History of San Diego
The written history of the San Diego, region began in the present state of California when Europeans first began inhabiting the San Diego Bay region. As the first area of California in which Europeans settled, San Diego has been described as "the birthplace of California."Explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo claims to have discovered San Diego Bay in 1542 200 years before Europeans settled the area. A fort and mission were established in 1769, which expanded into a settlement under first Spanish and Mexican rule. San Diego became part of the U. S. in 1848, the town was named the county seat of San Diego County when California was granted statehood in 1850. It remained a small town for several decades, but grew after 1880 due to development and the establishment of multiple military facilities. Growth was rapid during and after World War II. Entrepreneurs and boosters laid the basis for an economy based today on the military, defense industries, international trade, manufacturing. San Diego is now the eighth largest city in the country and forms the heart of the larger San Diego metropolitan area.
The area has long been inhabited by the Kumeyaay Native American people. The first European to visit the region was Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo in 1542, his landing is re-enacted every year at the Cabrillo Festival sponsored by Cabrillo National Monument, but it did not lead to settlement. The bay and the area of present-day San Diego were given their current name sixty years by Sebastián Vizcaíno when he was mapping the coastline of Alta California for Spain in 1602. Vizcaino was a merchant. After holding the first Catholic service conducted on California soil on the feast day of San Diego de Alcala, he renamed the bay, he left after 10 days and was enthusiastic about its safe harbor, friendly natives, promising potential as a successful colony. Despite his enthusiasm, the Spanish were unconvinced. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà and his expedition founded the Presidio of San Diego, on July 16, Franciscan friars Junípero Serra, Juan Viscaino and Fernando Parron raised and'blessed a cross', establishing the first mission in upper Las Californias, Mission San Diego de Alcala.
Colonists began arriving in 1774. In the following year the Kumeyaay indigenous people rebelled against the Spanish, they killed the priest and two others, burned the mission. Serra organized the rebuilding, a fire-proof adobe and tile-roofed structure was completed in 1780. By 1797 the mission had become the largest in California, with a population of more than 1,400 converted Native American "Mission Indians" relocated to and associated with it; the tile-roofed adobe structure was destroyed by an 1803 earthquake but replaced by a third church in 1813. In 1821 Mexico ousted the Spanish in the Mexican War of Independence and created the Province of Alta California; the San Diego Mission was secularized and shut down in 1834 and the land was sold off. 432 residents petitioned the governor to form a pueblo, Juan María Osuna was elected the first alcalde, defeating Pío Pico in the vote. Beyond town Mexican land grants expanded the number of California ranchos that modestly added to the local economy.
The original town of San Diego was located at the foot of Presidio Hill, in the area, now Old Town San Diego State Historic Park. The location was not ideal. Imported goods and exports had to be carried over the La Playa Trail to the anchorages in Point Loma; this arrangement was suitable only for a small town. In 1830 the population was about 600. In 1834 the presidio was described as "in a most ruinous state, apart from one side, in which the commandant lived, with his family. There were only two guns, one of, spiked, the other had no carriage. Twelve half-clothed and half-starved-looking fellows composed the garrison, they, it was said, had not a musket apiece." The settlement composed about forty brown huts and three or four larger, whitewashed ones belonging to the gentry. In 1838 the town lost its pueblo status because of its dwindling population, estimated as 100 to 150 residents, it was considered a suburb of Los Angeles. During the Mexican–American War the control of the city was exchanged three times: once in July 1846 when the USS Cyane and the California Battalion took control, in October 1846 when Californio forces took control, again in October 1846 when the American flag was raised again over the pueblo.
By November 1846, American control was secured with the arrival of reinforcements from the USS Congress. Following events near San Gabriel in early January 1847, peace returned to California. Alta California became part of the United States in 1848 following the U. S. victory in the Mexican–American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. The resident "Californios" became American citizens with full voting rights. California was admitted to the Union as a state in 1850. San Diego, still little more than a village, was incorporated on March 27 as a city and was named the county seat of the newly established San Diego County; the United States Census reported the population of the town as 650 in 1850 and 731 in 1860. San Diego promptly got into financial trouble due to overspending on a poorly designed jail. In 1852 the state repealed the city charter, in effect declaring the city bankrupt, installed a state-controlled three-member board
History of Santa Monica, California
The history of Santa Monica, covers the significant events and movements in Santa Monica's past. 1880 – 417 1890 – 1,580 1900 – 3,057 1910 – 7,847 1920 – 15,252 1930 – 37,146 1940 – 53,500 1950 – 71,595 1960 – 83,249 1970 – 88,289 1980 – 88,314 1990 – 86,905 2000 – 84,084 2010 – 89,736 Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. There are two different versions of the naming of the city. One says that it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says that it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears that Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. Regarding the latter, Crespi did note in his diary that the group found a Tongva village at the springs.
However, as is recorded in his diary, Crespí named the place San Gregorio, while the expedition soldiers called it "El Berendo" after a deer they wounded there. The "Santa Monica" name for the springs came later; the springs were commonly called by the name "Santa Monica" by the turn of the 19th century, as they did indeed remind incoming settlers of the weeping eyes of the saint. What is known for certain is that by the 1820s, the name Santa Monica was in use and the name's first official mention occurred in 1827 in the form of a grazing permit followed by the grant filing for the Rancho Boca de Santa Monica in 1828, it remains curious that the City of Santa Monica is named for a natural feature not within its borders. The name for the springs has since reverted to Kuruvungna, what the Tongva People have called them all along; the springs remain sacred to the Tongva People. The Californios valiantly defended their territories against the Manifest Destiny expansion of the United States westward during the Mexican–American War.
In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. However, in the end, the US came out victorious. Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848; the northern sections of the city of Santa Monica once belonged to Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica and Rancho Boca de Santa Monica. The Sepulveda family sold 38,409 acres of Rancho San Vicente y Santa Monica for $54,000 in 1872 to Colonel Robert S. Baker and his wife, Arcadia Bandini de Stearns Baker. Bandini was the daughter of Juan Bandini, a prominent and wealthy early Californian, was the widow of Abel Stearns, once the richest man in Los Angeles. Baker bought a half interest in Rancho Boca de Santa Monica. Nevada Senator John P. Jones bought a half interest in Baker's property in 1874. Jones and Baker subdivided part of their joint holdings in 1875 and created the town of Santa Monica; the town site fronted on the ocean and was bounded on the northwest by Montana Avenue, on the southeast by Colorado Avenue and on the northeast by 26th Street.
The avenues were all named after the states of the West, the streets being numbered. The first lots in Santa Monica were sold on July 15, 1875. Jones built the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, which connected Santa Monica and Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure; the southwestern section of the city belonged to the Rancho La Ballona of the Machado and Talamantes families. Mrs. Nancy A. Lucas purchased 861 acres from the rancho in 1874 for $11,000; the property was farmed by her sons, a parcel of 100 acres was sold to Williamson Dunn Vawter for subdivision in 1884. Santa Monica in the 1870s Business started springing up; the town's new business district was centered around the current Third Street Promenade. Early street names consisted of the names of western states. By 1885, the town's first hotel, the Santa Monica Hotel, was constructed on Ocean Ave. between Colorado and Utah in 1885.
The Hotel burned in 1887. The 125-room "Arcadia Hotel" opened on January 25, 1887. Named for Arcadia Bandini, it was one of the great hotels on the Pacific Coast of its era; the hotel was the site where Colonel Griffith J. Griffith shot his wife in 1903, which led to their divorce and his imprisonment; the residents voted to incorporate November 30, 1886, chose the first board of trustees. The original townsite was bounded by Montana Avenue on the north, 26th Street on the east, Colorado Avenue on the south, & the Pacific Ocean on the west. Senator Jones built a mansion and his wife Georgina planted a Moreton Bay Fig tree in its front yard in 1889. Santa Monica in the 1880s When the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived at Los Angeles, a controversy erupted over where to locate the seaport; the SP preferred Santa Monica. The Long Wharf was built in 1893 at the north end of Santa Monica to accommodate large ships and was dubbed Port Los Angeles
History of Sacramento, California
The history of Sacramento, began with its founding by Samuel Brannan and John Augustus Sutter, Jr. in 1848 around an embarcadero that his father, John Sutter, Sr. constructed at the confluence of the American and Sacramento Rivers a few years prior. Sacramento was named after the Sacramento River; the river was named by Spanish cavalry officer Gabriel Moraga for the Santisimo Sacramento, referring to the Catholic Eucharist. Before the arrival of Europeans, the Nisenan branch of the Native American Maidu inhabited the Sacramento Valley area; the Spanish were the first Europeans to explore the area, Sacramento fell into the Alta California province of New Spain when the conquistadors claimed Central America and the American Southwest for the Spanish Empire. The area was deemed unfit for colonization by a number of explorers and as a result remained untouched by the Europeans who claimed the region, excepting early 19th Century coastal settlements north of San Francisco Bay which constituted the southernmost Russian colony in North America and were spread over an area stretching from Point Arena to Tomales Bay.
When John Sutter arrived in the provincial colonial capital of Monterey in 1839, governor Juan Bautista Alvarado provided Sutter with the land he asked for, Sutter established New Helvetia, which he controlled with a private army and relative autonomy from the newly independent Mexican government. The California Gold Rush started when gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill, one of Sutter, Sr.'s assets in the city of Coloma in 1848. In the region where Sutter had planned to establish the city of Sutterville, Sacramento City was founded. However, its location caused the city to periodically fill with water. Fires would sweep through the city. To resolve the problems, the city worked to raise the sidewalks and buildings and began to replace wooden structures with more resilient materials, like brick and stone; the city was selected as the state capital in 1854 after Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo failed to convince the state government to remain in the city of his namesake. Indigenous people such as the Miwok and Maidu Indians were the original inhabitants of the north Californian Central Valley.
Of the Maidu, the Nisenan Maidu group were the principal inhabitants of pre-Columbian Sacramento. The first European in the state of California was conquistador Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, a Portuguese explorer sailing on behalf of the Spanish Empire, in 1542. However, no explorer had yet discovered the Sacramento Valley region nor the Golden Gate strait, which would remain undiscovered until 1808 and 1623. A number of conquistadors had completed cursory examinations of the region by the mid-18th century, including Juan Bautista de Anza and Pedro Fages, but none viewed the region as a valuable region to colonize. Neither did Gabriel Moraga, the first European to enter the Sierra in 1808 and was responsible for naming the Sacramento River, although he incorrectly placed the rivers in the region. However, Padres Abella and Fortuni arrived in the region in 1811 and returned positive feedback to the Roman Catholic Church, although the church disregarded their finds as they were in conflict with all previous views of the area.
The Mexicans, who had declared independence in 1821, shared Spanish sentiments, the area remained uncolonized until the arrival of John Sutter in 1839. The area that would become the city of Sacramento was observed by many European and American mapmakers as home to Great Plains-based rivers that stretched across the Rocky Mountains and emptied into the Pacific Ocean. Speculation at the time placed the fabled St. Bonaventura River where the American-Sacramento River complex was. John Augustus Sutter arrived in the city of Yerba Buena, which would become the city of San Francisco, after encountering a massive storm en route from the city of Sitka, Russian Alaska. Alvarado noted that he needed to establish a presence in the Sacramento Valley, realized that Sutter's ambitions allowed him an opportunity to secure the valley without committing extra troops to the region; as a result, he granted Sutter's request on the condition that Sutter would become a Mexican citizen. Sutter commenced to build a fort of his namesake, Sutter's Fort, in 1840.
New Helvetia was 44,000 acres in size until he negotiated an 1841 deal with the Russians to purchase Ft. Ross, which lay in present-day Sonoma County, consolidated all of Ft. Ross' holdings with those at Fort Sutter. Sutter's New Helvetia existed within Mexican borders. John Sutter employed both
The Key System was a owned company that provided mass transit in the cities of Oakland, Alameda, Piedmont, San Leandro, Albany, El Cerrito in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area from 1903 until 1960, when it was sold to a newly formed public agency, AC Transit. The Key System consisted of local streetcar and bus lines in the East Bay, commuter rail and bus lines connecting the East Bay to San Francisco by a ferry pier on San Francisco Bay via the lower deck of the Bay Bridge. At its height during the 1940s, the Key System had over 66 miles of track; the local streetcars were discontinued in 1948 and the commuter trains to San Francisco were discontinued in 1958. The Key System's territory is today served by AC Transit bus service; the system was a consolidation of several streetcar lines assembled in the late 1890s and early 1900s by Francis Marion "Borax" Smith, an entrepreneur who made a fortune in his namesake mineral, turned to real estate and electric traction. The Key System began as the San Francisco and San Jose Railway, incorporated in 1902.
Service began on October 26, 1903 with a 4-car train carrying 250 passengers, departing downtown Berkeley for the ferry pier. Before the end of 1903, the general manager of the SFOSJR devised the idea of using a stylized map on which the system's routes resembled an old-fashioned key, with three "handle loops" that covered the cities of Berkeley and Oakland, a "shaft" in the form of the Key pier, the "teeth" representing the ferry berths at the end of the pier; the company touted its'key route', which led to the adoption of the name "Key System". In 1908, the SFOSJR changed its name to the San Francisco, Oakland & San Jose Consolidated Railway, changed to the San Francisco-Oakland Terminal Railway in 1912; this went bankrupt in December 1923 and was re-organized as the Key System Transit Co. transforming a marketing buzzword into the name of the company. Following the Great Crash of 1929, a holding company called the Railway Equipment & Realty Co. was created, with the subsidiary Key System Ltd running the commuter trains.
In 1938, the name became the Key System. During World War II, the Key System built and operated the Shipyard Railway between a transfer station in Emeryville and the Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond. National City Lines acquired 64% of the stock in the system in 1946; the same year E. Jay Quinby hand published a document exposing the ownership of National City Lines, he addressed the publication to The Mayors. In it he wrote "This is an urgent warning to each and every one of you that there is a careful, deliberately planned campaign to swindle you out of your most important and valuable public utilities–your Electric Railway System"; the new owners made a number of rapid changes. In 1946 they cut back the A-1 train route and the express trains in 1947; the company increased fares in 1946 and in both January and November 1947. During the period there were many complaints of overcrowding. On April 9, 1947, nine corporations and seven individuals were indicted in the Federal District Court of Southern California on two counts:'conspiring to acquire control of a number of transit companies, forming a transportation monopoly' and'Conspiring to monopolize sales of buses and supplies to companies owned by National City Lines'.
They were convicted of conspiring to monopolize sales of supplies. They were acquitted of conspiring to monopolize the ownership of these companies. In 1948 they proposed a plan to convert all the streetcars to buses, they placed an advertisement in the local papers explaining their plan to'modernize' and'motorize' Line 14. Oakland city council opposed the plan by 5–3; the Public Utilities Commission supported the plan. In October 1948, 700 people signed a petition with the PUC "against the Key System, seeking restoration of the bus service on the #70 Chabot Bus line"; the councils of Oakland and San Leandro opposed the removal of street cars. The traffic planners supported removal of the streetcar lines to facilitate movement of automobiles. Local governments in the East Bay were unsuccessful. Streetcars were converted to buses during November/December 1948. In 1949 National City Lines, General Motors and others were convicted of conspiring to monopolize the sale of buses and related products to their subsidiary transit companies throughout the U.
S. Between 1946 and 1954 transbay fares increased from 20¢ to 50¢. Fares in this period were used to operate and for'motorisation' which included streetcar track removal, purchase of new buses and the construction of bus maintenance facilities. Transbay ridership fell from 22.2 million in 1946 to 9.8 million in 1952. The Key System's famed commuter train system was dismantled in 1958 after many years of declining ridership as well by the corrupt monopolistic efforts of National City Lines; the last run was on April 20, 1958. In 1960, the newly formed publicly owned. Most of the rolling stock was scrapped, with some sold to Argentina. Several streetcars and bridge units were salvaged for collections in the United States. Of the large bridge units, three are at the Western Railway Museum near Rio Vista, California while another is at the Orange Empire Railway Museum in southern California; the initial conn
History of Visalia, California
Visalia, California known in the 1850s as Four Creeks, is the oldest continuously inhabited inland European settlement between Stockton and Los Angeles. The city played an important role in the American colonization of the San Joaquin Valley as the county seat of Old Tulare County, an expansive region comprising most if not all of modern-day Fresno and Kern counties; the Spanish were reluctant to settle in this area because of climate and the danger they perceived from the local Native American population. An influx of European trappers, explorers and settlers affected the lifestyle of the native Yokuts since the Europeans brought a non hunter-gatherer culture as well as diseases to which the Yokuts had no resistance. Following the discovery of gold in California in 1848, settlers flooded into the San Joaquin Valley and carried out a campaign to drive the Yokuts off their land. In his December 20, 1849 Inaugural Address, the first governor of California Peter Hardeman Burnett remarked "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected".
Between the years of 1851-1854, the total amount of claims submitted to State of California Comptroller for Expeditions against the Indians was $1,293,179.20. As a consequence of 18 unratified treaties between California Indians and the United States government, the Yokuts were removed from their lands and a reservation system was established for them. A few surviving groups can be found in area reservations; when California achieved statehood in 1850, Tulare County did not exist. The land, now Tulare County was part of the huge Mariposa County. Called Four Creeks, the area got its name from the many watershed creeks and rivers flowing from the Sierra Nevada Mountains. All the water resulted in a widespread swampy area with a magnificent oak forest; this forest was an attractive place in the otherwise arid region. These oak trees extended four or five miles north of Visalia, west nearly to present-day Goshen, but a little farther south, along the streams leading toward Tulare Lake, the oak trees extended much farther west, in the vicinity of Tulare they extended as far west as the present town of Waukena.
The first Anglo-American settler to become a permanent resident of the region was Loomis St. John, who built a cabin on what would subsequently be called the St. John's River. In 1849 two young Texas bear hunters, Nathaniel Vise and Gilbert Dean arrived in the Four Creeks region. While Vise went on a trip to San Francisco, he left Dean at the St. John cabin. On December 1, 1850, a native of Jackson County, a resident of Agua Fria, California named John Woods, left the Mariposa country for the Four Creeks region, arriving with fourteen men. Woods built a cabin on the south bank of the Kaweah River, seven miles east of modern Visalia; the Kawia Yokuts, led by a escaped mission native named Francisco, attacked the group killing all but two. Woods barricaded himself in his cabin but was captured and flayed alive, his skin nailed to a large oak tree; this subsequently became known as the Woods Massacre. The Kawia Yokuts asserted that one of these men had captured many of their people and had performed operations on them.
The astounded natives resented this mutilation and retaliated by torturing and killing their oppressors. When General Patten arrived with a detachment from Fort Miller, California to investigate in the spring of 1851, he refused to take any action against Francisco. Patten built a fort half a mile from the Woods cabin; the same year, 1851, Nathaniel Vise returned and settled in the vicinity of the town which would be Visalia. Settlers petitioned the state legislature for county status and on July 10, 1852, Tulare County became a reality. Nathaniel was responsible for surveying the new settlement. In November 1852 he wrote, "The town contains from 60-80 inhabitants, 30 of whom are children of school age; the town is located upon one of the subdivisions of the Kaweah and is destined to be the county seat of Tulare.” In 1853, Visalia became the county seat of Tulare County an extensive County encompassing parts or all of Madera, Fresno and Kern Counties. Visalia was named after Visalia, Kentucky, a place to which Nathaniel Vise can trace his family ancestry.
Early Visalian history indicates that a school and a Methodist Church were established the same year and the following year a grist mill and a general store were built. Visalia has been called a one-time "capital" of the California cowboys. Four Creeks is the only place that the fish Luxilis occidentalis is known to have lived except for Poso Creek in Kern County, it was collected here in 1855 by Dr A. L. Heerman. In 1858 Visalia was added to John Butterfield's Overland Stage route from St. Louis to San Francisco. A plaque commemorating the location can be found at 116 East Main Street. Included in the early crop of citizens were some notorious individuals who preyed on the Butterfield Overland Mail and its passengers. Many saloons and hotels sprouted up around the stage stop downtown and commerce was brisk if a bit risky; when the telegraph arrived in 1860 it brought word of war. During the Civil War many Visalians were divided between the South. Factions supporting both lived together begrudgingly in the area, local officials failed to arbitrate the tenuous situation leading to the federal government's banning of Visalia’s pro-South Equal Rights Expositor newspaper.
On June 24, 1862, the military garrison Camp Babbitt was established by two companies of the 2nd California Cavalry, one mile from central Visalia. Although rem
Oakland is the largest city and the county seat of Alameda County, United States. A major West Coast port city, Oakland is the largest city in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, the 45th largest city in the United States. With a population of 425,195 as of 2017, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area. An act to incorporate the city was passed on May 4, 1852, incorporation was approved on March 25, 1854, which made Oakland a city. Oakland is a charter city. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie, oak woodland, north coastal scrub, its land served as a rich resource when its hillside oak and redwood timber were logged to build San Francisco. Oakland's fertile flatland soils helped. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the Transcontinental Railroad. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the city's population, increasing its housing stock and improving its infrastructure.
It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port, a thriving automobile manufacturing industry. The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun Indians; the Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping called the Ohlone. In Oakland, they were concentrated around Lake Merritt and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. In 1772, the area that became Oakland was colonized, with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio; the grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland fell within the shares given to Antonio Vicente; the portion of the parcel, now Oakland was called Encinal—Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which led to the city's name. During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and developing because land was becoming too expensive in San Francisco.
The Chinese were struggling financially, as a result of the First Opium War, the Second Opium War, the Taiping Rebellion, so they began migrating to Oakland in an effort to provide for their families in China. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions; the majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco though the Chinese were inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco. In 1851, three men—Horace Carpentier, Edson Adams, Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland became incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75-100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, only cattle trails. Two years on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland, with Horace Carpentier elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year.
The city and its environs grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the Oakland Long Wharf at Oakland Point, the site of today's Port of Oakland. A number of horsecar and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century; the first electric streetcar set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by Francis "Borax" Smith and consolidated into what became known as the Key System, the predecessor of today's publicly owned AC Transit. Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California, impacted by the plague epidemic. Quarantine measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever.
By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the United States Public Health Service were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home; the State Board of Health along with Oakland advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of Pneumonic plague which killed a dozen people in Oakland; this started when a man killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days and another household member contracted the plague; this in turn was passed on either indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague. At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oaklan
History of California's state highway system
The state highway system in the U. S. state of California dates back to 1896, when the state took over maintenance of the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. Construction of a large connected system began in 1912, after the state's voters approved an $18 million bond issue for over 3000 miles of highways; the last large addition was made by the California State Assembly in 1959, after which only minor changes have been made. The first state road was authorized on March 26, 1895, when a law created the post of "Lake Tahoe Wagon Road Commissioner" to maintain the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road, now US 50 from Smith Flat - 3 miles east of Placerville - to the Nevada state line; the 58 mile road had been operated as a toll road until 1886. Funding was only enough for minimal improvements, including a stone bridge over the South Fork American River in 1901. In 1895, on March 27, the legislature created the three-person Bureau of Highways to coordinate efforts by the counties to build good roads; the bureau traveled to every county of the state in 1895 and 1896 and prepared a map of a recommended system of state roads, which they submitted to the governor on November 25, 1896.
The legislature replaced the Bureau of Highways with the Department of Highways on April 1, 1897, three days after it passed a law creating a second state highway from Sacramento to Folsom - another part of what became US 50 - to be maintained by three "Folsom Highway Commissioners". This was the last highway maintained by a separate authority, as the next state road, the Mono Lake Basin State Road, was designated by the legislature in 1899 to be built and maintained by the Department of Highways. Several more state highways were legislated in the next decade, the legislature passed a law creating the Department of Engineering on March 11, 1907; this new department, in addition to non-highway duties, was to maintain all state highways, including the Lake Tahoe Wagon Road. On March 22, 1909 the "State Highways Act" was passed, taking effect on December 31, 1910 after a successful vote by the people of the state in November; this law authorized the Department of Engineering to issue $18 million in bonds for a "continuous and connected state highway system" that would connect all county seats.
To this end, the department created the three-member California Highway Commission on August 8, 1911 to take full charge of the construction and maintenance of this system. As with the 1896 plan by the Bureau of Highways, the Highway Commission traveled the state to determine the best routes, which ended up stretching about 3100 miles. Construction began in mid-1912, with groundbreaking on Contract One - now part of SR 82 in San Mateo County - on August 7. Noteworthy portions of the system built by the commission included the Ridge Route in southern California and the Yolo Causeway west from Sacramento; because the first bond issue did not provide enough funding, the "State Highways Act of 1915" was approved by the legislature on May 20, 1915 and the voters in November 1916, taking effect on December 31. This gave the Department of Engineering an additional $12 million to complete the original system and $3 million for a further 680 miles specified by the law. At this time, each route was assigned a number from 1 to 34.
In 1917, the legislature gave the California Highway Commission statutory recognition, turned over the 750 miles of roads adopted by legislative act, until maintained by the State Engineer, to the commission. Where not serving as extensions of existing routes, these - and routes subsequently added legislatively in 1917 and 1919 - were given numbers from 35 to 45. A third bond issue was approved by the voters at a special election on July 1, 1919, provided $20 million more for the existing routes and the same amount for new extensions totaling about 1800 miles, adding Routes 46 to 64 to the system; the three bond issues together totaled 5560 miles, of which just over 40% was completed or under construction in mid-1920. The Department of Engineering became part of the new Department of Public Works in 1921, the California Highway Commission was separated as its own department in 1923. In order to pay for the roads, a 2-cent per gallon gasoline tax was approved in 1923; the legislature continued to add highways to the system, including the Mother Lode Highway in 1921 and the Arrowhead Trail in 1925.
In January 1928, the California State Automobile Association and Automobile Club of Southern California, placing guide and warning signs along state highways, marked the U. S. Highways along several of the most major state highways; the California Toll Bridge Authority was created in 1929 to acquire and operate all toll bridges on state highways, including the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and Carquinez Bridge. After 1927 and 1929, in which no highways were added to the system, the legislature authorized the construction of 23 new routes in 1931, which were numbered from 72 to 80 when not forming extensions of existing routes. Two years another 213 sections of highway were added doubling the total length of state highways to about 14000 miles. Many of these new routes, as well as a number of existing routes, were incorporated into the initial system of state sign routes in 1934 posted by the auto clubs; the Division of Highways took over signage on stat