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History of Monaco

The early history of Monaco is concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area's chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and as a fortress. Part of Liguria's history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 14th to the early 15th century the area was contested for political reasons. Since that point, excepting a brief period of French occupation, it has remained under the control of the House of Grimaldi; the Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the area's early humans from the end of the Paleolithic period 400,000 BC, evidence of, found in a cave in St. Judist's Gardens. According to the accounts of historian Diodorus Siculus and geographer Strabo, the area's first permanent settlers were the mountain-dwelling Ligures, who emigrated from their native city of Genoa, Italy. However, the ancient Ligurian language, Indo-European, is not directly connected to the Italian dialect spoken by the modern inhabitants of Liguria, nor to the modern Monegasque language.

During the 6th-century BC, Phocaeans from Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos. The name of the colony derives from the local veneration of the Greek demigod Hercules later adopted by the Romans, said to have constructed the ancient path that passed through the region from Spain to Italy; the Roman emperor Julian wrote of Hercules's construction of Monaco's port and a coastal road. The road was dotted with altars to Hercules, a temple dedicated to him was established on the Rock of Monaco; the name Port Hercules was subsequently used for the ancient port. Monoeci meaning "Single One" or Monoikos meaning "Single House" could be a reference to Hercules or his temple, or the isolated community inhabiting the area around the rock. According to the "travels of Hercules" theme documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, both Greeks and native Ligurian people asserted that Hercules passed through the area. After the Gallic Wars, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province.

The Roman poet Virgil called it "that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea". The commentator Servius's use of the passage asserts, under the entry portus, that the epithet was derived: dictus autem Monoecus vel quod pulsis omnibus illic solus habitavit, vel quod in eius templo numquam aliquis deorum simul colitur."either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone, or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time." No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco, although the rocky ground and dense conurbation make future excavations unlikely. The port is mentioned in Pliny the Elder's Natural History and in Tacitus's Histories, when Fabius Valens was forced to put into the port. Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476; the city was under the domain of Odoacer until his fall at the hands of the Ostrogoths in the late 5th century. Monaco was recaptured by the Romans during the reign of Justinian in the mid-6th century and was held until its capture by the Lombards in the 7th century.

Monaco passed hands between the Lombards and Franks. Though these raids left the area entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians. In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, the native home of the Ligurians. On 10 June 1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco; this date is cited as the beginning of Monaco's modern history. As the Ghibellines intended their fortress to be a strategic military stronghold and center of control for the area, they set about creating a settlement around the base of the Rock to support the garrison; the Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family. Members of this family, in the course of the civil strife in Genoa between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, took refuge in Monaco, accompanied by various other Guelphic families, most notably the Fieschis.

Francesco Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dynasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions. In 1338 Monegasque ships under the command of Carlo Grimaldi participated, along with those of France and Genoa, in the English Channel naval campaign. Plunder from the sack of Southampton was brought back to Monaco, contributing to the principality's prosperity. Honoré II, Prince of Monaco secured recognition of his independent sovereignty from Spain in 1633, from Louis XIII of France by the Treaty of Péronne. Since the area has remained under the control of the Grimaldi family to the present day, except when under French control during the French revolution from 1793 to May 17, 1814, as part of the département of Alpes-Maritimes; the principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surround

Yaya DaCosta

Camara DaCosta Johnson, better known as Yaya DaCosta, is an American actress and model. She was the runner-up in Cycle 3 of America's Next Top Model. DaCosta went to star in TV series including ABC's daytime drama All My Children, Ugly Betty, since 2015 stars in the NBC medical drama Chicago Med. DaCosta starred in the Lifetime television film Whitney as singer Whitney Houston and received praise for her performance. DaCosta was born on November 15, 1982, in Harlem, New York, is of Brazilian and African-American descent. In addition to English, she can speak Portuguese, French and conversational Japanese, she attended the elite Northfield Mount Hermon School during her high school years before attending college where she majored in Africana Studies and International Relations at Brown University. After finishing second on Cycle 3 of America's Next Top Model, DaCosta went on to have a successful career. DaCosta only appeared once in the bottom two during the competition, she has appeared in advertisements for Garnier Fructis, Lincoln Townhouse, Oil of Olay, Seda, Sephora and Dr. Scholl's.

She has graced the covers of numerous magazines, including W, Hype Hair and Global Modeling. In 2014, she landed a spot in Tom Ford’s Fall/Winter advertising campaign. DaCosta began acting in 2005 after guest-starring in an episode of the UPN sitcom Eve, she starred opposite Rob Brown, Antonio Banderas and Alfre Woodard in the 2006 dance film Take the Lead. DaCosta had supporting roles in The Messenger, she appeared in the ABC soap opera All My Children in 2008 as Cassandra Foster, the daughter of Angie Hubbard. According to an interview with All My Children's new head writer, Charles Pratt, Jr. DaCosta left the role some time in August 2008, less than four months after joining the show, to join the cast of The First Breeze of Summer on Broadway; the First Breeze of Summer was presented from 2008 to 2009 by the historic Negro Ensemble Company. In 2009, she had a recurring role as Nico Slater, the daughter of Wilhelmina Slater in the fourth and final season of the ABC comedy-drama series Ugly Betty.

In 2010, DaCosta had supporting roles in the comedy-drama film The Kids Are All Right and the science fiction action-adventure film Tron: Legacy. She appeared in the magazines, including on the cover of W, in L'Officiel, in Vogue. In 2013, she appeared as Carol in the historical drama film The Butler, starring Forest Whitaker and Oprah Winfrey. In 2015, it was announced in an interview with actress Angela Bassett on CNN that DaCosta would star as musical icon Whitney Houston in a Lifetime television film about her life, Bassett's directorial debut. DaCosta received high praise for her performance. Since 2015, DaCosta has starred in the NBC medical drama Chicago Med as April Sexton, an ED nurse. On June 26, 2012, DaCosta married director Joshua Bee Alafia. In September 2013, she gave birth to their son, Sankara. On November 12, 2015, it was reported. Yaya Dacosta at Fashion Model Directory Yaya DaCosta on IMDb

Abel Douglass

Abel Douglass was an American whaling captain. Douglass born in 1841 in Maine as part of a seafaring maritime family. In the 1860s, Douglass partnered with James Dawson; the Dawson and Douglass Whaling Company worked off the coast of British Columbia. The non-Native whaling industry in British Columbia began when Dawson and Douglass took eight whales from Saanich Inlet in 1868. Dawson and Douglass founded Whaletown in 1869 as a whaling station on Cortes Island; the Whaletown operation was moved to what is now called Whaling Station Bay on Hornby Island. Douglass had a common-law relationship with Maria Mahoi, of Hawaiian and First Nations descent. Mahoi married George Fisher and moved to Russell Island. A Tale for the Time Being a novel by Ruth Ozeki, mentions Douglass History of whaling Capt Abel Douglass at Find a Grave