Latin translations of the 12th century
Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time. These areas had been under a Muslim rule for considerable time, still had substantial Arabic-speaking populations to support their search; the combination of Muslim accumulated knowledge, substantial numbers of Arabic-speaking scholars, the new Christian rulers made these areas intellectually attractive, as well as culturally and politically accessible to Latin scholars. A typical story is that of Gerard of Cremona, said to have made his way to Toledo, well after its reconquest by Christians in 1085, because he arrived at a knowledge of each part of according to the study of the Latins because of his love for the Almagest, which he did not find at all amongst the Latins, he made his way to Toledo, where seeing an abundance of books in Arabic on every subject, pitying the poverty he had experienced among the Latins concerning these subjects, out of his desire to translate he learnt the Arabic language....
While Muslims were busy translating and adding their own ideas to Greek philosophies, the Latin West had been suspicious of pagan ideas. St. Jerome, for example, was hostile to Aristotle, St. Augustine had little interest in exploring philosophy, only applying logic to theology. For centuries, Greek ideas in Europe west were all but non-existent. Only a few monasteries had Greek works, fewer of them copied these works. There was a brief period of revival, when the Anglo-Saxon monk Alcuin and others reintroduced some Greek ideas during the Carolingian Renaissance. After Charlemagne's death, intellectual life again fell into decline. Excepting a few persons promoting Boethius, such as Gerbert of Aurillac, philosophical thought was developed little in Europe for about two centuries. By the 12th century, scholastic thought was beginning to develop, leading to the rise of universities throughout Europe; these universities gathered what little Greek thought had been preserved over the centuries, including Boethius' commentaries on Aristotle.
They served as places of discussion for new ideas coming from new translations from Arabic throughout Europe. By the 12th century, European fear of Islam as a military threat had lessened somewhat. Toledo, in Spain, had fallen from Arab hands in 1085, Sicily in 1091, Jerusalem in 1099; these linguistic borderlands proved fertile ground for translators. These areas had been conquered by Arab and Latin-speaking peoples over the centuries and contained linguistic abilities from all these cultures; the small and unscholarly population of the Crusader Kingdoms contributed little to the translation efforts, until the Fourth Crusade took most of the Byzantine Empire. Sicily, still Greek-speaking, was more productive. Sicilians, were less influenced by Arabs and instead are noted more for their translations directly from Greek to Latin. Spain, on the other hand, was an ideal place for translation from Arabic to Latin because of a combination of rich Latin and Arab cultures living side by side. Unlike the interest in the literature and history of classical antiquity during the Renaissance, 12th century translators sought new scientific, philosophical and, to a lesser extent, religious texts.
The latter concern was reflected in a renewed interest in translations of the Greek Church Fathers into Latin, a concern with translating Jewish teachings from Hebrew, an interest in the Qur'an and other Islamic religious texts. In addition, some Arabic literature was translated into Latin. Just before the burst of translations in the 12th century, Constantine the African, a Christian from Carthage who studied medicine in Egypt and became a monk at the monastery of Monte Cassino in Italy, translated medical works from Arabic. Constantine's many translations included Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi's medical encyclopedia The Complete Book of the Medical Art, the ancient medicine of Hippocrates and Galen as adapted by Arabic physicians, the Isagoge ad Tegni Galeni by Hunayn ibn Ishaq and his nephew Hubaysh ibn al-Hasan. Other medical works he translated include Isaac Israeli ben Solomon's Liber febribus, Liber de dietis universalibus et particularibus and Liber de urinis. Sicily had been part of the Byzantine Empire until 878, was under Muslim control from 878–1060, came under Norman control between 1060 and 1090.
As a consequence the Norman Kingdom of Sicily maintained a trilingual bureaucracy, which made it an ideal place for translations. Sicily maintained relations with the Greek East, which allowed for exchange of ideas and manuscripts. A copy of Ptolemy's Almagest was brought back to Sicily by Henry Aristippus, as a gift from the Emperor to King William I. Aristippus, translated Plato's Meno and Phaedo into Latin, but it was left to an anonymous student at Salerno to travel to Sicily and translate the Almagest, as well as several works by Euclid, from Greek to Latin. Although the Sicilians translated directly from the Greek, when Greek texts were not available, they would translate from Arabic. Admiral Eugene of Sicily translated Ptolemy's Optics into Latin, drawing on his knowledge of all three languages in the task. Accursius of Pis
In mathematics, a conic section is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane. The three types of conic section are the hyperbola, the parabola, the ellipse; the circle is a special case of the ellipse, is of sufficient interest in its own right that it was sometimes called a fourth type of conic section. The conic sections have been studied by the ancient Greek mathematicians with this work culminating around 200 BC, when Apollonius of Perga undertook a systematic study of their properties; the conic sections of the Euclidean plane have various distinguishing properties. Many of these have been used as the basis for a definition of the conic sections. One such property defines a non-circular conic to be the set of those points whose distances to some particular point, called a focus, some particular line, called a directrix, are in a fixed ratio, called the eccentricity; the type of conic is determined by the value of the eccentricity. In analytic geometry, a conic may be defined as a plane algebraic curve of degree 2.
This equation may be written in matrix form, some geometric properties can be studied as algebraic conditions. In the Euclidean plane, the conic sections appear to be quite different from one another, but share many properties. By extending the geometry to a projective plane this apparent difference vanishes, the commonality becomes evident. Further extension, by expanding the real coordinates to admit complex coordinates, provides the means to see this unification algebraically; the conic sections have been studied for thousands of years and have provided a rich source of interesting and beautiful results in Euclidean geometry. A conic is the curve obtained as the intersection of a plane, called the cutting plane, with the surface of a double cone, it shall be assumed that the cone is a right circular cone for the purpose of easy description, but this is not required. Planes that pass through the vertex of the cone will intersect the cone in a point, a line or a pair of intersecting lines; these are called degenerate conics and some authors do not consider them to be conics at all.
Unless otherwise stated, "conic" in this article will refer to a non-degenerate conic. There are three types of conics, the ellipse and hyperbola; the circle is a special kind of ellipse, although it had been considered as a fourth type. The circle and the ellipse arise when the intersection of the plane is a closed curve; the circle is obtained when the cutting plane is parallel to the plane of the generating circle of the cone – for a right cone, see diagram, this means that the cutting plane is perpendicular to the symmetry axis of the cone. If the cutting plane is parallel to one generating line of the cone the conic is unbounded and is called a parabola. In the remaining case, the figure is a hyperbola. In this case, the plane will intersect both halves of the cone, producing two separate unbounded curves. A property that the conic sections share is presented as the following definition. A conic section is the locus of all points P whose distance to a fixed point F is a constant multiple of the distance from P to a fixed line L.
For 0 < e < 1 we obtain an ellipse, for e = 1 a parabola, for e > 1 a hyperbola. A circle is not defined by a focus and directrix, in the plane; the eccentricity of a circle is defined to be zero and its focus is the center of the circle, but there is no line in the Euclidean plane, its directrix. An ellipse and a hyperbola each have distinct directrices for each of them; the line joining the foci is called the principal axis and the points of intersection of the conic with the principal axis are called the vertices of the conic. The line segment joining the vertices of a conic is called the major axis called transverse axis in the hyperbola; the midpoint of this line segment is called the center of the conic. Let a denote the distance from the center to a vertex of an ellipse or hyperbola; the distance from the center to a directrix is a/e while the distance from the center to a focus is ae. A parabola does not have a center; the eccentricity of an ellipse can be seen as a measure of how far the ellipse deviates from being circular.
If the angle between the surface of the cone and its axis is β and the angle between the cutting plane and the axis is α, the eccentricity is cos α cos β. A proof that the conic sections given by the focus-directrix property are the same as those given by planes intersecting a cone is facilitated by the use of Dandelin spheres. Various parameters are associated with a conic section. Recall that the principal axis is the line joining the foci of an ellipse or hyperbola, the center in these cases is the midpoint of the line segment joining the foci; some of the other common features and/or. The linear eccentricity is the distance between the focus; the latus rectum is the chord parallel to the directrix and passing through the focus. Its length is denoted by 2ℓ; the semi-latus rectum is half of the length of the latus rec
A tide dial known as a Mass or scratch dial, is a sundial marked with the canonical hours rather than or in addition to the standard hours of daylight. Such sundials were common between the 7th and 14th centuries in Europe, at which point they began to be replaced by mechanical clocks. There are at least 1,500 in France; the name tide dial preserves the Old English term tīd, used for hours and canonical hours prior to the Norman Conquest of England, after which the Norman French hour replaced it. The actual Old English name for sundials was dægmæl or "day-marker". Jews long recited prayers at fixed times of day. Psalm 119 in particular mentions praising God seven times a day, the apostles Peter and John are mentioned attending afternoon prayers. Christian communities followed numerous local traditions with regard to prayer, but Charlemagne compelled his subjects to follow the Roman liturgy and his son Louis the Pious imposed the Rule of St Benedict upon their religious communities; the canonical hours adopted by Benedict and imposed by the Frankish kings were the office of matins in the wee hours of the night, Lauds at dawn, Prime at the 1st hour of sunlight, Terce at the 3rd, Sext at the 6th, Nones at the 9th, Vespers at sunset, Compline before retiring in complete silence.
Monks were called to these hours by their abbot or by the ringing of the church bell, with the time between services organized in reading the Bible or other religious texts, in manual labor, or in sleep. The need for these monastic communities and others to organize their times of prayer prompted the establishment of tide dials built into the walls of churches, they began to be used in England in the late 7th century and spread from there across continental Europe through copies of Bede's works and by the Saxon and Hiberno-Scottish missions. Within England, tide dials fell out of favor after the Norman Conquest. By the 13th century, some tide dials—like that at Strasbourg Cathedral—were constructed as independent statues rather than built into the walls of the churches. From the 14th century onwards, the cathedrals and other large churches began to use mechanical clocks and the canonical sundials lost their utility, except in small rural churches, where they remained in use until the 16th century.
There are more than 3,000 surviving tide dials in England and at least 1,500 in France in Normandy, Charente, at monasteries along the pilgrimage routes to Santiago de Compostella in northwestern Spain. With Christendom confined to the Northern Hemisphere, the tide dials were carved vertically onto the south side of the church chancel at eye level near the priest's door. In an abbey or large monastery, dials were carved into the stone walls, while in rural churches they were often just scratched onto the wall; some tide dials have a stone gnomon, but many have a circular hole, used to hold a more replaced or adjusted wooden gnomon. These gnomons were perpendicular to the wall and cast a shadow upon the dial, a semicircle divided into a number of equal sectors. Most dials have supplementary lines marking the other 8 daytime hours, but are characterized by their noting the canonical hours particularly; the lines for the canonical hours may be marked with a dot or cross. The divisions are numbered.
Dials have holes along the circumference of their semicircle. As additional gnomons were needless and these holes are quite shallow, Cole suggests they were used to and reconstruct the tide dials following a fresh whitewash of the church walls with chalk or lime; the oldest surviving English tide dial is on the 7th- or 8th-century Bewcastle Cross in the church graveyard of St Cuthbert's in Bewcastle, Cumbria. It is carved on the south face of a Celtic cross at some height from the ground and is divided by five principal lines into four tides. Two of these lines, those for 9 am and noon, are crossed at the point; the four spaces are further subdivided so as to give the twelve daylight hours of the Romans. On one side of the dial, there is a vertical line which touches the semicircular border at the second afternoon hour; this may be an accident, but the same kind of line is found on the dial in the crypt of Bamburgh Church, where it marks a hour of the day. The sundial may have been used for calculating the date of hence Easter.
Nendrum Monastery in Northern Ireland founded in the 5th century by St Machaoi, now has a reconstructed tide dial. The 9th-century tide dial gives the name of a priest; the 1056 x 1065 tide dial at St Gregory's Minster in Kirkdale, North Yorkshire, has four principal divisions marked by five crossed lines, subdivided by single lines. One marking ¼ of the way between sunrise and noon is an incised cross that would indicate about 9 am at midwinter and 6 am at midsummer, it was dedicated to a "Hawarth". Proper tide dials prominently displaying the canonical hours: Other ecclesiastical sundials used to determine times for prayer and Mass during the same period: Cole, T. W. Origin and Use of Church Scratch-Dials, London: Ed. Murray & Co. ISBN 978-0953897711. Cole, T. W. Medieval Church Sundials, Suffolk Institute of Archaeology & History, Vol. 23, Pt. 2, pp. 148–154. Cook, Time Addendum to Mass Dials on Yorkshire Churches, BSS Monographs, British Sundial Society, ISBN 978-0955887253. Green, Arthur Robert, Incised Dials or Mass-Clocks, London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
Horne, Abbot Ethelbert, Scratch Dials: Their Description and History, London: Simpkin Marshall. Tupper, Frederick Jr. Anglo-Saxon Dæg-Mæl, Baltimore: Modern Language Association of America. Wall, J. Cha
Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age was a period of cultural and scientific flourishing in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century. This period is traditionally understood to have begun during the reign of the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid with the inauguration of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various parts of the world with different cultural backgrounds were mandated to gather and translate all of the world's classical knowledge into the Arabic language; this period is traditionally said to have ended with the collapse of the Abbasid caliphate due to Mongol invasions and the Siege of Baghdad in 1258 AD. A few contemporary scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries; the metaphor of a golden age began to be applied in 19th-century literature about Islamic history, in the context of the western aesthetic fashion known as Orientalism. The author of a Handbook for Travelers in Syria and Palestine in 1868 observed that the most beautiful mosques of Damascus were "like Mohammedanism itself, now decaying" and relics of "the golden age of Islam".
There is no unambiguous definition of the term, depending on whether it is used with a focus on cultural or on military achievement, it may be taken to refer to rather disparate time spans. Thus, one 19th century author would have it extend to the duration of the caliphate, or to "six and a half centuries", while another would have it end after only a few decades of Rashidun conquests, with the death of Umar and the First Fitna. During the early 20th century, the term was used only and referred to the early military successes of the Rashidun caliphs, it was only in the second half of the 20th century that the term came to be used with any frequency, now referring to the cultural flourishing of science and mathematics under the caliphates during the 9th to 11th centuries, but extended to include part of the late 8th or the 12th to early 13th centuries. Definitions may still vary considerably. Equating the end of the golden age with the end of the caliphates is a convenient cut-off point based on a historical landmark, but it can be argued that Islamic culture had entered a gradual decline much earlier.
The various Quranic injunctions and Hadith, which place values on education and emphasize the importance of acquiring knowledge, played a vital role in influencing the Muslims of this age in their search for knowledge and the development of the body of science. The Islamic Empire patronized scholars; the money spent on the Translation Movement for some translations is estimated to be equivalent to about twice the annual research budget of the United Kingdom’s Medical Research Council. The best scholars and notable translators, such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq, had salaries that are estimated to be the equivalent of professional athletes today; the House of Wisdom was a library established in Iraq by Caliph al-Mansur. During this period, the Muslims showed a strong interest in assimilating the scientific knowledge of the civilizations, conquered. Many classic works of antiquity that might otherwise have been lost were translated from Greek, Indian, Chinese and Phoenician civilizations into Arabic and Persian, in turn translated into Turkish and Latin.
Christians the adherents of the Church of the East, contributed to Islamic civilization during the reign of the Ummayads and the Abbasids by translating works of Greek philosophers and ancient science to Syriac and afterwards to Arabic. They excelled in many fields, in particular philosophy and theology. For a long period of time the personal physicians of the Abbasid Caliphs were Assyrian Christians. Among the most prominent Christian families to serve as physicians to the caliphs were the Bukhtishu dynasty. Throughout the 4th to 7th centuries, Christian scholarly work in the Greek and Syriac languages was either newly translated or had been preserved since the Hellenistic period. Among the prominent centers of learning and transmission of classical wisdom were Christian colleges such as the School of Nisibis and the School of Edessa, the pagan University of Harran and the renowned hospital and medical academy of Jundishapur, the intellectual and scientific center of the Church of the East.
The House of Wisdom was founded in Baghdad in 825, modelled after the Academy of Gondishapur. It was led with the support of Byzantine medicine. Many of the most important philosophical and scientific works of the ancient world were translated, including the work of Galen, Plato, Aristotle and Archimedes. Many scholars of the House of Wisdom were of Christian background. Among the various countries and cultures conquered through successive Islamic conquests, a remarkable number of scientists originated from Persia, who contributed immensely to the scientific flourishing of the Islamic Golden Age. According to Bernard Lewis: "Culturally and most remarkable of all religiously, the Persian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance; the wo
Hautes-Alpes is a department of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur in southeastern France named after the Alps mountain range. Hautes-Alpes is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it consists of the southeast of the north of Provence. At the time when the department was created, the two mountain communes of La Grave and Villar-d'Arêne campaigned to be included in Hautes-Alpes and not in the neighbouring department of Isère to which they had been assigned; this was because they hoped to benefit from the relative autonomy and certain fiscal privileges enjoyed by the region since the fourteenth century under the terms of the Statute of the Briançon Escartons. Napoleon passed through Gap when he returned to reclaim France after his exile on Elba using what is now known as Route Napoléon; the department is surrounded by the following French departments: Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Drôme, Isère, Savoie. Italy borders it on the east with the Metropolitan City of Turin and the Province of Cuneo, region of Piedmont.
Hautes-Alpes is located in the Alps mountain range. The average elevation is over 1000 m, the highest elevation is over 4000 m; the only three sizable towns are Gap, Briançon, Embrun, the subprefecture until 1926. The third highest commune in all of Europe is the village of Saint-Véran. Gap and Briançon are subprefecture in France; the following rivers flow through the department: Durance Guisane Buëch Drac Clarée SéveraisseThe Durance has been dammed to create one of the largest artificial lakes in Western Europe: the Lac de Serre-Ponçon. The Queyras valley is located in the eastern part of the department and is noted by many as being an area of outstanding beauty; the inhabitants of the department are called Haut-Alpins. The mountainous terrain explains the sparse population, about 120,000, it changed little during the 19th century, but fell to about 85,000 after World War I. Thanks in large part to tourism, the population has risen from 87,436 in 1962 to 121,419 in 1999, principally in the town of Gap.
The President of the General Council is Jean-Yves Dusserre of the Union for a Popular Movement. The tourist industry is dependent on skiing in winter. In summer the Alpine scenery and many outdoor activities attract visitors from across Europe; the Tour de France passes through the department regularly. This draws many cycling fanatics to watch the race. Cantons of the Hautes-Alpes department Communes of the Hautes-Alpes department Arrondissements of the Hautes-Alpes department Hautes-Alpes at Curlie Official Website Prefecture website General Council webstite A village in the French Alps built by Vauban
A sundial is a device that tells the time of day when there is sunlight by the apparent position of the Sun in the sky. In the narrowest sense of the word, it consists of a flat plate and a gnomon, which casts a shadow onto the dial; as the Sun appears to move across the sky, the shadow aligns with different hour-lines, which are marked on the dial to indicate the time of day. The style is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, though nodus may be used; the gnomon casts a broad shadow. The gnomon may be wire, or elaborately decorated metal casting; the style must be parallel to the axis of the Earth's rotation for the sundial to be accurate throughout the year. The style's angle from horizontal is equal to the sundial's geographical latitude. In a broader sense, a sundial is any device that uses the Sun's altitude or azimuth to show the time. In addition to their time-telling function, sundials are valued as decorative objects, literary metaphors, objects of mathematical study, it is common for inexpensive, mass-produced decorative sundials to have incorrectly aligned gnomons and hour-lines, which cannot be adjusted to tell correct time.
There are several different types of sundials. Some sundials use a shadow or the edge of a shadow while others use a line or spot of light to indicate the time; the shadow-casting object, known as a gnomon, may be a long thin rod or other object with a sharp tip or a straight edge. Sundials employ many types of gnomon; the gnomon may be moved according to the season. It may be oriented vertically, aligned with the Earth's axis, or oriented in an altogether different direction determined by mathematics. Given that sundials use light to indicate time, a line of light may be formed by allowing the Sun's rays through a thin slit or focusing them through a cylindrical lens. A spot of light may be formed by allowing the Sun's rays to pass through a small hole or by reflecting them from a small circular mirror. Sundials may use many types of surfaces to receive the light or shadow. Planes are the most common surface, but partial spheres, cylinders and other shapes have been used for greater accuracy or beauty.
Sundials differ in their need for orientation. The installation of many dials requires knowing the local latitude, the precise vertical direction, the direction to true North. Portable dials are self-aligning: for example, it may have two dials that operate on different principles, such as a horizontal and analemmatic dial, mounted together on one plate. In these designs, their times agree only. Sundials may indicate the local solar time only. To obtain the national clock time, three corrections are required: The orbit of the Earth is not circular and its rotational axis is not perpendicular to its orbit; the sundial's indicated solar time thus varies from clock time by small amounts that change throughout the year. This correction – which may be as great as 15 minutes – is described by the equation of time. A sophisticated sundial, with a curved style or hour lines, may incorporate this correction; the more usual simpler sundials sometimes have a small plaque that gives the offsets at various times of the year.
The solar time must be corrected for the longitude of the sundial relative to the longitude of the official time zone. For example, an uncorrected sundial located west of Greenwich, England but within the same time-zone, shows an earlier time than the official time, it may show "11:45" at official noon, will show "noon" after the official noon. This correction can be made by rotating the hour-lines by a constant angle equal to the difference in longitudes, which makes this is a possible design option. To adjust for daylight saving time, if applicable, the solar time must additionally be shifted for the official difference; this is a correction that can be done on the dial, i.e. by numbering the hour-lines with two sets of numbers, or by swapping the numbering in some designs. More this is ignored, or mentioned on the plaque with the other corrections, if there is one; the principles of sundials are understood most from the Sun's apparent motion. The Earth rotates on its axis, revolves in an elliptical orbit around the Sun.
An excellent approximation assumes that the Sun revolves around a stationary Earth on the celestial sphere, which rotates every 24 hours about its celestial axis. The celestial axis is the line connecting the celestial poles. Since the celestial axis is aligned with the axis about which the Earth rotates, the angle of the axis with the local horizontal is the local geographical latitude. Unlike the fixed stars, the Sun changes its position on the celestial sphere, being - on north hemisphere - at a positive declination in spring and summer, at a negative declination in autumn and winter, having zero declination at the equinoxes; the Sun's celestial longitude varies, changing by one complete revolution per year. The path of the Sun on the celestial sphere is called the ecliptic; the ecliptic passes through the twelve constellations of the zodiac in the course of a year. This model of the Sun's motion helps to understand sundials. If the shadow-casting gnomon is aligned with the celestial poles, its shadow will revolve at a constant rate, this rotation will not change with the seasons.
This is the most common design. In such cases, the same hour lines may be used throughout the year; the hour-lines will be spaced uniformly if the surface receiving the shadow is either perpendicular or circular about the gnomon
The Solarium Augusti was an ancient Roman monument in the Campus Martius constructed during the reign of Augustus. It functioned as a giant solar marker, according to various interpretations serving either as a simple meridian line or as a sundial, it was erected by the emperor Augustus, with the 30-meter Egyptian red granite Obelisk of Montecitorio, that he had brought from Heliopolis in ancient Egypt. The obelisk was employed as a gnomon that cast its shadow on a marble pavement inlaid with a gilded bronze network of lines, by which it was possible to read the time of day according to the season of the year; the solarium was dedicated to the Sun in 35 years after Julius Caesar's calendar reform. It was the first solar dedication in Rome; the Solarium Augusti was integrated with the Ara Pacis in the Campus Martius, aligning with Via Flaminia, in such a way that the shadow of the gnomon fell across the center of the marble altar on 23 September, the birthday of Augustus himself. The obelisk itself was set up to memorialize Augustus' subordination of Egypt to the control of the Roman empire.
The two monuments must have been planned together, in relation to the pre-existing Mausoleum of Augustus, to demonstrate that Augustus was "born to bring peace", that peace was his destiny. According to the Cambridge Ancient History, "the collective message linked peace with military authority and imperial expansion."Pliny the Elder remarked that in the course of time it had become incorrect, offered several explanations for the shift. The obelisk was illustrated, supported by a reclining figure, on the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius; the obelisk gnomon was still standing in the 8th century CE, but was thrown down and broken covered in sediment. In a triumphant rededication, the'Montecitorio obelisk' was re-erected in Piazza di Montecitorio by Pius VI in 1789. Edmund Buchner excavated some sections of the calibrated marble pavement of the Solarium Augusti under the block of houses between Piazza del Parlamento and Piazza San Lorenzo in Lucina. Recent studies have challenged Buchner's reconstruction of the Solarium as a full sundial, maintaining that the archaeological and textual evidence indicates a simple meridian line, marking the changing noontime position of the Sun in the course of the year.
Obelisks of Rome The broad context of the Augustan iconographic program, of which the Solarium Augusti is part, is presented in The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus by Paul Zanker. Paul Zanker, "The Augustan Program of Cultural Renewal; the Solarium Augusti in the context of Augustan monuments. Project to construct a full-scale replica on the campus of the University of Oregon, Eugene "The Horologium of Augustus: a bibliography" Horologium of Augustus, part of the Encyclopædia Romana by James Grout Meridian vs. Horologium-Solarium