withdraw from the areas of Jammu and Kashmir which it had occupied in 1947 and conditions be created for a free and impartial plebiscite to decide the future of the state; when the required withdrawal did not occur for several years Jammu & Kashmir National Conference, the largest political party in the state recommended convening the constituent assembly in a resolution passed on 27 October 1950. On 1 May 1951 Karan Singh Head of state of Jammu and Kashmir issued a proclamation directing the formation of this assembly; the assembly was to be constituted of elected representatives of the people of the state.

For purposes of this election the state was divided into constituencies containing population of 40,000 or as near thereto as possible and each electing one member. The United Nations Security Council stated in its resolution 91 dated 30 March 1951 that it would not consider these elections to be a substitute for a free and impartial plebiscite to the people of Jammu and Kashmir. However, the 1951 elections were said to be rigged. Polls were conducted in Indian administered Kashmir in August–September 1951. There were no women registered as voters in 1951 Kashmir elections, but there was one woman. Jammu & Kashmir National Conference won all the 75 seats under the leadership of Sheikh Abdullah. On 31 October 1951 he addressed the assembly for the first time and called on it to frame the states constitution and to give a'reasoned conclusion regarding accession'. On 15 February 1954 the assembly members who were present cast a unanimous vote ratifying the state's accession to India; the constituent assembly was dissolved.

Constitution was drafted which came into force on 26 January 1957. Part II, section of the constitution states'The State of Jammu and Kashmir is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India'. In 1956 the Constituent Assembly finalised its constitution, which declared the whole of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir to be'an integral part of the Union of India'. Elections were held the next year for a Legislative Assembly; this section cannot be amended as per provisions of Part XII of the constitution. The Constituent Assembly adopted and ratified Mir Qasim resolution to dissolve itself on November 17 1956. According to this resolution, the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir ceased to exist on January 26 1957