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History of Niue

Niue was first settled by Polynesian sailors from Samoa in around 900 AD. Further settlers arrived from Tonga in the 16th century; until the beginning of the 18th century, there appears to have been no national government or national leader in Niue. Before that time and heads of family exercised authority over segments of the population. Around 1700, the concept and practice of kingship appears to have been introduced through contact with Samoa or Tonga. From on, a succession of patu-iki ruled the island, the first of whom was Puni-mata. Tui-toga, who reigned from 1875 to 1887, was the first Christian king of Niue. Captain James Cook was the first European to sight the island, but he was unable to land there due to fierce opposition by the local population; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica claimed. In response, Cook named Niue the Savage Island. Christian missionaries from the London Missionary Society converted most of the population circa 1846. In 1887, King Fataaiki wrote to Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, requesting that Niue be placed under British protection, but his request was turned down.

In 1900, in response to renewed requests, the island became a British protectorate, the following year it was annexed by New Zealand. Niue's remoteness, as well as cultural and linguistic differences between its Polynesian inhabitants and those of the Cook Islands, caused it to be separately administered; the island was visited by Captain John Erskine in H. M. S. Havannah in July 1849. 150 Niuean men, 4% of the island's population, served as soldiers in the New Zealand armed forces during World War I. Around midnight on Saturday 15 August 1953, Resident Commissioner Cecil Hector Watson Larsen was murdered in his bed by 3 Niueans who had escaped from Niue's jail. Larsen had been Resident since 1943, treated Niue as his own fief, using prisoners, whom he had arrested and jailed on minor charges, for labour in his own house and garden, or to chase and return his golf balls he hit on the prison farm. A 7pm curfew was imposed on all natives, although Niueans were prohibited from making, possessing or drinking alcohol, the European New Zealand colonial personnel got drunk, Larsen would taunt the prisoners while drinking in front of them.

He physically and verbally abused them, as did his wife Jessie. In mid-1953, aged 26, had been jailed or fined from his late teens for promiscuity and adultery offences, bad language, escape from custody, ‘willful mischief taros’. Latoatama, nicknamed Suka, was a 19-year-old first-offender, sentenced to 2 years hard labour for acting as lookout for a friend who had stolen sugar from a Burns Philp store. A third prisoner, was about 16, but had a much younger mental age, little English, because of which he was more physically abused by Larsen. On the night of Saturday 15 August, Folitolu kicked out the fibro-cement roofing over the jail, escaped, along with Latoatama, Pelio Ikimotu and Loleni. A seventh prisoner, was asleep after drinking some whisky Tamaeli had stolen from Larsen, they escapees took a 21-inch machete from the jail cookhouse, Folitolu cut the telephone wires. Taofitau and Loleni returned themselves to jail, while the remaining 4 approached Larsen's residency, took two more machetes from his toolshed, leaving only Pelio, at his own choice, unarmed.

The four men entered the residency via its garage and the three armed with knives slashed and stabbed Larsen in his bed. When Larsen's wife woke in the adjoining bed, her outstretched arm was slashed; the Larsens’ 9-year-old son Billy was awakened by the noise and came out of his room, but was returned to it and locked in by Latoatama. The three murderers escaped into the night, while the unarmed Pelio now returned himself to jail. Billy and his 17-year-old sister Telma raised the alarm, bringing the doctor and hospital matron, but Larsen died in his bed in the early hours of Sunday 16 August as they attended him; the 3 murderers escaped to the southern coast of the island, evading a large and chaotic manhunt, but gave themselves up to the native constable in the village of Vaiea at 5:30 a.m. on Thursday 20 August. The three were tried on Niue by a constituted court and a panel of 2 European and 4 native assessors chosen by the local administration; the case was heard before Auckland magistrate Leonard George Herston Sinclair, made a judge of the Niue High Court for the occasion, the government-appointed defence lawyer was Auckland lawyer Erl Travice Pleasants.

The assessors took less than an hour to find the defendants guilty of murder, they were sentenced to hang by Sinclair, whose normal powers in New Zealand were limited to maximum sentences of 3 years’ jail. Local school teacher and returned serviceman Sitemi Luisi helped the defendants appeal the decision to the Supreme Court, which held a three-day hearing in Auckland, on Monday 27-Wednesday 29 October 1953. Three weeks the court upheld the death sentences in the face of evidence that Tamaeli had a mental age of only 10, denied further recourse to the Court of Appeal. Niueans in Niue and New Zealand, King Koroki Mahuta, as well as churches and other groups, began to petition the government for clemency from late 1953. Public unease at the recent reintroduction of capital punishment was heightened when

Eliza Sharpe

Eliza Sharpe was a British miniature painter, one of four gifted sisters Sharpe was born in Birmingham to Sussanna and an engraver named William Sharpe and she was baptised on 21 August 1796 at St Phillip's church. The parents allowed Eliza, Mary Ann and Charlotte to travel to the continent to inspect galleries in France and Germany. William taught each of the daughters to engrave. William and Sussanna moved the Sharpe family to London in 1817. Whilst she was a child she was painted with her sister Louisa by George Henry Harlow, she had nearly fifty miniature portrait paintings accepted at the Royal Academy starting in 1817. Eliza's sister, married in 1834 and moved to Dresden. Eliza visited her there as Anna Brownell Jameson wrote of Louise and Eliza Sharpe when she was in Germany that no man could paint like they did; this was not because the Sharpe sisters work was so clever but because it was so feminine. Like her sister Eliza became a member of the old Watercolour society where she exhibited over 80 paintings and rose to be their secretary.

The most expensive pictures were biblical scenes but her other costume work sold well although at more modest prices. These prices and her success at having her work engraved for annuals allowed her to amass "a modest little fortune" by 1880. Eliza died unmarried at the house of her nephew in 1874 in London

James A. Baffico

James Angelo Baffico is an American television soap opera director and occasional script writer. Born in San Francisco, has a Ph. D. from the University of Michigan, an M. A. and B. A. from the University of Nebraska. He is known for his role as "Bosko" in the 1983 Tom Cruise vehicle film All the Right Moves and as "Wooley" in George A. Romero's Dawn of the Dead. Baffico has produced films and written screenplays for Universal Studios and Paramount Pictures, he has been variously credited as Jim Baffico, James Baffico, James A. Baffico. All My Children Occasional Director Director The Doctors executive producer Another World Producer/Director As the World Turns Director Days of Our Lives Director Occasional Director Occasional Script Writer Daytime Emmy Award: 8 Win: 1995 & 2003, All My Children Nomination: 1995-1999, 2001-2003, All My Children James A. Baffico on IMDb

Siᚃha

Siṃha is one of the twelve months in the Indian solar calendar. Simha corresponds to the zodiacal sign of Leo, overlaps with about the second half of August and about the first half of September in the Gregorian calendar. In Vedic texts, the Simha month is called Nabhas, but in these ancient texts it has no zodiacal associations; the solar month of Simha overlaps in Hindu lunisolar calendars. The Simha marks the start of the autumn for the Indian subcontinent, it is preceded by the solar month of Karkaṭa, followed by the solar month of Kanyā. The Simha month is called Avani in the Tamil Hindu calendar; the ancient and medieval era Sanskrit texts of India vary in their calculations about the duration of Simha, just like they do with other months. For example, the Surya Siddhanta, dated to c. 400 CE, calculates the duration of Simha to be 31 days, 0 hours, 26 minutes and 48 seconds. In contrast, the Arya Siddhanta calculates the duration of the Simha month to be 31 days, 2 hours, 5 minutes and 31 seconds.

The Indian solar month names are significant in epigraphical studies of South Asia. For example, simha month, along with other solar months such as Makara, are found inscribed in South Indian temples; the Pandya King Jatavarman Sundara-Pandaya II dedicated the Kalisvara temple at Kalayar Kovil in his 12th year of reign, reads one inscription, on the third tithi of the second fortnight of the Simha month, which corresponds to Wednesday August 27, 1287. Simha is an astrological sign in Indian horoscope systems, corresponding to Leo

Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials

Reversibly assembled cellular composite materials are three-dimensional lattices of modular structures that can be disassembled to enable repairs or other modifications. Each cell incorporates structural material and a reversible interlock, allowing lattices of arbitrary size and shape. RCCM display three-dimensional symmetry derived from the geometry as linked; the discrete construction of reversibly assembled cellular composites introduces a new degree of freedom that determines global functional properties from the local placement of heterogeneous components. Because the individual parts are finite elements, a hierarchical decomposition describes the part types and their combination in a structure. RCCM can be viewed as a “digital” material in which discrete parts link with a discrete set of relative positions and orientations. An assembler can place them using only local information. Placement errors can be corrected by assembly reversal; these materials combine the size and strength of composites with the low density of cellular materials and the convenience of additive manufacturing.

RCCM were introduced in 2013 by researchers at the MIT Center for Atoms. RCCM lattices behave as an elastic solid in both compression, they offer both a linear regime and a nonlinear super-elastic deformation mode a modulus an order of magnitude breater than for an ultralight material. Bulk properties can be predicted from component measurements and deformation modes determined by the placement of part types. Site locations are locally constrained, yielding structures that merge desirable features of carbon fiber composites, cellular materials and additive manufacturing. Nonlinear elastic behavior derives from a multi-axial elastic instability of the lattice, a complex coordinated elastic buckling of the strut members; the resulting geometry is similar to a Jahn–Teller distortion of an octahedral complex with respect to orientation about the octahedral centers. Elastic folding or pleating can occur in three dimensions a coordinated antisymmetric twisting stress response and/or plastic deformation.

Unlike conventional composites, which fail catastrophically, RCCM fail incrementally because of the non-linear deformation phase and the multiplicity of joints and links. These results matched finite-element simulations with finely-meshed rigid body models. In addition to convergence to the observed coordinated buckling mode, these simulations predict the relative strength scaling observed in load test experiments; these results are consistent with the observation that open-cell lattice materials fail through micro-structural strut bending failures with σmax ∝. The simulations suggest that the coordinated buckling phenomenon as well as the modulus measurements are not dominated by edge effects, with minimal influence on overall results beyond characteristic lengths exceeding several units. Varying the locations of more and less rigid elements can trigger pure axial compression, simple uni-directional Euler buckling and complex buckling. Cellular composites extend stretch-dominated lattices to the ultralight regime.

Performance depends positively on the framework rigidity of the lattice, node connectivity, slenderness of strut members and the scaling of the density cost of mechanical connections. Conventional fiber composites make truss cores and structural frames, with bonded assembly of substructures or continuous fiber winding. Examples of such truss cores have been reported with continuous two-dimensional geometric symmetry and nearly ideal but anisotropic specific modulus scaling. Three-dimensional open-cell lattice materials occur in natural and engineered systems, spanning many length scales, their mechanical properties scale with relative density according to the geometry. They display either stretch-dominated or transverse beam bending-dominated microstructural behavior, based on periodic mechanical models. For Young’s modulus E, ideal stretch-dominated scaling with density ρ follows a proportional law E∝ρ, while common stochastic foams follow a quadratic law E∝ρ2 otherwise associated with transverse beam bending-dominated behavior.

At ultralight densities a further reduced cubic scaling law E∝ρ3 is common, such as with aerogels and aerogel composites. The dependence of scaling on geometry is seen in periodic lattice-based materials that have nearly ideal E∝ρ scaling, with high node connectedness relative to stochastic foams; these structures have been implemented only in dense engineered materials. For the ultralight regime the E∝ρ2 scaling seen in denser stochastic cellular materials applies to electroplated tubular nickel micro-lattices, as well as carbon-based open-cell stochastic foams, including carbon microtube aerographite and graphene cork. Making the connections stiffer and stronger than the strut members means that stress response is governed by the struts. Extending dimensional scaling methods to include the connections shows that the mass density cost of robust connections – which scale with the strut's cross-sectional area – is low for ultralight materials, where strut diameter dominates mass density scaling.

The relative density of these materials is the sum of the relative density contribution of the strut members and the relative density contribution of the connections. The strut members have a thickness length l; the connections transfer forces through load-bearing surface contacts, requiring that the characteristic dimensions of the connections scale with the cross section of the attached strut members, t2, because this dimension determines the maximum stress transferable through the joint. These definitions give a cubic scaling

Mandatory Integrity Control

In the context of the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems, Mandatory Integrity Control is a core security feature introduced in Windows Vista and implemented in subsequent desktop line of Windows operating systems, that adds Integrity Levels -based isolation to running processes. The IL represents the level of trustworthiness of an object; this mechanism's goal is to use pre-existing integrity control policies and the involved objects' IL to selectively restrict the access permissions in contexts that are considered to be less trustworthy, compared with other contexts running under the same user account that are more trusted. Mandatory Integrity Control is defined using a new access control entry type to represent the object's IL in its security descriptor. In Windows, Access Control Lists are used to grant access privileges to users or groups. An IL is assigned to a subject's access token; when the subject tries to access an object, the Security Reference Monitor compares the integrity level in the subject's access token against the integrity level in the object's security descriptor.

Windows restricts the allowed access rights depending on whether the subject's IL is higher or lower than the object, depending on the integrity policy flags in the new access control entry. The security subsystem implements the integrity level as a mandatory label to distinguish it from the discretionary access under user control that ACLs provide. Windows Vista defines four integrity levels: Low, Medium and System. By default, processes started by a regular user gain a Medium IL and elevated processes have High IL. By introducing integrity levels, MIC allows classes of applications to be isolated, enabling scenarios like sandboxing potentially-vulnerable applications. Processes with Low IL are called low-integrity processes, which have less access than processes with higher ILs where the Access control enforcement is in Windows. Objects with Access control lists, such as Named objects, including files, registry keys or other processes and threads, have an entry in the System Access Control List governing access to them, that defines the minimum integrity level of the process that can use the object.

Windows makes sure that a process can write to or delete an object only when its integrity level is equal to or higher than the requested integrity level specified by the object. Additionally, for privacy reasons process objects with higher IL are out-of-bounds for read access from processes with lower IL. A process cannot interact with another process that has a higher IL. So a process cannot perform functions such as inject a DLL into a higher IL process by using the CreateRemoteThread API function or send data to a different process by using the WriteProcessMemory function. While processes inherit the integrity level of the process that spawned it, the integrity level can be customized at the time of process creation; as well as for defining the boundary for window messages in the User Interface Privilege Isolation technology, Mandatory Integrity Control is used by applications like Adobe Reader, Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Windows Explorer to isolate documents from vulnerable objects in the system.

Internet Explorer 7 introduces a MIC-based "Protected Mode" setting to control whether a web page is opened as a low-integrity process or not, based on security zone settings, thereby preventing some classes of security vulnerabilities. Since Internet Explorer in this case runs as a Low IL process, it cannot modify system level objects—file and registry operations are instead virtualized. Adobe Reader 10 and Google Chrome are two other notable applications that are introducing the technology in order to reduce their vulnerability to malware. Microsoft Office 2010 introduced the "Protected View" isolated sandbox environment for Excel, PowerPoint, Word that prohibits unsafe documents from modifying components and other resources on a system. Protected View operates as a low-integrity process and, in Windows Vista and versions of Windows, uses MIC and UIPI to further restrict the sandbox. However, in some cases a higher IL process do need to execute certain functions against the lower IL process, or a lower IL process need to access resources that only a higher IL process can access.

High IL and Low IL processes can still communicate with each other by using files, Named pipes, LPC or other shared objects. The shared object must have an integrity level as low as the Low IL process and should be shared by both the Low IL and High IL processes. Since MIC does not prevent a Low IL process from sharing objects with a higher IL process, it can trigger flaws in the higher IL process and have it work on behalf of the low IL process, thereby causing a Squatting attack. Shatter attacks, can be prevented by using User Interface Privilege Isolation which takes advantage of MIC. icacls Security Identifier Mandatory access control Introduction to the Protected Mode API Windows Vista Integrity Mechanism technical reference on MSDN Introduction to Windows Integrity Control: Security Focus article Escaping from Microsoft’s Protected Mode Internet Explorer