History of Poland (1989–present)
In 1989–1991, Poland engaged in a democratic transition which put an end to the Polish People's Republic and led to the foundation of a democratic government, known as the Third Polish Republic. After ten years of democratic consolidation, Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004. Tension grew between the people of Poland and its communist government, as with the rest of the Eastern bloc as the influence of the Soviet Union faded. With the advent of perestroika in the Soviet Union under Mikhail Gorbachev, the opportunity arose to change the system of government, after the harsh period of martial law imposed by General Jaruzelski. Fears that a shift of power from a centralized one-party system to a multi-party democracy might turn into a bloody revolution proved unfounded, owing to the presence on both sides — the Communist Party, the democratic opposition — of peace-minded reformists committed to a peaceful solution; the government's inability to forestall Poland's economic decline led to waves of strikes across the country in April and August 1988.
In an attempt to take control of the situation, the government gave de facto recognition to the Solidarity union, Interior Minister Czesław Kiszczak began talks with its leader Lech Wałęsa on August 31. These talks broke down in October, but a new series of negotiations, the "round-table" talks, began in February 1989; these talks produced an agreement in April for open parliamentary elections. The June election produced a Sejm, in which one-third of the seats went to communists and one-third went to the two parties which had hitherto been their coalition partners; the remaining one-third of the seats in the Sejm and all those in the Senate were contested. The failure of the communists at the polls produced a political crisis; the round-table agreement called for a communist president, on July 19, the National Assembly, with the support of a number of Solidarity deputies, elected General Wojciech Jaruzelski to that office. However, two attempts by the communists to form governments failed. On August 19, President Jaruzelski asked journalist/Solidarity activist Tadeusz Mazowiecki to form a government.
For the first time in more than 40 years, Poland had a government led by non-communists. In December 1989, the Sejm approved the government's reform program to transform the Polish economy from centrally planned to free-market, amended the constitution to eliminate references to the "leading role" of the Communist Party, renamed the country the "Republic of Poland"; the communist Polish United Workers' Party dissolved itself in January 1990, creating in its place a new party, Social Democracy of the Republic of Poland. Most of the property of the former Communist Party was turned over to the state; the May 1990 local elections were free. Candidates supported by Solidarity's Citizens' Committees won most of the elections they contested, although voter turnout was only a little over 40%; the cabinet was reshuffled in July 1990. In October 1990, the constitution was amended to curtail the term of President Jaruzelski. In December, Lech Wałęsa became the first popularly elected President of Poland.
In the early 1990s, Poland made great progress towards achieving a democratic government and a market economy. In November 1990, Lech Wałęsa was elected President for a 5-year term. Jan Krzysztof Bielecki, at Wałęsa's request, formed a government and served as its Prime Minister until October 1991, introducing world prices and expanding the scope of private enterprise. Poland's first free parliamentary elections were held in 1991. More than 100 parties participated. No single party received more than 13% of the total vote; the government of Prime Minister Jan Olszewski was the first free and democratic Polish government since 1926. This cabinet was supported by the Kaczyński brothers. Olszewski was replaced by Hanna Suchocka as the first woman Prime Minister of Poland in 1992, after Janusz Korwin-Mikke wanted all members of the Sejm who had cooperated with the communist secret police to be revealed. After a rough start, 1993 saw the second group of elections, the first parliament to serve a full term.
The Democratic Left Alliance received the largest share of votes. In 1993 the Soviet Northern Group of Forces left Poland. After the election, the SLD and Polish People's Party formed a governing coalition. Waldemar Pawlak, leader of the junior partner PSL, became Prime Minister. Relations between President Wałęsa and the Prime Minister remained poor throughout the Pawlak government, with the President charging Pawlak with furthering personal and party interests while neglecting matters of state importance. Following a number of scandals implicating Pawlak and increasing political tension over control of the armed forces, Wałęsa demanded Pawlak's resignation in January 1995. A crisis resulted and the coalition removed Pawlak from office and replaced him with the SLD's Józef Oleksy as the new Prime Minister. In November 1995, Poland held. SLD leader Aleksander Kwaśniewski defeated Wałęsa by a narrow margin—51.7% to 48.3%. Soon after Wałęsa's defeat, Interior Minister Andrzej Milczanowski accused then-Prime Minister Oleksy of longtime collaboration with Soviet and Russian intelligence.
In the ensuing political crisis, Oleksy resigned. For his successor, The SLD-PSL coalition turned
Aftermath of World War I
The Aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural and social change across Eurasia, in areas outside those that were directly involved. Four empires collapsed due to the war, old countries were abolished, new ones were formed, boundaries were redrawn, international organizations were established, many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in people's minds. World War I had the effect of bringing political transformation to most of the principal parties involved in the conflict, transforming them into electoral democracies by bringing near-universal suffrage for the first time in history, as in Germany, Great Britain, Turkey. Through the period from the armistice on 11 November 1918 until the signing of the peace treaty with Germany on 28 June 1919, the Allies maintained the naval blockade of Germany that had begun during the war; as Germany was dependent on imports, it is estimated. N. P. Howard, of the University of Sheffield, claims that a further quarter of a million more died from disease or starvation in the eight-month period following the conclusion of the conflict.
The continuation of the blockade after the fighting ended, as author Robert Leckie wrote in Delivered From Evil, did much to "torment the Germans... driving them with the fury of despair into the arms of the devil." The terms of the Armistice did allow food to be shipped into Germany, but the Allies required that Germany provide the means to do so. The German government was required to use its gold reserves, being unable to secure a loan from the United States. Historian Sally Marks claims that while "Allied warships remained in place against a possible resumption of hostilities, the Allies offered food and medicine after the armistice, but Germany refused to allow its ships to carry supplies". Further, Marks states that despite the problems facing the Allies, from the German government, "Allied food shipments arrived in Allied ships before the charge made at Versailles"; this position is supported by Elisabeth Gläser who notes that an Allied task force, to help feed the German population, was established in early 1919 and that by May 1919 " Germany became the chief recipient of American and Allied food shipments".
Gläser further claims that during the early months of 1919, while the main relief effort was being planned, France provided food shipments to Bavaria and the Rhineland. She further claims that the German government delayed the relief effort by refusing to surrender their merchant fleet to the Allies, she concludes that "the success of the relief effort had in effect deprived the of a credible threat to induce Germany to sign the Treaty of Versailles. However, it is the case that for eight months following the end of hostilities, the blockade was continually in place, with some estimates that a further 100,000 casualties among German civilians due to starvation were caused, on top of the hundreds of thousands which had occurred. Food shipments, had been dependent on Allied goodwill, causing at least in part the post-hostilities irregularity. After the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on 28 June 1919, between Germany on the one side and France, Italy and other minor allied powers on the other ended war between those countries.
Other treaties ended the relationships of the other Central Powers. Included in the 440 articles of the Treaty of Versailles were the demands that Germany accept responsibility for starting the war and pay economic reparations; the treaty drastically limited the German military machine: German troops were reduced to 100,000 and the country was prevented from possessing major military armaments such as tanks, armored vehicles and submarines. Historians continue to argue about the impact, it has been posited that the Central Powers may have been exposed to the viral wave before the Allies. The resulting casualties having greater effect, having been incurred during the war, as opposed to the allies who suffered the brunt of the pandemic after the Armistice; when the extent of the epidemic was realized, the respective censorship programs of the Allies and Central Powers limited the public's knowledge regarding the true extent of the disease. Because Spain was neutral, their media was free to report on the Flu, giving the impression that it began there.
This misunderstanding led to contemporary reports naming it the "Spanish flu." Investigative work by a British team led by virologist John Oxford of St Bartholomew's Hospital and the Royal London Hospital, identified a major troop staging and hospital camp in Étaples, France as certainly being the center of the 1918 flu pandemic. A significant precursor virus was harbored in birds, mutated to pigs that were kept near the front; the exact number of deaths is unknown but about 50 million people are estimated to have died from the influenza outbreak worldwide. In 2005, a study found that, "The 1918 virus strain developed in birds and was similar to the'bird flu' that in the 21st century spurred fears of another worldwide pandemic, yet proved to be a normal treatable virus that did not produce a heavy impact on the world's health." The dissolution of the German, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires created a number of new countries in eastern Europe and the Middle East. Some of them, such as Czechoslovakia and Poland, had substantial ethnic minorities who were sometimes not satisfied with the new boundaries that cut them off from fellow ethnics.
For example, Czechoslovaki
Poland in the Early Middle Ages
The most important phenomenon that took place within the lands of Poland in the Early Middle Ages, as well as other parts of Central Europe was the arrival and permanent settlement of the West Slavs. The Slavic migrations in the area of contemporary Poland started in the second half of the 5th century AD, about a half century after these territories were vacated by Germanic tribes fleeing from the Huns; the first waves of the incoming Slavs settled the vicinity of the upper Vistula River and elsewhere in the lands of present southeastern Poland and southern Masovia. Coming from the east, from the upper and middle regions of the Dnieper River, the immigrants would have had come from the western branch of the early Slavs known as Sclaveni, since their arrival are classified as West Slavs, their early archeological traces belong to the Prague-Korchak culture, similar to the earlier Kiev culture. From there the new population dispersed west over the course of the 6th century; the Slavs lived from cultivation of crops and were farmers, but engaged in hunting and gathering.
The migrations took place when the destabilizing invasions of eastern and central Europe by waves of people and armies from the east, such as the Huns and Magyars, were occurring. This westward movement of Slavic people was facilitated in part by the previous emigration of Germanic peoples toward the safer and more developed areas of western and southern Europe; the immigrating Slavs formed various small tribal organizations beginning in the 8th century, some of which coalesced into larger, state-like ones. Beginning in the 7th century, these tribal units built many fortified structures with earth and wood walls and embankments, called gords; some of them were developed and inhabited, others had a large empty area inside the walls. By the 9th century, the Slavs had settled the Baltic coast in Pomerania, which subsequently developed into a commercial and military power. Along the coastline, remnants of Scandinavian settlements and emporia were to be found; the most important of them was the trade settlement and seaport of Truso, located in Prussia.
Prussia itself was unaffected by Slavic migration and remained inhabited by Baltic Old Prussians. During the same time, the tribe of the Vistulans, based in Kraków and the surrounding region, controlled a large area in the south, which they developed and fortified with many strongholds. During the 10th century, the Polans turned out to be of decisive historic importance. Based in the central Polish lowlands around Giecz, Poznań and Gniezno, the Polans went through a period of accelerated building of fortified settlements and territorial expansion beginning in the first half of the 10th century. Under duke Mieszko I of the Piast dynasty, the expanded Polan territory was converted to Christianity in 966, regarded the birth of the Polish state; the contemporary names of the realm, "Mieszko's state" or "Gniezno state", were dropped soon afterwards in favour of "Poland", a rendering of the Polans' tribal name. The Piast dynasty would continue to rule Poland until the late 14th century; the origins of the Slavic peoples, who arrived on Polish lands at the outset of the Middle Ages as representatives of the Prague culture, go back to the Kiev culture, which formed beginning early in the 3rd century AD and is genetically derived from the Post-Zarubintsy cultural horizon and itself was one of the post-Zarubintsy culture groups.
Such an ethnogenetic relationship is apparent between the large Kiev culture population and the early Slavic settlements in the Oder and Vistula basins, but lacking between these Slavic settlements and the older local cultures within the same region, that ceased to exist beginning in the 400–450 AD period. The Zarubintsy culture circle, in existence from 200 BC to 150 AD, extended along the middle and upper Dnieper and its tributary the Pripyat River, but left traces of settlements in parts of Polesie and the upper Bug River basin; the main distinguished local groups were the Polesie group, the Middle Dnieper group and the Upper Dnieper group. The Zarubintsy culture developed from the Milograd culture in the northern part of its range and from the local Scythian populations in the more southern part; the Polesie group's origin was influenced by the Pomeranian and Jastorf cultures. The Zarubintsy culture and its beginnings were moderately affected by La Tène culture and the Black Sea area centers of civilization in the earlier stages, but not much by Roman influence on, accordingly its economic development was lagging behind that of other early Roman period cultures.
Cremation of bodies was practiced, with the human remains and burial gifts including metal decorations, small in number and limited in variety, placed in pits. Originating from the Post-Zarubintsy cultures and considered the oldest Slavic culture, the Kiev culture functioned during the Roman periods north of the vast Chernyakhov culture territories, within the basins of the upper and middle Dnieper and Seym rivers; the archeological cultural features of the Kiev sites show this culture to be identical or compatible with that of the 6th-century Slavic societies, including the settlements on the lands of today's Poland. The Kiev culture is known from settlement sites. Not many metal objects have been found, despite the known native production of iron and processing of other metals, including enamel coating technology
1905 Russian Revolution
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of, directed at the government. It included worker strikes, peasant unrest, military mutinies, it led to Constitutional Reform including the establishment of the State Duma, the multi-party system, the Russian Constitution of 1906. The 1905 revolution was spurred by the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese war, but by the growing realisation of the people of the need for reform, after politicians such as Sergei Witte failed to accomplish this. While the Tsar managed to keep his rule, the events foreshadowed those of the Russian revolution in 1917. At that time, rebellion after the Russian defeat in World War I resulted in the overthrow of the monarchy, execution of the royal family, creation of the Soviet Union by the Bolsheviks; some historians contend that the 1905 revolution set the stage for the 1917 Russian Revolutions, allowed for Bolshevism to emerge as a distinct political movement in Russia, although it was still a minority.
Lenin, as head of the USSR on, called it "The Great Dress rehearsal," without which the "victory of the October Revolution in 1917 would have been impossible". According to Sidney Harcave, author of The Russian Revolution of 1905, four problems in Russian society contributed to the revolution. Newly emancipated peasants earned too little and were not allowed to sell or mortgage their allotted land. Ethnic minorities resented the government because of its "Russification", discrimination and repression, such as banning them from voting, serving in the Imperial Guard or Navy, limiting their attendance in schools. A nascent industrial working class resented the government for doing too little to protect them, as it banned strikes and labor unions. Radical ideas fomented and spread after a relaxing of discipline in universities allowed a new consciousness to grow among students. Taken individually, these issues might not have affected the course of Russian history, but together they created the conditions for a potential revolution.
"At the turn of the century, discontent with the Tsar’s dictatorship was manifested not only through the growth of political parties dedicated to the overthrow of the monarchy but through industrial strikes for better wages and working conditions and riots among peasants, university demonstrations, the assassination of government officials done by Socialist Revolutionaries." Because the Russian economy was tied to European finances, the contraction of Western money markets in 1899–1900 plunged Russian industry into a deep and prolonged crisis. This setback aggravated social unrest during the five years preceding the revolution of 1905; the government recognized these problems, albeit in a shortsighted and narrow-minded way. The minister of interior Plehve said in 1903 that, after the agrarian problem, the most serious issues plaguing the country were those of the Jews, the schools, the workers, in that order. One of the major contributing factors that changed Russia from a country in unrest to a country in revolt was "Bloody Sunday".
Loyalty to the tsar Nicholas II was lost when his soldiers fired upon people led by Georgy Gapon on January 2, 1905, who were attempting to present a petition to the tsar. Every year, thousands of nobles in debt mortgaged their estates to the noble land bank or sold them to municipalities, merchants, or peasants. By the time of the revolution, the nobility had sold off one-third of its land and mortgaged another third; the government hoped to make peasants—freed by the Emancipation reform of 1861—a politically conservative, land-holding class by enacting laws to enable them to buy land from nobility and pay small installments over many decades. The land, known as "allotment land", would not be owned by individual peasants, but by the community of peasants. A peasant could not sell or mortgage his land, so in practice he could not renounce his rights to his land and thus he would be required to pay his share of redemption dues to the village commune; this plan was meant to prevent proletarianisation of the peasants.
However, the peasants were not given enough land to provide for their needs. "Their earnings were so small that they could neither buy the food they needed nor keep up the payment of taxes and redemption dues they owed the government for their land allotments. By 1903 their total arrears in payments of taxes and dues was 118 million rubles." The situation became worse. Masses of hungry peasants roamed the countryside looking for work and sometimes walked hundreds of kilometres to find it. Desperate peasants proved capable of violence. "In the provinces of Kharkov and Poltava in 1902, thousands of them, ignoring restraints and authority, burst out in a rebellious fury that led to extensive destruction of property and looting of noble homes before troops could be brought to subdue and punish them."These violent outbreaks caught the attention of the government, so it created many committees to investigate their causes. The committees concluded. Although cultivated acreage had increased in the last half century, the increase had not been proportionate to the growth of peasant populations, which had doubled.
"There was general agreement at the turn of the century that Russia faced a grave and intensifying agrarian crisis due to rural overpopulation with an annual excess of fifteen to eighteen live births ov
Palace of the Kraków Bishops in Kielce
The Palace of the Kraków Bishops in Kielce, was built in the 17th century as a summer residence of Bishops of Kraków in Kielce, Poland. The architecture of the palace constitute a unique mélange of Polish and Italian traditions and reflects political ambitions of its founder; the palace houses a branch of the National Museum with an important gallery of Polish paintings. The residence of the Kraków Bishops in the city of Kielce, was founded by bishop Jakub Zadzik, Great Crown Chancellor; the structure, erected between 1637 and 1644, was covered with a high-storey twin roofs and accomplished with towers on the corners. Its symmetrical, tripartite plan, loggias and interior layout refer to the Royal residences dating back the 1620s and 1630s, including Ujazdów Castle and the Villa Regia; the design of the palace is attributed to Tommaso Poncino of Lugano, author of numerous works of sacred and secular architecture in Kraków, Łowicz, Bright Mountain as well as in the Holy Cross region. Before the palace was a courtyard enclosed by walls with ceremonial gateway from the city, the rear garden, called Italian, an orchard, all surrounded by a wall with embrasures and 2 bastions.
One of the bastions was converted into a gunpowder tower. The whole complex including the Collegiate Church, cour d'honneur, palace and tower was aligned with a Bernardine Monastery on Karczówka hill; the palace was expanded in the 18th century and converted into a French-style residence entre cour et jardin. One-storey wings were erected on both sides of the courtyard, one of them was connected by an indoor porch with the collegiate and a seminary of the Holy Trinity Church, funded by the bishop Konstanty Felicjan Szaniawski; the garden was embellished with French-style greenhouses, while large stables, coach houses, riding school, a granary and a brewery were erected in the palace complex. After the nationalization of bishop's estates in 1789, the palace was the seat of various institutions - the Main Directorate of Mining and the country's first technical university - Mining Academy and the seat of the Kielce province authorities. During the Second Republic the 17th-century cupolas on the towers, removed in the 19th century, were restored.
The interior space was reconstructed - the 18th-century ceilings were removed exposing beam ceilings and friezes. Between 1919–1939 and 1945–1970 the palace housed the Provincial Office; the structure was converted into a museum in 1971. In 1971, by the resolution of the Provincial Branch of National Council, the palace complex with adjacent buildings was transferred to the Świętokrzyskie Museum, followed by the September 18, 1971 grand opening of the first two expositions: one on the ground floor, called the Nine Centuries of Kielce. In 1975, in recognition of its contribution to the development of culture, the facility was given the rank of the National Museum by the Minister of Culture and Art; the permanent exhibits at the Museum include Western European painting from 17th to 18th century, the Polish painting from 17th to 20th century, applied arts, Numismatics and others. Interesting are the works of Italian-born Johann Baptist von Lampi the Elder, Leopold Gottlieb, Olga Boznańska, Józef Chełmoński, Aleksander Gierymski, Jacek Malczewski and Stanisław Wyspiański among others.
The point of reference for the early-17th-century Bishops' residencies in Poland were royal palaces. Ujazdów Castle constructed for king Sigismund III Vasa in 1624, was an inspiration for the Palace in Kielce, whereas the Kielce palace was imitated by many magnate families in their residencies; this type of palace was known as Poggio–Reale because it combined a square building with a central loggia, with side towers as in Villa Poggio Reale near Naples according to conception of Baldassare Peruzzi and Sebastiano Serlio. The palace in Kielce was built in accordance with "the principles of Italian symmetry" wrote Szymon Starowolski in his 1652 book Poland published in Gdańsk. Steep roofs and decorations are Dutch style features; the main accent of the flat facade of the palace is the central loggia adorned with pillars of black marble, which correspond to the first floor windows of the great hall. The loggia arcades were crowned with stone cartouches with coats of arms of bishop Zadzik, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and Cracow chapter, obelisks.
The sides of the rectangular structure were finished with hexagonal towers covered with openwork helmets and connected with the main building by walls topped obelisks, with gates leading to the smaller courtyards. The walls were adorned with statues of the Swedish and Muscovy ambassadors; the space under the cornices is decorated with a sgraffito frieze. The nature of the interior of the palace is based on its original function; the ground floor was occupied by officials of the episcopal court and servants. The main entrance through the arcade loggia lead to the vast hall, from where the vaulted corridors lead to the side courtyards; the left side of the palace was occupied by podskarbi, treasury and storage facilities, while the right was reserved for the marshal and starosta. The chambers were covered with a simple beam ceilings, part of the treasury was vaulted; the vaults in the loggias and in the north-west alcove were adorned with stucco decorations. The ceremonial staircase lead from the front l
Bronze- and Iron-Age Poland
The Bronze and Iron Age cultures in Poland are known from archeological research. Early Bronze Age cultures in Poland begun around 2300–2400 BCE, while the Iron Age commenced in 700–750 BCE; the Iron Age archeological cultures no longer existed by the start of the Common Era. The subject of the ethnicity and linguistic affiliation of the groups living in Central Europe at that time is, given the absence of written records and accordingly there is considerable disagreement. In Poland the Lusatian culture, spanning both the Bronze and Iron Ages, became prominent; the most famous archeological finding from that period is the Biskupin fortified settlement on the lake from which it takes its name, representing the Lusatian culture of the early Iron Age. The Bronze Age in Poland consisted of Period I, 2300 to 1600 BC; the Early Iron Age included Hallstatt Period C, 700 to 600 BC, Hallstatt Period D, 600 to 450 BC. Bronze items present in Poland around 2300 BC were brought through the Carpathian Basin.
The native Early Bronze Age that followed was dominated by the innovative Unetice culture in western Poland, by the conservative Mierzanowice culture in the east. Those were replaced in their respective territories, for the duration of the second, the Older Bronze Period, by the Tumulus culture and the Trzciniec culture. Characteristic of the remaining bronze periods were the Urnfield cultures. In Poland the Lusatian culture settlements dominated the landscape for nearly a thousand years, continuing into and including the Early Iron Age. A series of Scythian invasions, beginning in the 6th century BC, precipitated the demise of the Lusatian culture; the Hallstatt Period D was the time of expansion of the Pomeranian culture, while the Western Baltic Kurgans culture occupied the Masuria-Warmia region of contemporary Poland. The Bronze Age in Poland, as well as elsewhere in central Europe, begins with the innovative Unetice culture, in existence in Silesia and a part of Greater Poland during the first period of this era, from before 2200 to 1600 BC.
This settled agricultural society's origins consisted of the conservative traditions inherited from the Corded Ware populations and dynamic elements of the Bell-Beaker people. The Unetice people cultivated contacts with the developed cultures of the Carpathian Basin, through whom they had trade links with the cultures of early Greece, their culture echoed inspiring influence coming all the way from the most developed at that time civilizations of the Middle East. Characteristic of the Unetice societies was greater general affluence and developed social stratification, compared with Late Neolithic cultures. Objects made of bronze of luxurious or prestigious nature, were in high demand as symbols of power and importance and are found in the graves of "princes". Fourteen such burial sites, circular mounds of earth heaped up on top of wooden and stone structures, some as large as 30 meters in diameter, were found in Łęki Małe near Grodzisk Wielkopolski, erected 2000–1800 BC, suggesting the existence of a local dynasty.
Proliferation of locally-made bronze items far from the centers of ore mining or bronze craftsmanship shows that the elites were able to control the trade routes, which involved the transportation of amber from the Baltic Sea shores to Aegean Sea area artisans. Many concealed bronze treasures have been found, including a fine one from Pilszcz near Głubczyce. Stylistically refined Uneticean ceramics show inspiration from the Achaean vessels obtained through trade. Fortified settlements were built. Remains of settlements and cemeteries were discovered around Wrocław and elsewhere in Lower Silesia, including an amber processing workshop in Nowa Wieś, Bolesławiec County; the nature of the weapons and other items found at Unetice sites suggests a chronic state of warfare and the emergence of a warrior class. At the forefront of civilization in its time and place, the Unetice culture succumbed to social and economic deterioration; the Iwno culture, named after Iwno near Szubin, was a contemporary of the Unetice culture.
Located in Kujawy, eastern Pomerania and northeastern Greater Poland, it was influenced by the Unetice culture, from where their bronze items were imported, had many common traits with the Mierzanowice culture. Iwno thin-walled clay vessels were finished and domestic animal rising was important for the economy; the Płonia group of a comparable period, named after a neighborhood of Szczecin, extended over central and western Polish Pomerania. East of the Unetice culture, in Lesser Poland and further north to the Masovia region, during the same span of time, lay the territory of the Mierzanowice culture, named after the type-site village near Opatów; these people, culturally descendants of the Corded Ware culture, at first lived as mobile cattle breeders, but around 2200 BC started building permanent settlements and engaged in agriculture as well. Mierzanowice culture was a conservative society still using stone tools and reserving copper for decorati
Austria-Hungary referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed by giving a new constitution to the Austrian Empire, which devolved powers on Austria and Hungary and placed them on an equal footing, it broke apart into several states at the end of World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867. Austria-Hungary consisted of two monarchies, one autonomous region: the The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia under the Hungarian crown, which negotiated the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement in 1868, it was ruled by the House of Habsburg, constituted the last phase in the constitutional evolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Following the 1867 reforms, the Austrian and the Hungarian states were co-equal. Foreign affairs and the military came under joint oversight, but all other governmental faculties were divided between respective states.
Austria-Hungary was a multinational one of Europe's major powers at the time. Austria-Hungary was geographically the second-largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire, at 621,538 km2, the third-most populous; the Empire built up the fourth-largest machine building industry of the world, after the United States and the United Kingdom. Austria-Hungary became the world's third largest manufacturer and exporter of electric home appliances, electric industrial appliances and power generation apparatus for power plants, after the United States and the German Empire. After 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina was under Austro-Hungarian military and civilian rule until it was annexed in 1908, provoking the Bosnian crisis among the other powers; the northern part of the Ottoman Sanjak of Novi Pazar was under de facto joint occupation during that period but the Austro-Hungarian army withdrew as part of their annexation of Bosnia. The annexation of Bosnia led to Islam being recognized as an official state religion due to Bosnia's Muslim population.
Austria-Hungary was one of the Central Powers in World War I which started when it declared war on the Kingdom of Serbia on 28 July 1914. It was effectively dissolved by the time the military authorities signed the armistice of Villa Giusti on 3 November 1918; the Kingdom of Hungary and the First Austrian Republic were treated as its successors de jure, whereas the independence of the West Slavs and South Slavs of the Empire as the First Czechoslovak Republic, the Second Polish Republic and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and most of the territorial demands of the Kingdom of Romania were recognized by the victorious powers in 1920. The realm's official name was in German: Österreichisch-Ungarische Monarchie and in Hungarian: Osztrák–Magyar Monarchia, though in the international relations better Austria-Hungary was used; the Austrians used the names k. u. k. Monarchie and Danubian Monarchy or Dual Monarchy and The Double Eagle, but none of these became widepsread neither in Hungary, nor elsewhere.
The realm's full name used in the internal administration was The Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council and the Lands of the Holy Hungarian Crown of St. Stephen. German: Die im Reichsrat vertretenen Königreiche und Länder und die Länder der Heiligen Ungarischen Stephanskrone Hungarian: A Birodalmi Tanácsban képviselt királyságok és országok és a Magyar Szent Korona országai The Habsburg monarch ruled as Emperor of Austria over the western and northern half of the country, the Austrian Empire and as King of Hungary over the Kingdom of Hungary; each enjoyed considerable sovereignty with only a few joint affairs. Certain regions, such as Polish Galicia within Cisleithania and Croatia within Transleithania, enjoyed autonomous status, each with its own unique governmental structures; the division between Austria and Hungary was so marked that there was no common citizenship: one was either an Austrian citizen or a Hungarian citizen, never both. This meant that there were always separate Austrian and Hungarian passports, never a common one.
However, neither Austrian nor Hungarian passports were used in the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. Instead, the Kingdom issued its own passports which were written in Croatian and French and displayed the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia-Dalmatia on them, it is not known what kind of passports were used in Bosnia-Herzegovina, under the control of both Austria and Hungary. The Kingdom of Hungary had always maintained a separate parliament, the Diet of Hungary after the Austrian Empire was created in 1804; the administration and government of the Kingdom of Hungary remained untouched by the government structure of the overarching Austrian Empire. Hungary's central government structures remained well separated from the Austrian imperial government; the country was governed by the Council of Lieutenancy of Hungary – located in Pressburg and in Pest – and by the Hungarian Royal Court Chancell