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History of Kyrgyzstan

The history of the Kyrgyz people and the land now called Kyrgyzstan goes back more than 2,000 years. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous location, it had an important role as part of the historical Silk Road trade route. In between periods of self-government it was ruled by Göktürks, the Uyghur Empire, the Khitan people, before being conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century. In 1876 it became part of the Russian Empire, remaining in the USSR as the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian Revolution. Following Mikhael Gorbachev's democratic reforms in the USSR, in 1990 pro-independence candidate Askar Akayev was elected president of the SSR. On 31 August 1991, Kyrgyzstan declared independence from Moscow, a democratic government was subsequently established. Stone implements found in the Tian Shan mountains indicate the presence of human society in what is now Kyrgyzstan as many as 200,000 to 300,000 years ago; the first written records of a civilization in the area occupied by Kyrgyzstan appear in Chinese chronicles beginning about 2000 BCE.

The Yenisei Kirghiz lived in central Siberia. Chinese sources of the 2nd century BCE and Muslim sources of the 7th–12th centuries CE describe the Kyrgyz as red-haired with fair complexion and green eyes. First appearing in Chinese Records of the Grand Historian as Gekun or Jiankun, as part of the Tiele tribes, they came under the rule of the Göktürks and Uyghurs. Kyrgyzstan it was part of the Kushan empire during Buddhism; the early Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 CE. Kyrgyz moved as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the 12th century, the Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the Altay Range and the Sayan Mountains as a result of the rising Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, the Kyrgyz migrated south. Plano Carpin, an envoy of the Papal states, William Rubruck, an envoy of France, all wrote about their life under the Mongols. Various Turkic peoples ruled them until 1685.

63% of the modern Kyrgyz men carry Haplogroup R1a1, comparable to the prevalence of the haplogroup among the Tajiks. The first Turks to form a state in the territory of Central Asia were Kök-Türks. Known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue, the Göktürks under the leadership of Bumin/Tuman Khan/Khaghan of Ashina tribe or dynasty and his sons established the first known Turkic state around 552 in the general area of territory that had earlier been occupied by the Xiongnu, expanded to rule wide territories in Central Asia; the Göktürks split into two rival Khanates, of which the western one disintegrated in 744 CE. The first kingdom to emerge from the Göktürk khanate was the Buddhist Uyghur Empire that flourished in the territory encompassing most of Central Asia from 740 to 840 CE. After the Uyghur empire disintegrated a branch of the Uyghurs migrated to oasis settlements in the Tarim Basin and Gansu, such as Gaochang and Hami City, set up a confederation of decentralized Buddhist states called Kara-Khoja.

Others closely related to the Uyghurs, occupying the western Tarim Basin, Ferghana Valley and parts of modern Kazakhstan bordering the Muslim Turco-Tajik Khwarazm Sultanate, converted to Islam no than the 10th century and built a federation with Muslim institutions called Kara-Khanlik, whose princely dynasties are called Karakhanids by most historians. Its capital, Balasagun flourished as a cultural and economic centre; the Islamized Karluk princely clan, the Balasagunlu Ashinalar gravitated toward the Persian Islamic cultural zone after their political autonomy and suzerainty over Central Asia was secured during the 9-10th century. As they became Persianized they settled in the more Indo-Iranian sedentary centers such as Kashgaria, became detached from the nomadic traditions of fellow Karluks, many of whom retained cultural elements of the Uyghur Khanate; the principality was weakened by the early 12th century and the territory of modern Kyrgyzstan was conquered by the Mongolic Khitan people.

The Kara-Khitan Khanate known as Western Liao, was established by Yelü Dashi who led around 100,000 Khitan remnants after escaping the Jurchen conquest of their native country, the Khitan dynasty. The Khitay conquest of Central Asia can thus be seen as an internecine struggle within the Karluk nomadic tribe, played out as dynastic conflict between the conquering Buddhist Khitay elites and the defending Kara-Khanid princes, resulting in the subjugation of the latter by the former, in the subjugation of the Muslim Karluks by their Nestorian/Buddhist kin; the Mongol invasion of Central Asia in the 13th century devastated the territory of Kyrgyzstan, costing its people their independence and their written language. The son of Genghis Khan, conquered the Kyrgyz tribes of the Yenisey region, who by this time had become disunited. At the same time, the area of present-day Kyrgyzstan was an important link in the Silk Road, as attested by several Nestorian gravestones. For the next 200 years, the Kyrgyz remained under the Golden Horde, Chagatai Khanate and the Oirats as well as Dzungars that succeeded that regime.

Freedom was regained in 1510, but Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the seventeenth century by the Kalmyks, in the mid-eighteenth century by the Manchus, in the early ninet

Church of St Mary, Berkley

The Church of St Mary is a Church of England parish church in Berkley, Somerset. It is a Grade II* listed building built in 1751; the church, dedicated to St Mary, was built in 1751 by Squire Thomas Prowse of the adjacent Berkley House. The whitewashed stone church has a west tower and a hip roof with stone slates, while the nave has a central glazed cupola. Both this cupola and the organ have been restored. There are a pair of 17th century panel backed chairs; the font and pews date from the mid 19th century.. The walls and gate piers around the church date from the mid 18th century; the graveyard contains the graves of the local population including some notable tombs. The tomb of William Hall is made of Doulting Stone and dates from 1670; the Bath stone tomb of Joseph Singer is inscribed for several members of the Singer family from the 18th and early 19th centuries. There are several unidentified tombs; the parish is part of the benefice of Beckington with Standerwick, Lullington and Rodden within the archdeanery of Wells.

The church stands in the Conservative Evangelical tradition of the Church of England. There are services every Sunday morning, with a family service on the third Sunday of every month; the local school was built near the church. It is now Berkley CofE First School, with voluntary aided status. List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells

Mister Immortal

Mr. Immortal is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, he is the leader of the Great Lakes Avengers. Created by John Byrne, he first appeared in West Coast Avengers #46; the cosmic entity Deathurge first appeared to Craig shortly after his birth and the death of his mother, who made Deathurge promise that he would look after Craig. Craig would dub Deathurge, "D'urge", the two became the best of friends, his father believed Deathurge to be an imaginary friend after Craig's numerous forays into dangerous behavior, such as playing in traffic, which were urged on by Deathurge, which Craig would explain to his father by saying, "Just playin' with D'urge, daddy." On Craig's eighth birthday, Deathurge goaded Craig into setting his house on fire, hiding under it as it burned, an event that killed his father. Deathurge stopped visiting Craig afterwards, Craig was moved into a new home, his foster father, Mr. O'Doughan, was an abusive man, though Craig became close to his foster sister, the two falling in love as adults.

This ended with Terri's suicide. The grief-stricken Craig begged Deathurge to take him as well as Terri, but Deathurge refused and departed again. Craig attempted the first of a number of unsuccessful suicide attempts by jumping off a building, only to discover with this and subsequent attempts using other methods, that he could not die. With this ability, he takes on the codename Mr. Immortal. In his first outing as a superhero, trying to foil a bank robbery, Mr. Immortal is shot and left for dead, he decides that forming a team will allow him to apply his abilities more usefully in concert with others. After placing an ad, he founds the Great Lakes Avengers, a regional offshoot of the Avengers based in Milwaukee, with Mr. Immortal as leader, its other founding members include Flatman, Big Bertha, Dinah Soar and Leather Boy. Although he is given to fits of rage upon regaining consciousness following otherwise-fatal injuries, his teammate and sometimes lover Dinah Soar can utter vocalizations that can calm him.

On account of his immortality, he engages in life-endangering stunts, is invariably willing to take on the deadliest aspects of missions, which he does brazenly, at one point taunting an armed gunman by saying, "All you're threatening me with is death. And dying's what I do best!" It is a cause for depression, in particular on occasions when someone close to him dies. The team first encounters Avengers when they are lured to the Germania Building by Hawkeye and Mockingbird, who become their mentors, they helped Hawkeye and the West Coast Avengers against "That Which Endures." They assisted Mockingbird in a holding action against Terminus. After aiding the Thunderbolts against the villain Graviton, the team clashes with the mercenary Deadpool; when not fighting crime, they spend their time playing cards. Over that time, Mr. Immortal would develop a loving relationship with his teammate, Dinah Soar, as he was the only one who could understand her language, it is revealed that they are soulmates, he was her ageless-love, as she herself possessed a degree of immortality.

In the 2004 "Avengers Disassembled" storyline, Craig comes close to quitting the team, but changes his mind by the end of that storyline. In their following outing against Maelstrom, Dinah Soar is killed and Deathurge appears to take her away to the afterlife terminating his and Mr. Immortal's former "friendship". Mr. Immortal would meet Deathurge again at Dinah Soar's funeral, where Deathurge expressed his regret, showing that he had come to love Mr. Immortal like a son. Mr. Immortal, however, is enraged at Deathurge, having taken away all that Mr. Immortal had cared about, attacks Deathurge, to no avail. Craig falls into a deep depression getting drunk and killing himself inside GLA headquarters while wearing a Dinah Soar "costume", as the others watch, he is killed by Leather Boy, who infiltrated the team's headquarters disguised as Doctor Doom and killed Monkey Joe, Squirrel Girl's sidekick. Mr. Immortal is able to return the favor when Deathurge appears to take away Monkey Joe to the afterlife in the form of a squirrel, leaving him in a vulnerable state.

Deathurge revealed to Mr. Immortal what his destiny was: to outlive everyone as the one true immortal, learn the grand secret that will reveal itself at the end of things, in addition revealing Mr. Immortal not to be either Homo sapiens or homo superior, but rather Homo supreme: a being that has evolved past death itself, making him the ultimate human. Deathurge, by taking away some of his loved ones, tried to prepare Mr. Immortal so that he could live to that destiny, but this is jeopardized by the supervillain Maelstrom, who threatens to destroy the entire universe; this gives Mr. Immortal a new incentive to live, he sets out to stop Maelstrom and save the universe; the GLA confront Maelstrom. The GLA, gain no recognition and circumstances force them to cease using the Avengers name. After discovering that they were all mutants, the team decides to change their name to the Great Lakes X-Men, adopt new costumes. During the GLX-Mas Special, the team confronted Dr. Tannenbaum, who had released an army of living Christmas trees on the citizens of Wisconsin.

Mr. Immortal saves Squirrel Girl's new sidekick, Tippy Toe, from Deathurge, trying to kill her, as part of a test given to him by Oblivion, in order to regain his job; the team is invited to the annual superheroes poker tournament. In the end, Flatman wins the tournament with a straight-flush; because the team is di