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History of Malaysia

Malaysia is a located on a strategic sea-lane that exposes it to global trade and various cultures. The name "Malaysia" is a modern concept, created in the second half of the 20th century. However, contemporary Malaysia regards the entire History of Malaya, spanning thousands of years back to Prehistoric times, as its own history, as such it is treated in this page. An early western account of the area is seen in Ptolemy's book Geographia, which mentions a "Golden Khersonese," now identified as the Malay Peninsula. Hinduism and Buddhism from India and China dominated early regional history, reaching their peak during the reign of the Sumatra-based Srivijaya civilisation, whose influence extended through Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and much of Borneo from the 7th to the 13th centuries. Although Muslims had passed through the Malay Peninsula as early as the 10th century, it was not until the 14th century that Islam first established itself; the adoption of Islam in the 14th century saw the rise of a number of sultanates, the most prominent of, the Sultanate of Malacca.

Islam had a profound influence on the Malay people, but has been influenced by them. The Portuguese were the first European colonial powers to establish themselves on the Malay Peninsula and Southeast Asia, capturing Malacca in 1511, followed by the Dutch in 1641. However, it was the British who, after establishing bases at Jesselton, Kuching and Singapore secured their hegemony across the territory, now Malaysia; the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 defined the boundaries between British Malaya and the Netherlands East Indies. A fourth phase of foreign influence was immigration of Chinese and Indian workers to meet the needs of the colonial economy created by the British in the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Japanese invasion during World War II ended British domination in Malaysia; the subsequent occupation of Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak from 1942 to 1945 unleashed nationalism. In the Peninsula, the Malayan Communist Party took up arms against the British. A tough military response ended the insurgency and brought about the establishment of an independent, multi-racial Federation of Malaya on 31 August 1957.

On 22 July 1963, Sarawak was granted self-governance. The following month on 31 August 1963, both North Borneo and Singapore were granted self-governance and all states formed Malaysia on 16 September 1963. Two years the Malaysian parliament passed a bill without the consent of signatories of the Malaysia Agreement 1963 to separate Singapore from the Federation. A confrontation with Indonesia occurred in the early-1960s. Race riots in 1969 led to the imposition of emergency rule, a curtailment of political life and civil liberties which has never been reversed. Since 1970 the Barisan Nasional coalition headed by United Malays National Organisation had governed Malaysia until defeated by the Pakatan Harapan coalition, headed by ex-UMNO leader Mahathir Mohamad on 10 May 2018. Stone hand-axes from early hominoids Homo erectus, have been unearthed in Lenggong, they date back the oldest evidence of hominid habitation in Southeast Asia. The earliest evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia is the 40,000-year-old skull excavated from the Niah Caves in today's Sarawak, nicknamed "Deep Skull".

It was excavated from a deep trench uncovered by Barbara and Tom Harrisson in 1958. This is the oldest modern human skull in Southeast Asia; the skull belongs to a 16-to 17-year-old adolescent girl. The first foragers visited the West Mouth of Niah Caves 40,000 years ago when Borneo was connected to the mainland of Southeast Asia; the landscape around the Niah Caves was more exposed than it is now. Prehistorically, the Niah Caves were surrounded by a combination of closed forests with bush, parkland and rivers; the foragers were able to survive in the rainforest through hunting and gathering molluscs and edible plants. Mesolithic and Neolithic burial sites have been found in the area; the area around the Niah Caves has been designated the Niah National Park. A study of Asian genetics points to the idea that the original humans in East Asia came from Southeast Asia; the oldest complete skeleton found in Malaysia is 11,000-year-old Perak Man unearthed in 1991. The indigenous groups on the peninsula can be divided into three ethnicities, the Negritos, the Senoi, the proto-Malays.

The first inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula were most Negritos. These Mesolithic hunters were the ancestors of the Semang, an ethnic Negrito group who have a long history in the Malay Peninsula; the Senoi appear to be a composite group, with half of the maternal mitochondrial DNA lineages tracing back to the ancestors of the Semang and about half to ancestral migrations from Indochina. Scholars suggest they are descendants of early Austroasiatic-speaking agriculturalists, who brought both their language and their technology to the southern part of the peninsula 4,000 years ago, they coalesced with the indigenous population. The Proto Malays have a more diverse origin and had settled in Malaysia by 1000 BC as a result of Austronesian expansion. Although they show some connections with other inhabitants in Maritime Southeast Asia, some have an ancestry in Indochina around the time of the Last Glacial Maximum about 20,000 years ago. Anthropologists support the notion that the Proto-Malays originated from what is today Yunnan, China.

This was followed by an early-Holocene dispersal through the Malay Peninsula into the Malay Archipelago. Around 300 BC, they were pushed inland by the Deutero-Malay

Musashi-Masuko Station

Musashi-Masuko Station is a railway station on the Itsukaichi Line in Akiruno, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Musashi-Masuko Station is served by the Itsukaichi Line, is located 8.5 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Haijima Station. This station consists of one side platform and one island platform, with a small station building located adjacent to the side platform. In fiscal 2014, the station was used by an average of 2,630 passengers daily; the station opened on 21 April 1925 as Masuko Station on the Itsukaichi Railway. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East. A new station building was completed in March 2011. Masuko Post Office Masuko Elementary School Masuko Junior High School List of railway stations in Japan JR East station information

WHAT IF software

WHAT IF is a computer program used in a wide variety of computational macromolecular structure research fields. The software provides a flexible environment to display and analyze small and large molecules, nucleic acids, their interactions; the first version of the WHAT IF software was developed by Gert Vriend in 1987 at the University of Groningen, Netherlands. Most of its development occurred during 1989-2000 at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory in Heidelberg, Germany. Other contributors include Chris Sander, Wolfgang Kabsch; as of 2016, the software is maintained by the Vriend group at the Dutch Center for Molecular and Biomolecular Informatics in Nijmegen, Netherlands. It is available as a web-based resource; as of 2015, the original paper describing WHAT IF has been cited more than 3,000 times. WHAT IF provides a flexible environment to display and analyze small molecules, nucleic acids, their interactions. One notable use was detecting many millions of errors in Protein Data Bank files.

WHAT IF provides an environment for: homology modeling of protein tertiary structures and quaternary structures. WHAT IF is compatible with several other bioinformatics software packages, including YASARA and Jmol. List of molecular graphics systems Molecule editor Official website

Kent Calfee

Kent Calfee is an American politician and a Republican member of the Tennessee House of Representatives representing District 32 since January 8, 2013. Calfee attended East Tennessee State University. 2012 Calfee challenged District 32 Representative Julia Hurley in the August 2, 2012 Republican Primary, winning with 4,611 votes, won the November 6, 2012 General election with 16,447 votes against Democratic nominee Jack McNew and Independent candidate Allen Cole. Official page at the Tennessee General Assembly Profile at Vote Smart Kent Calfee at Ballotpedia Kent Calfee at the National Institute on Money in State Politics


Yagiite is a cyclosilicate mineral belonging to the osumilite group. It was discovered in 1968 in the iron meteorite. Named after the Japanese mineralogist Kenzo Yagi, its CAS Registry Number is IMA1968-020, it is an anhydrous aluminosilicate of sodium and magnesium, which crystallizes in the hexagonal crystalline system with silicate tetrahedra arranged in double rings. In addition to the elements of its formula, it carries impurities: such as titanium, iron and calcium. Found only as an inclusion of silicate inside the iron meteorite of Colomera, in which yagiite has crystallized in an environment rich in magnesium and associated with other minerals such as diopside, tridymite, plagioclase of the type albite-anorthite, as well as iron-nickel alloys. Yagiite, in Yagiite, in Yagiite, Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineral Data Publishing

Miller Town Hall

The Miller Town Hall is a two-story brick building in the Miller Beach community in Gary, Indiana, in the United States. It was constructed to serve as the administrative building for the town of Miller, incorporated in 1907, was used for that purpose until Miller's annexation into Gary in 1918, it served as a fire station through much of the 20th century, is used for storage only. The Miller Town Hall was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1978. Although the Town Hall is owned by the city, the grounds are landscaped and maintained by local volunteers, including members of the Miller Historical Society and Miller Garden Club. In 2011, the Town Hall became a flashpoint of controversy when the city government attempted to stop neighborhood volunteers from removing broken concrete from the front of the building. Although the work went forward, lead volunteer James Nowacki was charged with creating a public nuisance