click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of the Brooklyn Dodgers

The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League baseball team, active in the National League from 1884 until 1957, after which the club moved to Los Angeles, where it continues its history as the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team moved west at the same time as its longtime rivals, the New York Giants in the National League, relocated to San Francisco in northern California as the San Francisco Giants; the team's name derived from the reputed skill of Brooklyn residents at evading the city's trolley streetcar network. The Dodgers played in two stadiums in South Brooklyn, each named Washington Park, at Eastern Park in the neighborhood of Brownsville before moving to Ebbets Field in the neighborhood of Flatbush in 1913; the team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues. The first convention of the National Association of Base Ball Players were from Brooklyn, including the Atlantic and Excelsior clubs that combined to dominate play for most of the 1860s.

Brooklyn helped make baseball commercial, as the locale of the first paid admission games, a series of three all star contests matching New York and Brooklyn in 1858. Brooklyn featured the first two enclosed baseball grounds, the Union Grounds and the Capitoline Grounds. Despite the early success of Brooklyn clubs in the National Association of Base Ball Players, which were amateur until 1869, they fielded weak teams in the succeeding National Association of Professional Base Ball Players, the first professional league formed in 1871; the Excelsiors no longer challenged for the amateur championship after the Civil War and never entered the professional NAPBBP. The Eckfords and Atlantics thereby lost their best players; the National League replaced the NAPBBP in 1876 and granted exclusive territories to its eight members, excluding the Atlantics in favor of the New York Mutuals who had shared home grounds with the Atlantics. When the Mutuals were expelled by the league, the Hartford Dark Blues club moved in, changed its name to The Brooklyn Hartfords and played its home games at Union Grounds in 1877 before disbanding.

The team known as the Dodgers was formed as the Brooklyn Grays in 1883 by real estate magnate and baseball enthusiast Charles Byrne, who convinced his brother-in-law Joseph Doyle and casino operator Ferdinand Abell to start the team with him. Byrne arranged to build a grandstand on a lot bounded by Third Street, Fourth Avenue, Fifth Street, Fifth Avenue, named it Washington Park in honor of first president George Washington; the Grays played in the minor level Inter-State Association of Professional Baseball Clubs that first season. Doyle became the first team manager, they drew 6,431 fans to their first home game on May 12, 1883 against the Trenton, New Jersey team; the Grays won the league title after the Camden Merritt club in New Jersey disbanded on July 20 and Brooklyn picked up some of its better players. The Grays were invited to join the two year old professional circuit, the American Association to compete with the eight year old NL for the 1884 season. After winning the American Association league championship in 1889, the Grays moved to the competing older National League and won the 1890 NL Championship, being the only Major League team to win consecutive championships in both professional "base ball" leagues.

They lost the 1889 championship tournament to the New York Giants and tied the 1890 championship with the Louisville Colonels. Their success during this period was attributed to their having absorbed skilled players from the defunct New York Metropolitans and Brooklyn Ward's Wonders. In 1899, most of the original old Baltimore Orioles NL stars from the legendary Maryland club which earlier won three consecutive championships in 1894–1895–1896, moved to the Grays along with famed Orioles manager Ned Hanlon who became the club's new manager in New York / Brooklyn under majority owner Charles Ebbets, who had by now accumulated an 80% share of the club; the new combined team was dubbed the Brooklyn Superbas by the press and would become the champions of the National League in 1899 and again in 1900. The name Brooklyn Trolley Dodgers was first used to describe the team in 1895; the nickname was still new enough in September 1895 that a newspaper could report that "'Trolley Dodgers' is the new name which eastern baseball cranks have given the Brooklyn club."

In 1895, Brooklyn played at Eastern Park, bounded by Eastern Parkway, Powell Street, Sutter Avenue, Van Sinderen Street, where they had moved early in the 1891 season when the second Washington Park burned down. Some sources erroneously report that the name "Trolley Dodgers" referred to pedestrians avoiding fast cars on street car tracks that bordered Eastern Park on two sides. However, Eastern Park was not bordered by street-level trolley lines that had to be "dodged" by pedestrians; the name "Trolley Dodgers" implied the dangers posed by trolley cars in Brooklyn which in 1892, began the switch from horse-power to electrical power, which made them much faster, were hence regarded as more dangerous. The name was shortened to Brooklyn Dodgers; the "Trolley Dodgers" name was adopted by the team for the 1911 and 1912 seasons, the "Dodgers" name was used in 1913. Other team names used by the franchise that came to be called "the Dodgers" were the Atlantics, Bridegrooms or

Riverscape

A riverscape comprises the features of the landscape which can be found on and along a river. Most features of riverscapes include natural landforms but they can include artificial landforms. Riverscapes can be divided into upper course riverscapes, middle course riverscapes, lower course riverscapes; the term riverine is sometimes used to indicate the same type of landscape as a riverscape. Riverine landscapes may be defined as a network of rivers and their surrounding land, excellent for agricultural use because of the rich and fertile soil; the word riverine is used as an adjective which means "relating to or found on a river, or the banks of a river". In the upper course of rivers, channels are narrow and gradients are steep. Vertical erosion is the prominent land-forming process; as the result of this, typical features of upper course riverscapes include: Interlocking spurs V-shaped valleys Plunge pools Tributaries Waterfalls Potholes Gorges Rapids In the middle course of rivers, the discharge increases and the gradient flattens out.

Typical features of middle course riverscapes include: Wider and shallower valleys Riparian forests Oxbow lakes Tributaries Cut banks Meanders Marshes Riffles In the lower course of rivers, the channels are wide and deep, the discharge is at its highest. Typical features of lower course riverscapes include: Wide flat-bottomed valleys River groynes Large bridges Distributaries River deltas Floodplains Meanders Levees Kolks Fluvial processes River reclamation Riparian buffers Fresh water Canals

Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth

Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth is a role-playing video game developed by Media. Vision and published by Bandai Namco Entertainment for PlayStation Vita and PlayStation 4, it is the fifth game in the Digimon Story series, following 2011's Super Xros Wars, the first to be released on home consoles. An English version of the game was released in early February 2016, features cross-save functionality between the two platforms. Unlike previous Digimon games, it retains Japanese voice acting. A sequel, titled Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth – Hacker's Memory, was released in Japan in 2017 and in Western territories in early 2018 for PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Vita. In July 2019, a port to Nintendo Switch and Microsoft Windows, alongside its sequel, Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth – Hacker's Memory, was announced for release on October 18, 2019, as Digimon Story Cyber Sleuth: Complete Edition. Although the PC version released a day early. Digimon Story: Cyber Sleuth is a role-playing game, played from a third-person perspective where players control a human character with the ability to command Digimon, digital creatures with their own unique abilities who do battle against other Digimon.

Players can choose between either Palmon, Terriermon or Hagurumon as their starting partner at the beginning of the game, with more able to be obtained as they make their way into new areas. A total of 249 unique Digimon are featured, including seven that were available as DLC throughout the life of the game, two which were exclusive to the Western release; the title features a New Game Plus mode where players retain all of their Digimon, non-key items, memory, sleuth rank, scan percentages, Digifarm progress. The Complete Edition includes the 92 new Digimon from Hacker's Memory, for a total of 341 Digimon. In Cyber Sleuth, the player assumes the role of Takumi Aiba or Ami Aiba, a young Japanese student living in Tokyo while their mother, a news reporter, is working abroad. While Aiba is hanging out in a chatroom, a hacker infiltrates it and leaves a message telling the members within to log into Cyberspace EDEN, a popular physical-interaction cyberspace network, to receive a "wonderful present."

Although most of the room members declare it to be too suspicious to involve in, along with users "Akkino" and "Blue Box" decide to look into it. Aiba meets Akkino and Blue Box the next day as arranged in Kowloon, a hacker-infested area of EDEN, where they introduce themselves as Nokia Shiramine and Arata Sanada, respectively. While searching for an exit, Aiba meets a hacker named Yuugo, the leader of the hacker team "Zaxon". Shortly afterward, Aiba and Arata run into a mysterious creature that attacks them, although Arata manages to hack open a way out for them, the creature grabs Aiba and corrupts their logout process. Aiba emerges in the real world as a half-digitized entity and is rescued by a detective named Kyoko Kuremi, head of the Kuremi Detective Agency, who specializes in cyber-crimes and offers to take them into her service as her assistant. Aiba manifests an ability called Connect Jump, which allows them to travel into and through networks. Recognizing the utility of Aiba's unique status, Kyoko assists Aiba in stabilizing their digital body and requests their assistance in investigating Kamishiro Enterprises, the company which owns and manages EDEN looking into a phenomenon called "EDEN Syndrome," where users logged onto EDEN will fall into a permanent coma.

While investigating a secret hospital ward being overseen by Kamishiro, Aiba discovers their own physical body is in the ward, revealing that they are a victim of EDEN Syndrome themselves, before being confronted by a mysterious girl who admits to knowing one of the other EDEN Syndrome victims, narrowly avoids getting caught by Rie Kishibe, the current president of Kamishiro Enterprises. The game briefly splits into four simultaneous plotlines: • Aiba helps Nokia reunite with an Agumon and Gabumon she'd met and bonded within Kowloon. Nokia vows to help them recover their memories, but soon after begins to flee from confrontations with dangerous hackers, her hard work allows Agumon and Gabumon to digivolve into WarGreymon and MetalGarurumon and sheer positivity ends up gaining her a large number of followers, causing Yuugo to worry that she might interfere with his goals of protecting EDEN and its hackers. • Arata, who remains evasive about his own past as a hacker, assists Aiba in investigating "Digital Shift" phenomena around Tokyo, in which areas become mysteriously half-digitized.

They meet a scientist named Akemi Suedou, who identifies the creature behind the Digital Shift as an Eater, a corrupted mass of data, responsible for causing EDEN Syndrome itself, by eating users' mental data while they are logged onto EDEN, meaning that they are responsible for Aiba's current half-digital state. Further encounters with Eaters signify that it has links to a "white boy ghost" that keeps appearing around it, that by "eating"

Electoral district of Newland

Newland is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. It is named after a prominent figure in nineteenth-century South Australia, it is a 69.3 km² suburban electorate in north-eastern Adelaide, taking in the suburbs of Banksia Park, Fairview Park, Hope Valley, Humbug Scrub, Kersbrook, Lower Hermitage, Paracombe, Sampson Flat, St Agnes, Tea Tree Gully, Upper Hermitage and Yatala Vale as well as parts of Chain of Ponds and Modbury. Replacing the abolished electoral district of Tea Tree Gully, Newland was created at the 1976 redistribution, taking effect at the 1977 election, it followed a bellwether pattern until the 1989 election, where it was won by Liberal candidate Dorothy Kotz. Kotz developed a strong personal following and had little difficulty being re-elected until her retirement at the 2006 election, her retirement and the landslide Labor victory across the state led to Labor candidate Tom Kenyon winning the electorate. It became the Labor government's most marginal electorate at the 2014 election.

The 2016 redistribution ahead of the 2018 election changed Newland from a 1.4 percent Labor electorate to a notional 0.1 percent Liberal electorate. ECSA profile for Newland: 2018 ABC profile for Newland: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Newland: 2018

Andre Gunder Frank

Andre Gunder Frank was a German-American sociologist and economic historian who promoted dependency theory after 1970 and world-systems theory after 1984. He employed some Marxian concepts on political economy, but rejected Marx's stages of history, economic history generally. Frank was born in Germany to Jewish parents, pacifist writer Leonhard Frank and his second wife Elena Maqenne Penswehr, but his family fled the country when Adolf Hitler was appointed Chancellor. Frank received schooling in several places in Switzerland, where his family settled, until they emigrated to the United States in 1941. Frank's undergraduate studies were at Swarthmore College, he earned his Ph. D. in economics in 1957 at the University of Chicago. His doctorate was a study of Soviet agriculture entitled Growth and Productivity in Ukrainian Agriculture from 1928 to 1955, his dissertation supervisor was Milton Friedman, a man whose laissez faire approach to economics Frank would harshly criticize. Throughout the 1950s and early 1960s Frank taught at American universities.

In 1962 he moved to Latin America, inaugurating a remarkable period of travel that confirmed his peripatetic tendencies. His most notable work during this time was his stint as Professor of Sociology and Economics at the University of Chile, where he was involved in reforms under the socialist government of Salvador Allende. After Allende's government was toppled by a coup d'état in 1973, Frank fled to Europe, where he occupied a series of university positions. From 1981 until his retirement in 1994 he was professor in developmental economy at the University of Amsterdam, he was married to Marta Fuentes, with whom he wrote several studies about social movements, with Marta he had two sons. Marta died in Amsterdam in June 1993, his second wife was sociologist Nancy Howell, a friend for forty years: while married to her, they lived in Toronto. Frank died in 2005 of complications related to his cancer while under the care of his third wife, Alison Candela. During his career, Frank taught and did research in departments of anthropology, geography, international relations, political science, sociology.

He worked at nine universities in North America, three in Latin America, five in Europe. He gave countless lectures and seminars at dozens of universities and other institutions all around the world in English, Spanish, Italian and Dutch. Frank wrote on the economic and political history and contemporary development of the world system, the industrially developed countries, of the Third World and Latin America, he produced over 1,000 publications in 30 languages. His last major article, "East and West", appeared in the volume: "Dar al Islam; the Mediterranean, the World System and the Wider Europe: The "Cultural Enlargement" of the EU and Europe's Identity" edited by Peter Herrmann and Arno Tausch, published by Nova Science Publishers, New York. His work in the 1990s focused on world history, he returned to his analysis of global political economy in the new millennium inspired by a lecture he gave at the Stockholm School of Economics in Riga. In 2006 SSE Riga received Andre Gunder Frank's personal library collection and set-up the Andre Gunder Frank Memorial Library in his honor, with the support of the Friedrich Ebert Foundation.

Frank was a prolific author. He published on political economy, economic history, international relations, historical sociology, world history, his most notable work is Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. Published in 1967, it was one of the formative texts in dependency theory. In his career he produced works such as ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age and, with Barry Gills, The World System: Five Hundred Years or Five Thousand. Frank's theories center on the idea that a nation's economic strength determined by historical circumstances—especially geography—dictates its global power, he is well known for suggesting that purely export oriented solutions to development create imbalances detrimental to poor countries. Frank has made significant contributions to the world-systems theory, he has argued that a World System was formed no than in the 4th millennium BC. Frank insisted that the idea of numerous "world-systems" did not make much sense, we should rather speak about one single World System.

In one of his last essays, Frank made arguments about the looming global economic crisis of 2008. The Development of Underdevelopment. Monthly Review Press. Capitalism and Underdevelopment in Latin America. Monthly Review Press. Latin America: Underdevelopment or Revolution. Monthly Review Press. Lumpenbourgeoisie, Lumpendevelopment. Monthly Review Press. On Capitalist Underdevelopment. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Economic Genocide in Chile. Equilibrium on the point of a bayonet. Nottingham, UK: Spokesman. World Accumulation, 1492–1789. Monthly Review Press. Dependent Accumulation and Underdevelopment. Monthly Review Press. Mexican Agriculture 1521-1630: Transformation of the Mode of Production. Cambridge University Press. Crisis: In the World Economy. New York: Holmes & Meier. Crisis: In the Third World. New York: Holmes & Meier. Reflections on the World Economic Crisis. Monthly Review Press. (1982

Fatou's theorem

In complex analysis, Fatou's theorem, named after Pierre Fatou, is a statement concerning holomorphic functions on the unit disk and their pointwise extension to the boundary of the disk. If we have a holomorphic function f defined on the open unit disk D =, it is reasonable to ask under what conditions we can extend this function to the boundary of the unit disk. To do this, we can look at what the function looks like on each circle inside the disk centered at 0, each with some radius r; this defines a new function: { f r: S 1 → C f r = f where S 1:= =, is the unit circle. It would be expected that the values of the extension of f onto the circle should be the limit of these functions, so the question reduces to determining when f r converges, in what sense, as r → 1, how well defined is this limit. In particular, if the L p norms of these f r are well behaved, we have an answer: Theorem. Let f: D → C be a holomorphic function such that sup 0 < r < 1 ‖ f r ‖ L p < ∞, where f r are defined as above.

F r converges to some function f 1 ∈ L p pointwise everywhere and in L p norm. That is, | f r − f 1 | → 0 for every θ ∈ ‖ f r − f 1 ‖ L p → 0 Now, notice that this pointwise limit is a radial limit; that is, the limit being taken is along a straight line from the center of the disk to the boundary of the circle, the statement above hence says that f → f 1 for every θ. The natural question is, with this boundary function defined, will we converge pointwise to this function by taking a limit in any other way? That is, suppose instead of following a straight line to the boundary, we follow an arbitrary curve γ: [ 0, 1 ) → D converging to some point e i θ on the boundary. Will f converge to f 1?. It turns out that the curve γ needs to be no