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History of Jordan

The history of Jordan refers to the history of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the background period of the Emirate of Transjordan under British protectorate as well as the general history of the region of Transjordan. There is evidence of human activity in Transjordan as early as the Paleolithic period; the area was settled by nomadic tribes in the Bronze Age, which consolidated in small kingdoms during the Iron Age – such as the Edomites and Ammonites, with partial areas controlled by the Israelites. In the classic period, Transjordan came under Greek and Roman influence. Under the Romans and the Byzantines, Transjordan was home to the Decapolis in the North, with much of the region being designated as Byzantine Arabia. Classical kingdoms located in the region of Transjordan, such as the Roman-era Nabatean kingdom, which had its capital in Petra, left dramatic ruins popular today with tourists and filmmakers; the history of Transjordan continued with the Muslim empires starting in the 7th century, partial crusader control in the mid-Middle Ages and Mamluk Sultanate since 13th century and the Ottoman Empire from the 16th century until World War I.

With the Great Arab Revolt in 1916 and the consequent British invasion, the area came under the Anglo-Arab ruled Occupied Enemy Territory Administration East in 1917, declared as the Arab Kingdom of Syria in 1920. Following the French occupation of only the northern part of the Syrian Kingdom, Transjordan was left in a period of interregnum. A few months Abdullah, the second son of Sharif Hussein, arrived into Transjordan. With the British mandate of Transjordan in early 1920s, it became the Emirate of Transjordan under the Hashemite Emir. In 1946, independent Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan was formed and shortly admitted to the United Nations and the Arab League. In 1948, Jordan fought with the newly born state of Israel over lands of former Mandatory Palestine gaining control of the West Bank and annexing it with its Palestinian population. Jordan lost West Bank in the 1967 War with Israel, since became the central base of the Palestine Liberation Organization in its struggle against Israel.

The alliance between the PLO and the Jordanians, active during the War of Attrition, came to an end in the bloody Black September in Jordan in 1970, when a civil war between Jordanians and Palestinians took thousands of lives. In the aftermath, the defeated PLO was forced out of Jordan together with tens of thousands of its fighters and their Palestinian families, relocating to South Lebanon. Evidence of human activity in Jordan dates back to the Paleolithic period. While there is no architectural evidence from this era, archaeologists have found tools, such as flint and basalt hand-axes and scraping implements. In the Neolithic period three major shifts occurred. First, people became sedentary, living in small villages, discovering and domesticating new food sources such as cereal grains and lentils, as well as goats; the human population increased to tens of thousands. Second, this shift in settlement patterns appears to have been catalyzed by a marked change in climate; the eastern desert, in particular, grew warmer and drier to the point where it became uninhabitable for most of the year.

This watershed climate change is believed to have occurred between 6500 and 5500 BC. Third, beginning sometime between 5500 and 4500 BC, the inhabitants began to make pottery from clay rather than plaster. Pottery-making technologies were introduced to the area by craftsmen from Mesopotamia; the largest Neolithic site in Jordan is at Ein Ghazal in Amman. The many buildings were divided into three distinct districts. Houses had several rooms, some with plastered floors. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls covered with plaster and with bitumen in the eye sockets at sites throughout Jordan, the Palestinian Territories and Syria. A statue discovered at Ein Ghazal is thought to be 8,000 years old. Just over one meter high, it depicts a woman with huge eyes, skinny arms, knobby knees and a detailed rendering of her toes. During the Chalcolithic period, copper began to be smelted and used to make axes and hooks; the cultivation of barley, dates and lentils, the domestication of sheep and goats, rather than hunting, predominated.

The lifestyle in the desert was very similar to that of modern Bedouins. Tuleitat Ghassul is a large Chalcolithic era village located in the Jordan Valley; the walls of its houses were made of sun-dried mud bricks. Some had stone foundations, many had large central courtyards; the walls are painted with bright images of masked men and geometric motifs, which may have been connected to religious beliefs. Many of the villages built during the Early Bronze Age included simple water infrastructures, as well as defensive fortifications designed to protect against raids by neighboring nomadic tribes. At Bab al-Dhra in Wadi `Araba, archaeologists discovered more than 20,000 shaft tombs with multiple chambers as well as houses of mud-brick containing human bones, pots and weapons. Hundreds of dolmens scattered throughout the mountains have been dated to the late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages. Although writing was developed before 3000 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was not used in Jordan and Syria until some thousand years even though archeological evidence indicates that the Jordanians were trading with Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Between 2300 and 1950 BC, many of the large, fortified hilltop towns were abandoned in favor of either small, unfortified villages or a pastoral lifesty

James Norfolk

Sir James Norfolk was Serjeant-at-Arms to the Speaker of the House of Commons of England during the reign of Charles II. In 1656 Norfolk purchased Colchester Castle from Lord Stanhope. On Norfolk's death it passed to his son. Shortly before the return of Charles II to England and the restoration of the monarchy, ignoring those who held letters of patents for the office of Serjeant-at-Arms granted by Charles I, the House of Commons of the Convention Parliament appointed James Norfolk to the office on 25 April 1660. In January 1661 James Norfolk was instructed by the House to find the bodies of the regicides John Bradshaw, Oliver Cromwell, Henry Ireton and Thomas Pride, he located the first three corpses which were then—on 30 January 1661 —subject to a posthumous execution: disinterred, hanged at Tyburn and beheaded. The bodies were thrown into the heads placed on spikes at the end of Westminster Hall. Norfolk was reappointed as Serjeant-at-Arms to the Speaker of the House of Commons in May 1661 with Royal consent.

At the Restoration a new Mace had been commissioned but in 1670 Norfolk reported to the House that the Mace was no longer fit for service, so an order was issued to the Master of the Jewel House to have a new one made for the Serjeant-at-Arms' use. On 2 June 1675 the Speaker of the House of Commons ordered that Norfolk be apprehended and sent to the Tower of London for failure to carry out wishes of the House of Commons. However, he could not be found, his disappearance coincided with a dispute between the House of Lords. The Commons had ordered Sergeant Norfolk to detain certain people overnight so that they could be brought to the bar of the House of Commons for questioning. Black Rod was ordered by the House of Lords to free the men. Black Rod had carried out his orders. Norfolk died and was buried in the churchyard at Romford Chapel on 18 November 1680. James Norfolk had several children: John Martha married Hope Gifford, Councillor-at-Law of Colchester Bradshaw, Richard Lee, God's Battleaxe, Xlibris Corporation, pp. 379–381, ISBN 9781453583920 Fell, Sir Bryan H. Fell, Bryan H..

The Houses of Parliament: Illustrated guide to the Place of Westminster, Taylor & Francis, p. 69 Grey, Anchitell, "Debates in 1675: June 1st-2nd", Grey's Debates of the House of Commons, 3, pp. 217–238 Grose, The antiquities of England and Wales, Samuel Hooper, Henry Wigstead, p. 121 Lysons, The Environs of London: Counties of Herts, Essex & Kent, The Environs of London: Being an Historical Account of the Towns and Hamlets, Within Twelve Miles of that Capital: Interspersed with Biographical Anecdotes, 4, T. Cadell, pp. 200 Great Britain Public Record Office. Officials of the Royal Household, 1660-1837: Department of the Lord Chamberlain and associated offices, 1, University of London, Institute of Historical Research, p. 39, ISBN 1871348404

Daniel Phillips Upham

Daniel Phillips Upham was an American politician, plantation owner, Arkansas State Militia commander following the American Civil War. He is best known for his effective and brutal acts as the leader of a successful militia campaign from 1868–1869 against Ku Klux Klan chapters in the state. Upham organized a widespread retaliation after the Klan attempted to assassinate him on October 2, 1868, its members were responsible for numerous attacks against Republican officeholders and freedmen. That year, Upham was designated a brigadier general and commanded a force that numbered over 1,000 men. Upham was born on December 1832 in Dudley, Massachusetts to Josiah Upham and Clarrissa Phillips, she was a descendant of Rev. George Phillips, who settled Watertown, Massachusetts in 1630. Clarissa died about a week after his birth. Josiah secondly married Betsy Larned in 1836, the couple had four more sons. Upham received a public education in Dudley. At the age of 27, he married Elizabeth K. Nash on February 15, 1860.

The couple adopted a daughter named Isabel. In 1863, Upham was either drafted or he enlisted in the Union Army, he left the army in 1865 at the end of the war and opened a building material business in New York City. However, this business failed, leaving him in debt. In July 1865, Upham reached out to his former commanding officer and business partner, Brigadier General Alexander Shaler, to give him the permits he needed to pay off his debts, a request that Shaler obliged. After finding profit from two saloons and two steamboats, Upham was able to pay off his debts by 1866. Soon after his debts were settled, Upham moved to Arkansas to seek his fortune, he purchased and re-opened a cotton plantation in Augusta, which thrived. His success, fueled resentment by the ex-Confederate populace, who considered him a Northern carpetbagger thriving off the South's defeat and impoverishment; as Upham's wealth grew, he became a leading Radical Republican and an ally of Governor Powell Clayton. In 1867, he was elected to a seat in the Arkansas House of Representatives based on the votes of freedmen and white Unionists.

Ahead of the 1868 elections and Clayton pushed the state legislature to ratify the 14th Amendment. The Arkansas Ku Klux Klan gave a violent response, killing 12 people in 3 months, including freed blacks, a Freedmen's Bureau agent; the amendment was ratified, but the violence prompted Governor Clayton to form state and local militias to combat the insurgents. Upham was appointed by Clayton as the commander of the local Woodruff County militia; this made him a marked man, on October 2, 1868, after numerous threats and reported Klan surveillance of his home and Woodruff County registrar F. A. McLure were ambushed and injured by insurgents under the command of former Confederate Colonel A. C. Pickett. In early November 1868, Governor Clayton cancelled all elections and declared martial law, splitting the state into four military districts. Upham was put in charge of the Northeastern district, located within the Arkansas Delta, its large African-American population was the target of intimidation. Upham gave his men a free hand in subduing the Klan, the militia's war against them was bloody and ruthless.

E will whale hell out of the last one of them, never allow one of them to return and live here. There is no other way... nothing but good, square, honest killing would do them any good. Enraged by his tactics, a force of about 30 Klansmen rode to Upham's hometown of Augusta and attempted to take over the town. On their way, they pillaged several plantations, including Upham's, they mercilessly beat the black workers. Upham and 100 militiamen arrived in time to prevent the Klan from taking the town. However, upon learning that 300–400 Klan reinforcements were on their way, the milita tore through Augusta and arresting suspected Klansmen. Four suspects died. In response, 500 Klansmen under Colonel Pickett rode to destroy Upham's plantation, only to find Upham ready and waiting with hundreds of well-trained, well-equipped militiamen. A fierce battle erupted on Upham's property, which ended in a crushing and demoralizing defeat for the Klan. After several more skirmishes, Upham was credited with suppressing the Klan throughout the entire state of Arkansas.

Upham and his family left Woodruff County and settled in the city of Little Rock, Arkansas in 1869. He continued to serve in the State Militia. In October 1870, he was appointed brigadier general in command of the Seventh District in central Arkansas, he served in a series of battles with Sheriff E. W. Dodson in Pope County, Arkansas in 1872, deploying the same brutal tactics used in the Militia War. In May 1873, Republican governor Elisha Baxter dismissed him from the Arkansas State Militia, along with other men with ties to Powell Clayton, in an attempt to win over ex-Confederates. After being voted out of office, Upham was tried in 1875 for the murder of the four suspected Klansmen in 1868 during the Militia War, but was acquitted. In July 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Upham as U. S. Marshal for the Western District Court in Fort Smith, he served there with distinction, winning massive public support despite early opposition. His career came to an end when a Republican senator plotted for him to be removed in 1880.

Upham's attempts to stay in office were thwarted by Powell Clayton. In November 1882, Upham visited family in Massachusetts, he died of tuberculosis at his