History of the Boston Braves

The Atlanta Braves, a current Major League Baseball franchise, originated in Boston, Massachusetts. This article details the history of the Boston Braves, from 1871 to 1952, after which they moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin to become the Milwaukee Braves, eventually to Atlanta to become the Atlanta Braves; the Boston franchise played at South End Grounds from 1871 to 1914 and at Braves Field from 1915 to 1952. Braves Field is now Nickerson Field of Boston University; the franchise, from Boston to Milwaukee to Atlanta, is the oldest continuous professional baseball franchise. The Cincinnati Red Stockings, established in 1869 as the first all-professional baseball team, voted to dissolve after the 1870 season. Player-manager Harry Wright went to Boston, Massachusetts—at the invitation of Boston Red Stockings founder Ivers Whitney Adams—with brother George and two other Cincinnati players, to form the nucleus of the Boston Red Stockings, a charter member of the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players.

The original Boston Red Stockings team and its successors can lay claim to being the oldest continuously playing team in American professional sports. Two young players hired away from the Forest City club of Rockford, turned out to be the biggest stars during the NAPBBP years: pitcher Al Spalding and second baseman Ross Barnes. Led by the Wright brothers and Spalding, the Red Stockings dominated the National Association, winning four of that league's five championships; the team became one of the National League's charter franchises in 1876, sometimes called the "Red Caps". Boston came to be called the Beaneaters by sportswriters in 1883, while retaining red as the team color. Although somewhat stripped of talent in the National League's inaugural year, Boston bounced back to win the 1877 and 1878 pennants; the Red Caps/Beaneaters were one of the league's dominant teams during the 19th century, winning a total of eight pennants. For most of that time, their manager was Frank Selee, the first manager not to double as a player as well.

The 1898 team finished 102-47, a club record for wins that would stand for a century. The team was decimated when the upstart American League's new Boston entry set up shop in 1901. Many of the Beaneaters' stars jumped to the new team, which offered contracts that the Beaneaters' owners didn't bother to match, they only managed one winning season from 1900 to 1913, lost 100 or more games six times. In 1907, the Beaneaters eliminated the last bit of red from their stockings because their manager thought the red dye could cause wounds to become infected; the American League club's owner, Charles Taylor, wasted little time in changing his team's name to the Red Sox in place of the generic "Americans". When George and John Dovey acquired the club in 1907, the team earned the sobriquet Doves. However, clever monikers did nothing to change the National League club's luck; the team adopted an official name, the Braves, for the first time in 1912. Their owner, James Gaffney, was a member of New York City's political machine, Tammany Hall, which used an Indian chief as their symbol.

Two years the Braves put together one of the most memorable seasons in baseball history. After a dismal 4-18 start, the Braves seemed to be on pace for a last place finish. On July 4, 1914, the Braves lost both games of a doubleheader to the Brooklyn Dodgers; the consecutive losses put their record at 26-40 and the Braves were in last place, 15 games behind the league-leading New York Giants, who had won the previous three league pennants. After a day off, the Braves started to put together a hot streak, from July 6 through September 5, the Braves won 41 games against only 12 losses. On September 7 and 8, the Braves moved into first place; the Braves tore through September and early October, closing with 25 wins against 6 losses, while the Giants went 16-16. They are the only team to win a pennant after being in last place on the Fourth of July, they were in last place as late as July 18, but were close to the pack, moving into fourth on July 21 and second place on August 12. Despite their amazing comeback, the Braves entered the World Series as a heavy underdog to Connie Mack's Philadelphia A's.

The Braves swept the Athletics—the first unqualified sweep in the young history of the modern World Series --to win the world championship. Meanwhile, former Chicago Cubs infielder Johnny Evers, in his second season with the Braves, won the Chalmers Award; the Braves played the World Series at Fenway Park, since their normal home, the South End Grounds, was too small. However, the Braves' success inspired owner Gaffney to build a modern park, Braves Field, which opened in August 1915, it was the largest park in the majors at the time, with 40,000 seats and a spacious outfield. The park was novel for its time. After contending for most of 1915 and 1916, the Braves only twice posted winning records from 1917 to 1932; the lone highlight of those years came when Giants' attorney Emil Fuchs bought the team in 1923 to bring his longtime friend, pitching great Christy Mathewson, back into the game

Maura Buchanan

Maura Buchanan is a British nursing administrator, President of the Royal College of Nursing from 2006 to 2010. She began her nursing career with a BA and RGN from Glasgow Caledonian University and worked as a Research Assistant at the University of Glasgow, she specialised in neurosurgical nursing. She earned a postgraduate diplomas in clinical neurosciences and health law and ethics. In 1993 she moved to Oxford to become Senior Nurse at the John Radcliffe Hospital, she was Deputy President of the Royal College of Nursing for four years and President from 2006 to 2010. She held several roles within the organisation including Chair of RCN Congress. On 14 October 2004 she gave evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill

Integrin alpha L

Integrin, alpha L known as ITGAL, is a human gene which functions in the immune system. It is involved in cellular costimulatory signaling, it is the target of the drug efalizumab. ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of a beta chain; this I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain to form the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1, expressed on all leukocytes. LFA-1 plays a central role in leukocyte intercellular adhesion through interactions with its ligands, ICAMs 1-3, functions in lymphocyte costimulatory signaling. CD11a is one of the two components, along with CD18, which form lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1. Efalizumab acts as an immunosuppressant by binding to CD11a but was withdrawn in 2009 because it was associated with severe side effects. CD11a has been shown to interact with ICAM-1. CD11c integrin leukocyte adhesion deficiency Cluster of differentiation CD11a+Antigen at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ITGAL Info with links in the Cell Migration Gateway Human ITGAL genome location and ITGAL gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser