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History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is divided into three broad time periods: the early history during the lifetime of Joseph Smith, in common with all Latter Day Saint movement churches, a "pioneer era" under the leadership of Brigham Young and his 19th-century successors, a modern era beginning around the turn of the 20th century as the practice of polygamy was discontinued. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints traces its origins to western New York, where Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, was raised. Joseph Smith gained a small following in the late 1820s as he was dictating the Book of Mormon, which he said was a translation of words found on a set of golden plates, buried near his home in upstate New York by an indigenous American prophet. On April 6, 1830, at the home of Peter Whitmer in Fayette, New York, Smith organized the religion's first legal church entity, the Church of Christ; the church gained a following, who viewed Smith as their prophet.

The main body of the church moved first to Kirtland, Ohio in the early 1830s to Missouri in 1838, where the 1838 Mormon War with other Missouri settlers ensued, culminating in adherents being expelled from the state under Missouri Executive Order 44 signed by the governor of Missouri. After Missouri, Smith built the city of Nauvoo, near which Smith was killed. After Smith's death, a succession crisis ensued, the majority voted to accept the Quorum of the Twelve, led by Brigham Young, as the church's leading body. After continued difficulties and persecution in Illinois, Young left Nauvoo in 1846 and led his followers, the Mormon pioneers, to the Great Salt Lake Valley; the group branched out in an effort to pioneer a large state to be called Deseret establishing colonies from Canada to present-day Mexico. Young incorporated The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as a legal entity, governed his followers as a theocratic leader serving in both political and religious positions, he publicized the secret practice of plural marriage, a form of polygamy.

By 1857, tensions had again escalated between Mormons and other Americans as a result of church teachings on polygamy and theocracy. The Utah Mormon War ensued from 1857 to 1858, which resulted in the peaceful invasion of Utah by the United States Army, after which Young agreed to step down from power and be replaced by a non-Mormon territorial governor, Alfred Cumming; the LDS Church still wielded significant political power in the Utah Territory as part of a shadow government. At Young's death in 1877, he was followed by other powerful members, who continued the practice of polygamy despite opposition by the United States Congress. After tensions with the U. S. government came to a head in 1890, the church abandoned the public practice of polygamy in the United States, stopped performing official polygamous marriages altogether after a Second Manifesto in 1904. The church adopted a policy of excommunicating its members found practicing polygamy and today seeks to distance itself from "fundamentalist" groups still practicing polygamy.

During the 20th century, the church grew and became an international organization. Distancing itself from polygamy, the church began engaging, first with mainstream American culture, with international cultures those of Latin America, by sending out thousands of missionaries across the globe; the church became a strong and public champion of monogamy and the nuclear family, at times played a prominent role in political matters. Among the official changes to the organization during the modern area include the ordination of black men to the priesthood in 1978, reversing a policy instituted by Brigham Young; the church has periodically changed its temple ceremony omitting certain controversial elements. There are periodic changes in the structure and organization of the church to accommodate the organization's growth and increasing international presence; the early history of the LDS Church is shared with other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement, who all regard Joseph Smith as the founder of their religious tradition.

Smith gained a small following in the late 1820s as he was dictating the Book of Mormon, which he said was a translation of words found on the Golden Plates, buried near his home in western New York by an indigenous American prophet. Smith said he had been in contact with an angel Moroni, who showed him the plates' location and had been grooming him for a role as a religious leader. On April 6, 1830, in western New York, Smith organized the religion's first legal church entity, the Church of Christ; the church gained a following, who viewed Smith as their prophet. In late 1830, Smith envisioned a "city of Zion", a Utopian city in Native American lands near Independence, Missouri. In October 1830, he sent his Assistant President, Oliver Cowdery, others on a mission to the area. Passing through Kirtland, the missionaries converted a congregation of Disciples of Christ led by Sidney Rigdon, in 1831, Smith decided to temporarily move his followers to Kirtland until lands in the Missouri area could be purchased.

In the meantime, the church's headquarters remained in Kirtland from 1831 to 1838. While the main church body was in Kirtland, many of Smith's followers had attempted to establish settlements in Missouri, but had met with resistance from other Missourians who believed Mormons were abolitionists, or who distrusted their political ambitions. After Smith and other Mormons in K

Spencer Davis (racing driver)

Spencer Davis is an American professional stock car racing driver. He competes part-time in the NASCAR Gander RV & Outdoors Truck Series, driving the No. 11 Toyota Tundra for Spencer Davis Motorsports. Davis began to race in the go-kart ranks. From there, he progressed into late model trucks, he won many championships around the Southeast United States. In 2014, aged 15, Davis ran the full NASCAR Whelen Southern Modified Tour schedule with backing from Coors Light, he ran a partial schedule in both the Southern Modified Tour and the main NASCAR Whelen Modified Tour in 2015 while driving a partial NASCAR K&N Pro Series West schedule. After finding limited success in modifieds, Davis transitioned to the NASCAR K&N Pro Series East in 2015, driving for NTS Motorsports. After a restricted schedule that year, he found a ride with Ranier Racing with MDM for the 2016 season. Davis found victory lane for the first time at Dominion Raceway in May of that year; the deal with Ranier collapsed, Davis spent the remainder of the year driving for his family team, Jefferson Pitts Racing and Hattori Racing Enterprises.

He was named to the 2016–2017 NASCAR Next class. On February 11, 2017, Davis signed with Venturini Motorsports to run seven ARCA Racing Series events in 2017 after testing with the team at Daytona International Speedway, his first race was at Talladega Superspeedway. After scoring a top-five in his first race, Davis found the top ten in three of his other six starts, he ran premier late model events. Balancing a NASCAR Camping World Truck Series schedule in 2018, Davis wound up running a partial schedule in the K&N East for Danny Watts Racing, which operated in conjunction with Rette Jones Racing. Expanding on that, Davis and RJR announced a full K&N East slate for 2019. At World Wide Technology Raceway in August, Davis earned his first win with RJR and first in three-plus years, passing Sam Mayer on a late green-white-checkered restart. On January 23, 2018, it was announced that Davis would compete for Kyle Busch Motorsports, splitting time between the team's Nos. 4 and 51 entries. As part of the announcement, he was named as the driver of the No. 51 in four races and the No. 4 for a race, including the first three races of the season between the Nos. 51 and the 4.

In his first race at Daytona International Speedway, Davis posted a seventh-place finish. In 2019, Davis ran a limited slate with K&N team Rette Jones Racing but joined Niece Motorsports for the summer race at Chicagoland Speedway. During 2019, Davis dipped his toe into spotting, helping Kyle Benjamin in the Gander Outdoors Truck Series. * Season still in progress1 Ineligible for series points Spencer Davis driver statistics at Racing-Reference

Mark Ridley-Thomas

Mark Ridley-Thomas is a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for the 2nd District. He served as a California State Senator, representing the 26th district from 2006 to 2008 and was a California State Assemblyman representing the 48th district from 2002 until 2006, he was Chairman of the Assembly Democratic Caucus. Before his six years in the Legislature, he was on the Los Angeles City Council from 1991 to 2002. Ridley-Thomas is a graduate of Manual Arts High School in Los Angeles and earned a baccalaureate degree in Social Relations and a master's degree in Religious Studies from Immaculate Heart College. Ridley-Thomas went on to earn a Ph. D. in Social Ethics and Policy Analysis from the University of Southern California. After a brief stint as a high-school teacher, Ridley-Thomas served for a decade as executive director of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference of Greater Los Angeles. During that period he hosted a public affairs program on Pacifica Radio station KPFK-FM in Los Angeles.

Ridley-Thomas is married to Avis Ridley-Thomas, the administrator of the Dispute Resolution Center in the office of the Los Angeles City Attorney who retired in 2011. They have twin sons and Sinclair, who are both graduates of Morehouse College. Ridley-Thomas was elected to the Los Angeles City Council in 1991, representing the city's 8th Council District. During his tenure on the council, he created the Eighth District Empowerment Congress, he founded the African American Voter Registration and Participation in 2002, the largest organized effort to register African American and urban voters in the state of California in more than a decade. He was the president pro tem of the council. Thomas is running to return to Los Angeles City Council in Council District 10 in the March 3, 2020 election. Ridley-Thomas would have been forced to leave the council in 2003 because of city term limits that prevented him from running for reelection, so he chose instead to run for a seat in the California State Assembly representing California's 48th district.

In his 2002 election, he defeated his Republican opponent, Gerard T. Robinson, with more than 80% of the vote. In the Assembly, Ridley-Thomas served as chair of the Democratic caucus and was a major proponent of efforts to encourage an NFL team to move to the Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, located in his district, he sponsored a law that aided redevelopment in Exposition Park as part of a failed effort to attract a team. In the Assembly, Ridley-Thomas, as chairman of the Select Committee on the Los Angeles County Health Care Crisis, was a leader in addressing the problems facing the hospitals and health care system of Los Angeles, sponsoring a bill that would create the Office of Inspector General in an effort to detect and prevent fraud and abuse in government agencies. In 2006, Ridley-Thomas announced that he was running for the California State Senate, vying for the 26th Senate district seat being vacated by term-limited Senator Kevin Murray, he defeated his opponent in the Democratic primary, Marvin C.

McCoy, with more than 87% of the vote and faced no Republican opposition in the general election. In the Senate, Ridley-Thomas joined with a group of lawmakers who introduced a package of legislation designed to crack down on gang violence by allowing city and county prosecutors to employ tougher sentencing measures and increase asset forfeitures against gang members, authoring a bill which would make it easier for law enforcement officials to deal with racially motivated gang activity, he was one of the lawmakers who called for tourists to boycott the LAX Hilton because of its efforts to overturn a city ordinance that would grant a living wage to airport-area hotel workers. Ridley-Thomas chaired the Committee on Business and Economic Development and its two subcommittees on Professional Sports and Entertainment, The Economy, Workforce Preparation and Development, he served on the Senate Appropriations. On October 25, 2007, Ridley-Thomas announced that he would be running for the Second District seat on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors being vacated by Supervisor Yvonne Brathwaite Burke.

His most formidable opponent was former LAPD police chief Bernard C. Parks, the member of the Los Angeles City Council who replaced Ridley-Thomas when he was elected to the State Assembly. Ridley-Thomas was endorsed by the Los Angeles County Democratic Party, the area's labor unions, numerous elected officials. Ridley-Thomas edged out Parks in the June 3 primary by a margin of 45% to 40%, but since neither candidate received a majority of the vote, the top two candidates advanced to a runoff election in November. Ridley-Thomas won a 62% to 38% victory over Parks. Ridley-Thomas became the first black man elected to the Los Angeles County Board. In 2012 Ridley-Thomas ran for his second term as Supervisor. Unopposed, he won the primary in June with 100% of the vote. Term limits limit the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors to three terms each. In March 2015, Ridley-Thomas filed to run for his last term. In 2018, Ridley-Thomas supported the appointment of Nicole Tinkham as interim public defender, despite a letter signed by 390 public defenders who were concerned that Tinkham lacked criminal law experience and the potential for a conflict of interest, given Tinkham's prior representation of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.

In the aftermath of the 1992 L. A. riots, Ridley-Thomas sought to prevent convenience stores in South Central from serving alcohol. Many of these stores were Korean, he said at the time "We are going to use every means at our disposa

Java Message Service

The Java Message Service API is a Java message-oriented middleware API for sending messages between two or more clients. It is an implementation to handle the producer–consumer problem. JMS is a part of the Java Platform, Enterprise Edition, was defined by a specification developed at Sun Microsystems, but which has since been guided by the Java Community Process, it is a messaging standard that allows application components based on Java EE to create, send and read messages. It allows the communication between different components of a distributed application to be loosely coupled and asynchronous. Messaging is a form of loosely coupled distributed communication, where in this context the term'communication' can be understood as an exchange of messages between software components. Message-oriented technologies attempt to relax coupled communication by the introduction of an intermediary component; this approach allows software components to communicate with each other indirectly. Benefits of this include message senders not needing to have precise knowledge of their receivers.

The advantages of messaging include the ability to integrate heterogeneous platforms, reduce system bottlenecks, increase scalability, respond more to change. JMS 1.0 JMS 1.0.1 JMS 1.0.1a JMS 1.0.2 JMS 1.0.2a JMS 1.0.2b JMS 1.1 JMS 2.0 JMS 2.0a JMS 2.0 is maintained under the Java Community Process as JSR 343. JMS 3.0 is under early development as part of Jakarta EE. The following are JMS elements: JMS provider An implementation of the JMS interface for message-oriented middleware. Providers are implemented as either a Java JMS implementation or an adapter to a non-Java MOM. JMS client An process that produces and/or receives messages. JMS producer/publisher A JMS client that sends messages. JMS consumer/subscriber A JMS client. JMS message An object. JMS queue A staging area that are waiting to be read; as the name queue suggests, the messages are delivered in the order sent. A JMS queue guarantees. JMS topic A distribution mechanism for publishing messages that are delivered to multiple subscribers.

The JMS API supports two distinct models: Point-to-point Publish-and-subscribe Under the point-to-point messaging system, messages are routed to individual consumers who maintain queues of incoming messages. This messaging type is built on the concept of message queues and receivers; each message is addressed to a specific queue, the receiving clients extract messages from the queues established to hold their messages. While any number of producers can send messages to the queue, each message is guaranteed to be delivered, consumed by one consumer. Queues retain all messages sent to them until the messages are consumed or until the messages expire. If no consumers are registered to consume the messages, the queue holds them until a consumer registers to consume them; the publish-and-subscribe model supports publishing messages to a particular message "topic". Subscribers may register interest in receiving messages published on a particular message topic. In this model, neither the publisher nor the subscriber knows about each other.

A good analogy for this is an anonymous bulletin board. Zero or more consumers will receive the message. There is a timing dependency between subscribers; the publisher has to create a message topic for clients to subscribe. The subscriber has to remain continuously active to receive messages, unless it has established a durable subscription. In that case, messages published while the subscriber is not connected will be redistributed whenever it reconnects. JMS provides a way of separating the application from the transport layer of providing data; the same Java classes can be used to communicate with different JMS providers by using the Java Naming and Directory Interface information for the desired provider. The classes first use a connection factory to connect to the queue or topic, use populate and send or publish the messages. On the receiving side, the clients receive or subscribe to the messages. RFC 6167 defines a jms: URI scheme for the Java Message Service. To use JMS, one must have a JMS provider that can manage the sessions and topics.

Starting from Java EE version 1.4, a JMS provider has to be contained in all Java EE application servers. This can be implemented using the message inflow management of the Java EE Connector Architecture, first made available in that version; the following is a list of common JMS providers: Amazon SQS's Java Messaging Library Apache ActiveMQ Apache Qpid, using AMQP IBM MQ IBM WebSphere Application Server's Service Integration Bus JBoss Messaging and HornetQ from JBoss JORAM from the OW2 Consortium Open Message Queue from Oracle OpenJMS from the OpenJMS Group Oracle WebLogic Server and Oracle AQ RabbitMQ from Pivotal Software Message Driven Beans Message queue — the concept underlying JMS Service-oriented architecture Event-driven SOA Messaging technologies that do not implement the JMS API include: Advanced Message Queuing Protocol — standardized message queue protocol with multiple independent implementations Data Distribution Service — An Object Management Group standardized real-time messaging system with over ten implementations that have demonstrated interoperability between publishers and subscribers Microsoft Message Queuing — simi

Bill Cummings (philanthropist)

Bill Cummings is an American philanthropist. The Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine and the Cummings Veterinary Medical Center, both at Tufts University, are both named after him, because of major gifts he made to those institutions. In 2018, Forbes Magazine ranked him on its annual Top Givers List. Cummings grew up in Medford and graduated from Tufts University in 1958 with a Bachelor of Arts in Economics. Cummings founded his real estate company, Cummings Properties, in 1970; the company, Cummings Properties, started with one small building in Woburn and has expanded to include 11 million square feet across 11 Boston communities. In 1996, Cummings bought the former factory of the United Shoe Machinery Corporation in Beverly, Massachusetts. Cummings and his wife Joyce established the Cummings Foundation in 1986, pledging to give 10 percent of their income to it annually but committed to most of the family's commercial real estate holdings to the foundation. In 2004, Cummings made his largest gift to a $50 million donation to Tufts' veterinary school.

In 2011, they signed The Giving Pledge, reflecting their desire to donate all of their wealth to charity. In 2012, the foundation started its "$100K for 100" program, which gives out 100 grants of $100,000 every year to nonprofits supporting human services, education and social justice in Boston, his foundation gave $15 million, which Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation matched, to establish University of Global Health Equity in Rwanda. The school graduated its first class of master's students in 2017. In 2017, his foundation gave $35 million to charity; as of 2018, Cummings Foundation is one of the largest foundations in New England, has donated over $225 million. The foundation has several subsidiaries, including the nonprofit New Horizons retirement communities. Cummings published his autobiography, Starting Small and Making it Big, in 2018


Adhiṭṭhāna has been translated as "decision," "resolution," "self-determination," "will" and "resolute determination." In the late canonical literature of Theravada Buddhism, adhiṭṭhāna is one of the ten "perfections", exemplified by the bodhisatta's resolve to become awakened. While adhiṭṭhāna appears sporadically in the early Pali Canon, various late-canonical and post-canonical accounts of the Buddha's past lives contextualize adhiṭṭhāna within the Theravadin tenfold perfections. In the Pali Canon, in the Digha Nikaya discourse entitled, "Chanting Together", Ven. Sariputta states that the Buddha has identified the following:'Four kinds of resolve: wisdom, relinquishment, tranquility.' In the late-canonical Buddhavamsa, the boddhisatta Sumedha declares: In the late-canonical Cariyapitaka, there is one account explicitly exemplifying adhiṭṭhāna, that of "Temiya the Wise". In this account, at an early age Temiya, sole heir to a throne, recalls a past life in purgatory and thus asks for release.

In response, a compassionate devatā advises Temiya to act unintelligent and foolish and to allow himself to be an object of people's scorn. Understanding the devatā's virtuous intent, Temiya agrees to this and acts as if mute and crippled. Seeing these behaviors but finding no physiological basis for them, priests and countrymen decry Temiya as "inauspicious" and plan to have Temiya cast out; when Temiya is sixteen years old, he is ceremonially anointed and buried in a pit. The account concludes:... I did not break that resolute determination, for the sake of Awakening itself. Mother and father were not disagreeable to me and nor was self disagreeable to me. Omniscience was dear to me, therefore I resolutely determined on that itself. Resolutely determining on those factors I lived for sixteen years. There was no one equal to me in resolute determination — this was my perfection of Resolute Determination. Paramita Prajna Sacca Dana Passaddhi Nekkhamma Horner, I. B.. The Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon:'Chronicle of Buddhas' and'Basket of Conduct'.

Oxford: Pali Text Society. ISBN 0-86013-072-X. Rhys Davids, T. W. & William Stede. The Pali Text Society’s Pali–English Dictionary. Chipstead: Pali Text Society. A general on-line search engine for the PED is available at Walshe, Maurice; the Long Discourses of the Buddha: A Translation of the Digha Nikaya. Boston: Wisdom Publications. ISBN 0-86171-103-3. Dhammawiki DN 33 in the Ida B. Wells on-line library Adhiṭṭhāna & Anumodana Paramittas samples