Micronesia is a subregion of Oceania, composed of thousands of small islands in the western Pacific Ocean. It has a shared cultural history with two other island regions: Polynesia to the east and Melanesia to the south; the region is part of the Oceania ecozone. There are four main archipelagos along with numerous outlying islands. Micronesia is divided politically among several sovereign countries. One of these is the Federated States of Micronesia, called "Micronesia" for short and is not to be confused with the overall region; the Micronesia region encompasses five sovereign, independent nations—the Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, the Marshall Islands and Nauru—as well as three U. S. territories in the northern part: Northern Mariana Islands and Wake Island. Micronesia began to be settled several millennia ago, although there are competing theories about the origin and arrival of the first settlers; the earliest known contact with Europeans occurred in 1521. The coinage of the term "Micronesia" is attributed to Jules Dumont d'Urville's usage in 1832.
Micronesia is a region that includes 2100 islands, with a total land area of 2,700 km2, the largest of, Guam, which covers 582 km2. The total ocean area within the perimeter of the islands is 7,400,000 km2. There are four main island groups in Micronesia: the Caroline Islands the Gilbert Islands the Mariana Islands the Marshall IslandsPlus the island country of Nauru; the Caroline Islands are a scattered archipelago consisting of about 500 small coral islands, north of New Guinea and east of the Philippines. The Carolines consist of two states: the Federated States of Micronesia, consisting of 600 islands on the eastern side of the chain with Kosrae being the most eastern and Palau consisting of 250 islands on the western side; the Gilbert Islands are a chain of sixteen atolls and coral islands, arranged in an approximate north-to-south line. In a geographical sense, the equator serves as the dividing line between the northern Gilbert Islands and the southern Gilbert Islands; the Republic of Kiribati contains all of the Gilberts, as well as the island of Tarawa, the site of the country's capital.
The Mariana Islands are an arc-shaped archipelago made up by the summits of fifteen volcanic mountains. The island chain arises as a result of the western edge of the Pacific Plate moving westward and plunging downward below the Mariana plate, a region, the most volcanically active convergent plate boundary on Earth; the Marianas were politically divided in 1898, when the United States acquired title to Guam under the Treaty of Paris, 1898, which ended the Spanish–American War. Spain sold the remaining northerly islands to Germany in 1899. Germany lost all of her colonies at the end of World War I and the Northern Mariana Islands became a League of Nations Mandate, with Japan as the mandatory. After World War II, the islands were transferred into the United Nations Trust Territory System, with the United States as Trustee. In 1976, the Northern Mariana Islands and the United States entered into a covenant of political union under which commonwealth status was granted the Northern Mariana Islands and its residents received United States citizenship.
The Marshall Islands are located north of Nauru and Kiribati, east of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the U. S. territory of Wake Island. The islands consist of 29 low-lying atolls and 5 isolated islands, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets; the atolls and islands form two groups: the Ratak Chain and the Ralik Chain. All the islands in the chain are part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands, a presidential republic in free association with the United States. Having few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture. Of the 29 atolls, 24 of them are inhabited. Bikini Atoll is an atoll in the Marshall Islands. There are 23 islands in the Bikini Atoll; the islands of Bokonijien and Nam were vaporized during nuclear tests that occurred there. The islands are composed of sand; the average elevation is only about 2.1 metres above low tide level. Nauru is an oval-shaped island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, 42 km south of the Equator, listed as the world's smallest republic, covering just 21 km2.
With 11,347 residents, it is the second least-populated country, after Vatican City. The island is surrounded by a coral reef, exposed at low tide and dotted with pinnacles; the presence of the reef has prevented the establishment of a seaport, although channels in the reef allow small boats access to the island. A fertile coastal strip 150 to 300 m wide lies inland from the beach. Wake Island is a coral atoll with a coastline of 19 km just north of the Marshall Islands, it is an unincorporated territory of the United States. Access to the island is restricted and all activities on the island are managed by the United States Air Force; the majority of the islands in the area are part of a coral atoll. Coral atolls begin as coral reefs; when the volcano sinks back down into the sea, the coral continues to grow, keeping the reef at or above water level. One exception is Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia, which still has the central volcano and coral reefs around it
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, eastward to Fiji. The region includes the four independent countries of Vanuatu, Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea, as well as the French special collectivity of New Caledonia, the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea. Most of the region is in the Southern Hemisphere, with a few small northwestern islands of Western New Guinea in the Northern Hemisphere; the name Melanesia was first used by Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1832 to denote an ethnic and geographical grouping of islands whose inhabitants he thought were distinct from those of Micronesia and Polynesia. The name Melanesia, from Greek μέλας, νῆσος, etymologically means "islands of black ", in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants; the concept among Europeans of Melanesia as a distinct region evolved over time as their expeditions mapped and explored the Pacific. Early European explorers noted the physical differences among groups of Pacific Islanders.
In 1756 Charles de Brosses theorized that there was an "old black race" in the Pacific who were conquered or defeated by the peoples of what is now called Polynesia, whom he distinguished as having lighter skin. In the first half of the nineteenth century Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent and Jules Dumont d'Urville identified Melanesians as a distinct racial group. Over time, Europeans viewed Melanesia as a distinct cultural, rather than racial, area. Scholars and other commentators disagreed on its boundaries. In the nineteenth century Robert Codrington, a British missionary, produced a series of monographs on "the Melanesians" based on his long-time residence in the region. In works including The Melanesian Languages and The Melanesians: Studies in Their Anthropology and Folk-lore, Codrington defined Melanesia as including Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, New Caledonia, Fiji, he did not include the islands of New Guinea. Like Bory de Saint-Vincent, he excluded Australia from Melanesia, it was in these works.
Uncertainty about the delineation and definition of the region continues. The scholarly consensus now includes New Guinea within Melanesia. Ann Chowning wrote in her 1977 textbook on Melanesia that there is no general agreement among anthropologists about the geographical boundaries of Melanesia. Many apply the term only to the smaller islands, excluding New Guinea. In 1998 Paul Sillitoe wrote of Melanesia: "it is not easy to define on geographical, biological, or any other grounds, where Melanesia ends and the neighbouring regions... begins". He concludes that the region is a historical category which evolved in the nineteenth century from the discoveries made in the Pacific and has been legitimated by use and further research in the region, it covers populations that have a certain linguistic and cultural affinity – a certain ill-defined sameness, which shades off at its margins into difference. Both Sillitoe and Chowning include the island of New Guinea in the definition of Melanesia, both exclude Australia.
Most of the peoples in Melanesia have established independent countries, are administered by France or have active independence movements. Many have taken up the term'Melanesia' as a source of identity and "empowerment". Stephanie Lawson writes that the term "moved from a term of denigration to one of affirmation, providing a positive basis for contemporary subregional identity as well as a formal organisation". For instance, the author Bernard Narokobi wrote about the "Melanesian Way" as a distinct form of culture that could empower the people of this region; the concept is used in geopolitics. For instance, the Melanesian Spearhead Group preferential trade agreement is a regional trade treaty among Vanuatu, Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, Fiji; the people of Melanesia have a distinctive ancestry. Along with the aboriginal inhabitants of Australia, the Southern Dispersal theory indicates they emigrated from Africa between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago and dispersed along the southern edge of Asia.
The limit of this ancient migration was Sahul, the continent formed when Australia and New Guinea were united by a land bridge as a result of low sea levels. The first migration into Sahul came over 40,000 years ago. A further expansion into the eastern islands of Melanesia came much probably between 4000 B. C. and 3000 B. C. Along the north coast of New Guinea and in the islands north and east of New Guinea, the Austronesian people, who had migrated into the area somewhat more than 3,000 years ago, came into contact with these pre-existing populations of Papuan-speaking peoples. In the late 20th century, some scholars theorized a long period of interaction, which resulted in many complex changes in genetics and culture among the peoples; this Polynesian theory, however, is somewhat contradicted by the findings of a genetic study published by Temple University in 2008. It found that neither Micronesians have much genetic relation to Melanesians, it appeared that, having developed their sailing outrigger canoes, the ancestors of the Polynesians migrated from East Asia, moved through the Melanesian area on their way, kept going to eastern areas, where they settled.
They left little genetic evidence in Melanesia and "only intermixed to
Makin is the name of a chain of islands located in the Pacific Ocean island nation of Kiribati. Makin is the northernmost of the Gilbert Islands, with a population of 1,798. Makin is located six km northeast of the northeastern corner of Butaritari atoll reef and 6.9 km from the Butaritari islet of Namoka. It is a linear reef feature, 12.3 km long north-south, with five islets, the two larger ones being inhabited. The third largest, southernmost islet, Onne, is inhabitable; this string of islands is the northernmost feature of the Gilbert Islands, the third most northerly in the island nation of Kiribati. Makin is not a true atoll, but since the largest and northernmost of the islets called Makin, has a nearly landlocked lagoon, 0.3 km² in size and connected to the open sea in the east only through a 15 metre wide channel, it might be considered a degenerate atoll. Kiebu, the second largest islet, has an smaller landlocked lagoon on its eastern side, with about 80 m in diameter and at distance of 60 m to the open sea.
Since neighboring Butaritari was called Makin Atoll by the U. S. military, the feature used to be called Makin Meang or Little Makin to distinguish it from the larger atoll. Now that Butaritari has become the preferred name for that larger atoll, speakers tend to drop the qualifier for Makin; the Gilbert islands are sometimes regarded as the southern continuation of the Marshall Islands, which are NNW of it. The closest island of the Marshall Islands, Nadikdik Atoll, is 290 km NNW of Makin. Makin has a land area of 6.7 km² and a population of 1,798. Makin island consists of five small islets. Of these, only Makin and Kiebu islands are permanently inhabited; the total population of Makin is 1,798. The climate is similar to neighboring Butaritari atoll, with lush vegetation and high rainfall. Typical annual rainfall is about 4 m, compared with about 2 m on Tarawa Atoll and 1 m in the far south of Kiribati. Rainfall on Makin is enhanced during an El Niño. Higher sea levels are resulting in saltwater intrusion to coastal erosion.
At Kiebu islet, one communal bwabwai pit is located close to a saltwater pond. When it rains the pond overflows causing damage to the bwabwai plants. More the increasing incidence of unusually high tides has caused the intrusion of saltwater into the communal pit, resulting in salt contamination and damage of food crops; the construction of causeways have resulted to reduced flushing of the lagoon that has resulted in low levels of oxygen in the lagoon, which has caused damage to fish stocks in the lagoon and causes other biological problems. The erosion and accretion that are occurring along the shoreline is identified as being linked to aggregate mining, land reclamation and the construction of causeways, thought to change the currents along the shoreline. Makin, like other Kiribati islands, has a subsistence economy. Most houses are made from local materials, most households rely on fish and fruit as the mainstay of their diet, though imported rice and tobacco are seen as necessities. Makin is a high producer of copra, but has few other economic activities apart from a limited number of Government and Island Council jobs.
Many families receive remittances from relatives working on South Tarawa or overseas. There are different stories told as to the other islands in the Gilberts. An important legend in the culture of Makin is that spirits who lived in a tree in Samoa migrated northward carrying branches from the tree, Te Kaintikuaba, which translates as the tree of life, it was these spirits, together with Nareau the Wise. Nakaa Beach is located at the northern tip of Makin Atoll is an important site in the traditional mythology of the island group, being the departing point for the spirits of the dead heading to the underworld. Nakaa is the legendary guardian of the gateway to the place of the dead. In 1606 Pedro Fernandes de Queirós sighted Butaritari and Makin, which he named the Buen Viaje Islands. Traditionally and Makin were ruled by a chief or Uea who lived on Butaritari Island; this chief had all the powers and authority to make and impose decision for Butaritari and Makin, a system different from the southern Gilbert Islands where power was wielded collectively by the unimwane or old men.
The last Uea was Nauraura Nakoriri, in power both before and after the Gilberts became a British Protectorate in 1892. The island was surveyed in 1841 by the US Exploring Expedition. Little Makin Post Office opened around 1925. Japanese forces occupied the island in December 1941, days after the attack on Pearl Harbor, in order to protect their south-eastern flank from allied counterattacks, isolate Australia, under the codename Operation FS. On 17–18 August 1942, in order to divert Japanese attention from the Solomon Islands and New Guinea areas, the United States launched a raid on the island, known as the raid on Makin; the United States invaded and captured the island after the Battle of Makin, which lasted from November 20, 1943, to November 24, 1943, as well as neighbouring Tarawa island, during the Gilbert Islands campaign. Makin Airport, located northeast of Makin Village, between the lagoon and the sea, has ICAO code NGMN and IATA code MTK, it is served by two weekly Air Kiribati flights to Butaritari and to Bonriki International Airport in Tarawa.
There are no tourist fac
United States Exploring Expedition
The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842 was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States. The original appointed commanding officer was Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones. Funding for the original expedition was requested by President John Quincy Adams in 1828, Congress would not implement funding until eight years later. In May 1836, the oceanic exploration voyage was authorized by Congress and created by President Andrew Jackson; the expedition is sometimes called the "U. S. Ex. Ex." for short, or the "Wilkes Expedition" in honor of its next appointed commanding officer, United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. The expedition was of major importance to the growth of science in the United States, in particular the then-young field of oceanography. During the event, armed conflict between Pacific islanders and the expedition was common and dozens of natives were killed in action, as well as a few Americans. Through the lobbying efforts of Jeremiah N. Reynolds, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution on May 21, 1828, requesting President John Quincy Adams to send a ship to explore the Pacific.
Adams was keen on the resolution and ordered his Secretary of the Navy to ready a ship, the Peacock, while the House voted an appropriation in December Yet, the bill stalled in the US Senate in February 1829. However, under President Andrew Jackson, Congress passed legislation in 1836 approving the exploration mission, yet again, the effort stalled under Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson until President Van Buren assumed office and pushed the effort forward. The expedition was under the command Commodore Jones, but he resigned in November 1837, frustrated with all of the procrastination. Secretary of War Joel Roberts Poinsett, in April 1838 assigned command to Wilkes, after more senior officers refused the command. Wilkes had a reputation for hydrography and magnetism. Additionally, Wilkes had received mathematics training from Nathaniel Bowditch, triangulation methods from Ferdinand Hassler, geomagnetism from James Renwick. Personnel included naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, a taxidermist, a philologist.
They were carried aboard the sloops-of-war USS Vincennes, USS Peacock, the brig USS Porpoise, the full-rigged ship Relief, which served as a store-ship, two schooners, Sea Gull and USS Flying Fish, which served as tenders. On the afternoon of August 18, 1838, the vessels weighed set to sea under full sail. By 0730 the next morning, they had passed the lightship off Willoughby Spit and discharged the pilot; the fleet headed to Madeira, taking advantage of the prevailing winds. Coincidentally, Commodore George C. Read in command of the East India Squadron aboard the flagship frigate USS Columbia, together with the frigate USS John Adams, were at the time in the process of circumnavigating the globe when the ships paused for the second Sumatran punitive expedition, which required no detour; the expedition consisted of a great many people, a lot of whom were not assigned to any specific vessel. Others served on more than one vessel. Ships Command Naval officers Scientific corps Wilkes was to search for vigias, or shoals, as reported by John Purdy, but failed to corroborate those claims for the locations given.
The squadron arrived in the Madeira Islands on September 16, 1838, Porto Praya on October 6. The Peacock arrived at Rio de Janeiro on November 21, the Vincennes with brigs and schooners on November 24. However, the Relief did not arrive until the November 27, setting a record for 100 days. While there, they used Enxados Island in Guanabara Bay for an observatory and naval yard for repair and refitting; the Squadron did not leave Rio de Janeiro until January 6, 1839, arriving at the mouth of the Río Negro on January 25. On February 19, the squadron joined the Relief, Flying Fish, Sea Gull in Orange Harbor, Hoste Island, after passing through Le Maire Strait. While there, the expedition came in contact with the Fuegians. Wilkes sent an expedition south in an attempt to exceed Captain Cook's farthest point south, 71°10'; the Flying Fish reached 70° on March 22, in the area about 100 miles north of Thurston Island, what is now called Cape Flying Fish, the Walker Mountains. The squadron joined the Peacock in Valparaiso on May 10.
On June 6, the squadron arrived San Lorenzo, off Callao for repair and provisioning, while Wilkes dispatched the Relief homewards on June 21. Leaving South America on July 12, the expedition reached Reao of the Tuamotu Group on August 13, Tahiti on September 11, they departed Tahiti on October 10. The expedition visited Samoa and New South Wales, Australia. In December 1839, the expedition sailed from Sydney into the Antarctic Ocean and reported the discovery of the Antarctic continent on January 16, 1840, when Henry Eld and William Reynolds aboard the Peacock sighted Eld Peak and Reynolds Peak along the George V Coast. On the January 19, Reynolds spotted Cape Hudson. On January 25, the Vincennes sighted the mountains behind the Cook Ice Shelf, similar peaks at Piner Bay on January 30, had covered 800 miles of coastline by February 12, from 140° 30' E. to 112° 16' 12"E. when Wilkes acknowledged they had "discovered the Antarctic Continent." Named Wilkes Land, it includes Claire Land, Banzare Land, Sabrina Land, Budd Land, Knox Land.
They reached a westward goal of 105° E. the edge of Queen Mary Land, before departing to the north again on February 21. The Porpoise came across the French expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville on January 30. However, due to a misunderstanding of each other's intentions, the Porpoise and Astrolabe were unable to communicate
HMS Dolphin (1751)
HMS Dolphin was a 24-gun sixth-rate frigate of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1751, she was used as a survey ship from 1764 and made two circumnavigations of the world under the successive commands of John Byron and Samuel Wallis, she was the first ship to circumnavigate the world twice. She remained in service until she was paid off in September 1776, she was broken up in early 1777. Built to the 1745 Establishment, Dolphin was ordered from the private yard of Earlsman Sparrow in Rotherhithe. Following Sparrow's bankruptcy in 1748, the order was moved to Woolwich Dockyard. In order to reduce the incidence of shipworm, Dolphin's hull was copper-sheathed ahead of her first voyage of circumnavigation in 1764. Not long after her commissioning, the hostilities of the Seven Years' War had escalated and spread to Europe, in May 1756 Britain declared war on France of the Ancien Régime. Dolphin was pressed into service throughout the conflict, was present at the Battle of Minorca in 1756 when a fleet under Admiral John Byng failed to relieve Port Mahon, Britain's main base in the Western Mediterranean.
With Britain's successful conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, her attentions turned towards consolidating her gains and continuing to expand her trade and influence at the expense of the other competing European powers. The Pacific Ocean was beginning to be opened up by exploratory European vessels, interest had developed in this route as an alternate to reach the East Indies; this interest was compounded by theories put forward which suggested that a large, hitherto-unknown continental landmass must exist at southern latitudes to "counterbalance" the northern hemisphere's landmasses. No longer in a state of war, the Admiralty had more funds and men at her disposal to devote to exploratory ventures. Accordingly, an expedition was soon formed with instructions to investigate and establish a South Atlantic base from which Britain could keep an eye on voyages bound for the Pacific. Another purpose was to explore for unknown lands which could be claimed and exploited by the Crown, to reach the Far East if necessary.
The Dolphin was selected as lead vessel for this voyage, she was to be accompanied by the sloop HMS Tamar. Her captain was Commodore John Byron, a 42-year-old veteran of the sea, younger brother to the profligate William Byron, 5th Baron Byron. Between June 1764 and May 1766 HMS Dolphin completed the circumnavigation of the globe; this was the first such circumnavigation of less than 2 years. During this voyage, in 1765, Byron took possession of the Falkland Islands on behalf of Britain on the grounds of prior discovery, in so doing was nearly the cause of a war between Great Britain and Spain, both countries having armed fleets ready to contest the sovereignty of the barren islands. Byron visited islands of Tuamotus and Nikunau in the Gilbert Islands, putting them on European maps for the first time. Dolphin circumnavigated the world under the command of Samuel Wallis, her master's mate, John Gore, was among a number of the crew from Byron's circumnavigation who crewed with Wallis. The master on this voyage, George Robertson, subsequently wrote a book The discovery of Tahiti.
M. S. Dolphin round the world under the command of Captain Wallis, R. N. in the years 1766, 1767, 1768, written by her master. Dolphin sailed in 1766 in the company of HMS Swallow, under the command of Philip Carteret, who had served on Byron's circumnavigation. Dolphin dropped anchor at the peninsula of Tahiti Iti on 17 June 1767 but left to find a better anchorage. Wallis chose Matavai Bay on 23 June. Although the Spanish had visited the Marquesas Islands in 1595, some 170 years earlier, Wallis took possession of Otaheiti, which he named "King George III Island". Early on a large canoe approached Dolphin and at a signal its occupants launched a storm of stones at the British, who replied with grapeshot. Dolphin's gunnery cut the canoe in two. Wallis sent his carpenters ashore to cut the eighty-some canoes there in half. Friendly relations were established between the British sailors and the locals; the relationships became friendly when the sailors discovered that the women were eager to exchange sex for iron.
This trade became so extensive that the loss of nails started to threaten Dolphin's physical integrity. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Couper, Alistair. From Sailors and Traders: A Maritime History of the Pacific Peoples. University of Hawai'i Press. ISBN 9781441619884. Winfield, Rif. British Warships of the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 9781844157006. Beaglehole, J. C.. The Exploration of the Pacific. Adam & Charles Black, London. OCLC 422331302. "HMS Dolphin". Ships of the World: an Historical Encyclopaedia. Retrieved 15 August 2005. Officer on Board the Said Ship.. A voyage round the world in His Majesty’s Ship the ‘Dolphin’, commanded by the honourable commodore Byron. London: J. Newbery and F. Newbery. Log entry from Bougainville aboard HMS Dolphin, 1768
Vice-Admiral John Byron was a British Royal Navy officer and politician. He was known as Foulweather Jack because of his frequent encounters with bad weather at sea; as a midshipman, he sailed in the squadron under George Anson on his voyage around the world, though Byron made it only to southern Chile, where his ship was wrecked. He returned to England with the captain of HMS Wager, he was governor of Newfoundland following Hugh Palliser, who left in 1768. He circumnavigated the world as a commodore with his own squadron in 1764-1766, he fought in battles in the American Revolution. He rose to Vice Admiral of the White before his death in 1786, his grandsons include the poet George Gordon Byron and George Anson Byron and explorer, who were the 6th and 7th Baron Byron, respectively. Byron was the son of William Byron, 4th Baron Byron and Frances Berkeley, the daughter of William, 4th Baron Berkeley, he joined the Royal Navy in 1731. In 1740, he accompanied George Anson on his voyage around the world as a midshipman aboard one of the several ships in the squadron.
On 14 May 1741, HMS Wager under Captain Cheap, was shipwrecked on the coast of Chile on what is now called Wager Island and Byron was one of the survivors. The survivors decided to split in two teams, one to make its way by boat to Rio de Janeiro on the Atlantic coast. Captain Cheap at Wager Island had a party of 19 men; this included the surgeon Elliot and Lieutenant Hamilton, cast adrift with him plus midshipmen John Byron and Campbell, in the barge. They rowed up the coast but were punished by continuous rain and waves that threatened the boats. One night while the men slept on shore, one of the boats was capsized while at anchor and was swept out to sea with its two boatkeepers. One of the men got ashore but the other drowned; as it was now impossible for them all to fit in the remaining boat, four marines were left ashore with muskets to fend for themselves. The winds prevented them from getting around the headland so they returned to pick up the marines only to find them gone, they returned to Wager Island in early February 1742.
With one death on the journey, there were now 13 in the group. A local Chono guided the men up the coast to the Spanish settlements of Chiloe Island so they set out again. Two men died and after burying the bodies, the six seaman rowed off in the boat never to be seen again while Cheap, Byron and the dying Elliot were on shore looking for food; the Chono agreed to take the remaining four on by canoe for their only remaining possession, a musket. It is the party travelled across Presidente Ríos Lake in inland Taitao Peninsula, a lake dicovered by non-natives in 1945, they made it to be taken prisoner by the Spanish. The Spaniards treated them well and they were taken to the inland capital of Santiago where they were released on parole; the Spaniards heard that Anson had been generous in the treatment of the prisoners he had taken and this kindness was returned. Byron and the other three men stayed in Santiago till late 1744 and were offered passage on a French ship bound for Spain. Three accepted the passage.
Campbell elected to take a mule across the Andes and joined the Spanish Admiral Pizarro in Montevideo on the Asia only to find Isaac Morris and the two seamen, abandoned in Freshwater Bay on the Atlantic coast. After time in prison in Spain, Campbell reached Britain in May 1746, followed by the other three two months later. In England, the official court martial examined only the loss of the Wager in which Baynes, in nominal charge at the time, was acquitted of blame but reprimanded for omissions of duty. Disputes over what happened after the wreck were instead played out as Bulkeley and Cummins, Morris, the cooper Young and Byron published their own accounts, the last of, the only one that in any way defended Cheap who had since died. Twenty nine crew members plus seven marines made it back to England. Byron's account of his adventures and the Wager Mutiny are recounted in The Narrative of the Honourable John Byron, his book sold well enough to be printed in several editions. Byron was appointed captain of HMS Siren in December 1746.
In 1760, during the Seven Years' War, Byron commanded a squadron sent to destroy the fortifications at Louisbourg, captured by the British two years before. They wanted to ensure. In July of that year he defeated the French flotilla sent to relieve New France at the Battle of Restigouche. In early 1764 the British Admiralty determined that it would require a permanent naval settlement off the South American coast, in order to resupply naval vessels seeking to enter the Pacific via Cape Horn. Captain Byron was selected to explore the South Atlantic for a suitable island upon which to establish such a settlement; the South American mainland was controlled by Spain, hostile to local expansion of British interests. Byron set sail in June 1764. For the voyage he was granted command of the 24-gun frigate HMS Dolphin and the 16-gun sloop HMS Tamar. Byron's two-vessel flotilla crossed the Atlantic over the winter of 1764 and made its way down the South American coast; the Admiralty had ordered Byron to first seek Pepys Island, reputedly discovered off the Patagonian coast by the corsair Ambrose Cowley in 1683.
Byron reached the co-ordinates given by Cowley in
30th century BC
The 30th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 3000 BC to 2901 BC. Before 3000 BC: Image of a deity, detail from a cong recovered from Tomb 12, Yuyao, Zhejiang, is made. Neolithic period. Liangzhu culture, it is now kept at Hangzhou. C. 3000 BC: Early agriculture in North Africa. 3000 BC – 2600 BC: Early Harappan period continues in the Indus Valley c. 3000 BC: Neolithic period ends. C. 3000 BC: Djer, third pharaoh of united Egypt, starts to reign. C. 3000 BC: Troy is founded. C. 3000 BC: There is an intense phase of burial at Duma na nGiall on the Hill of Tara, the ancient seat of the High King of Ireland. C. 3000 BC: Stonehenge begins to be built. In its first version, it consists with 56 wooden posts. C. 3000 BC: Cycladic civilization in the Aegean Sea starts c. 3000 BC: Minoan civilization starts. C. 3000 BC: Helladic period starts. C. 3000 BC: Norte Chico civilization in Northern Peru starts. C. 3000 BC: Aegean Bronze Age starts. C. 3000 BC: Middle Jōmon period starts in Japan. C. 2955 BC: Djer, third pharaoh of Egypt, dies c. 2950 BC: first definitive use of a Nebty name by Egyptian First Dynasty pharaoh, Semerkhet.
C. 2920 BC: Djet, fourth pharaoh of Egypt. Djer, Merneith, Anedjib, Semerkhet—Pharaohs of the First dynasty of Egypt. Ötzi, a man whose mummified remains were found in the Ötztal Alps 3000 BC–2000 BC. C. 3000 BC—Sumerians establish cities. C. 3000 BC—Sumerians start to work in various metals. C. 3000 BC—Knowledge of Ancient Near Eastern grains appears in Ancient China. 3000 BC-2000 BC - Settled villages are widespread in Mesoamerica. The shekal was introduced in Mesopotamia as a monetary and weight unit; the Sydney rock engravings date from around 3000 BC. In the TV show, Stargate: SG-1, the native people of Earth rebel against the Goa'uld in 2995 BC. 3000 BC: A zombie outbreak in Egypt in The Zombie Survival Guide 3000 BC: The birth of the first mutant in X-Men, En Sabah Nur. 3067 BC-3060 BC: The Scorpion King wages a war against the world and conquers it in The Mummy Returns Years Preceding 3067 BC: The Scorpion King's Adventures in The Scorpion King