The professional American football team now known as the Arizona Cardinals played in Chicago, Illinois as the Chicago Cardinals from 1920 to 1959 before relocating to St. Louis, Missouri for the 1960 season. In 1898, Chicago painting and building contractor Chris O'Brien established an amateur Chicago-based athletic club football team named the Morgan Athletic Club. O'Brien moved them to Chicago's Normal Park and renamed them the Racine Normals, since Normal Park was located on Racine Avenue in Chicago. In 1901, O'Brien bought used maroon uniforms from the University of Chicago, the colors of which had by faded, leading O'Brien to exclaim, "That's not maroon, it was that the team changed its name to the Racine Street Cardinals. The original Racine Street Cardinals team disbanded in 1906 for lack of local competition. A professional team under the same name formed in 1913, claiming the previous team as part of their history; as was the case for most professional football teams in 1918, the team was forced to suspend operations for a second time due to World War I and the outbreak of the Spanish flu pandemic.
They resumed operations in the year, have since operated continuously. At the time of the founding of the modern National Football League, the Cardinals were part of a thriving professional football circuit based in the Chicago area. Teams such as the Decatur Staleys, Hammond Pros, Chicago Tigers and the Cardinals had formed an informal loop similar to, on par with, the Ohio and New York circuits that had emerged as top football centers prior to the league's founding. In 1920, the team became a charter member of the American Professional Football Association, for a franchise fee of $100; the Cardinals and the Chicago Bears are the only charter members of the NFL still in existence, though the Green Bay Packers, which joined the league in 1921, existed prior to the formation of the NFL. The person keeping the minutes of the first league meeting, unfamiliar with the nuances of Chicago football, recorded the Cardinals as from Racine, Wisconsin; the team was renamed the Chicago Cardinals in 1922 after a team from Racine, Wisconsin entered the league.
That season the team moved to Comiskey Park. The Staleys and Cardinals played each other twice in 1920 as the Racine Cardinals and the Decatur Staleys, making their rivalry the oldest in the NFL, they split the series, with the home team winning in each. In the Cardinals' 7-6 victory over the Staleys in their first meeting of the season, each team scored a touchdown on a fumble recovery, with the Staleys failing their extra point try; the Cardinals' defeat of the Staleys proved critical, since George Halas's Staleys went on to a 10-1-2 record overall, 5-1-2 in league play. The Akron Pros were the first league champions. Since the Pros had to tie the game in order to win the title, they could afford to play not to lose. Had the Staleys not lost to the Cardinals, they would have gone into that fateful game with an 11-0-1 record, 6-0-1 in league play; as it was, it all but assured that the Cardinals would be intense rivals. The two teams played to a tie in 1921, when the Staleys won all but two games, thus the Cardinals came within 1 point of costing the Staleys a second consecutive championship in the league's first two years of existence.
In 1922, the Staleys, now renamed the Bears, went 9-3-0. The Bears still edged the Cardinals for 2nd place in the league, but those losses dashed all hopes of the Bears repeating as champions. In 1923 and 1924, the Bears got the better of the Cardinals all three times, but in 1925, the Bears went 0-1-1 against the Cardinals with the tie meaning the Cardinals were only a ½ game in front of the Pottsville Maroons heading into their fateful 1925 showdown. Thus, in the first 6 years of the NFL's existence, the Bears-Cardinals games had a direct impact on the league championship 4 times; the Bears and Cardinals each took home 1 title during that span. But the Bears nearly cost the Cardinals their title, the Cardinals nearly cost the Bears their title, had it not been for the Cardinals' tenacity against the Bears, the Bears well might have won two more; the Bears were the Cardinals in the league's early years. From 1920-1925, the Canton Bulldogs, champions in 1922 and 1923, beat the Bears just 2 times and no other team in the NFL defeated the Bears more than once over that entire 6-year span... except for the Cardinals.
The Cardinals battled the Bears to 4-4-2 split between 1920–1925 and established the NFL's first rivalry. Legend has it that the Cardinals played the Chicago Tigers in 1920, with the loser being forced to leave town. While this has never been proven, the Tigers did disband after one season; the 1925 season ended in the greatest controversy in professional football history. In those days, there was any playoff games; the championship was decided by winning percentage. At season's end, after losing in a Chicago snow storm to the Pottsville Maroons 21-7, the Cardinals found themselves in second place. Hoping to improve their record, they scheduled and won two hastily arranged games against weaker teams, the Milwaukee Badgers and the Hammond Pros; the ploy was within the NFL's rules at the time because of the open-ended schedule. Chicago finished the season with a re
The Illinois Environmental Protection Agency of the state of Illinois is the primary body concerned with the protection of the environment for the state. The Illinois EPA's mission is "to safeguard environmental quality, consistent with the social and economic needs of the State, so as to protect health, welfare and the quality of life."Its stated goals are to: Provide leadership to chart a new course for clean air, responsive to relevant needs in Illinois and complies with priority aspects of the Clean Air Act Amendments. Address outstanding solid and hazardous waste management concerns and participate, as appropriate, in the national deliberations on reauthorization of the hazardous waste program. Utilize creative means to address the priority needs for clean and safe water in Illinois and participate, as appropriate, in the national deliberations on reauthorization of the water programs. Enhance capability to fund environmental cleanup, when necessary, to provide better service for private party actions.
Promote pollution prevention and market-based approaches for continued environmental progress. Develop an environmental planning capability which emphasizes risk-based analysis, good science and sound data, open communication and informed participation; the current acting director of the Illinois EPA is John J. Kim; the Illinois EPA was established in July 1970, shortly after the first Earth Day. Governor Richard Ogilvie signed into law the Illinois Environmental Protection Act, which became effective on July 1, 1970 and created the Illinois EPA. Illinois was the first US state with a comprehensive environmental protection act; this was the same year. The agency's headquarters is located in Springfield, with a laboratory in Springfield, field offices centered in Champaign, Elgin, Moline, Des Plaines and Peoria; the Illinois EPA is composed of three main Bureaus: Bureau of Air Division of Air Pollution Control - "to improve air quality by identifying air pollution problems, proposing appropriate regulations to control or reduce air contaminants, conducting inspections and reviewing permit applications to assure compliance with existing air pollution regulations" Division of Mobil Source Programs - "to enforce vehicle emission limitations" Bureau of Land Division of Land Pollution Control - "to ensure that hazardous and nonhazardous wastes are managed in an environmentally sound manner and to implement regulatory programs such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act and the Solid Waste program" Division of Remediation Management - "for administering cleanup programs for hazardous waste sites, leaking underground storage tanks, used tires" Bureau of Water Division of Water Pollution Control - "to identify sources of water pollution and implement steps to abate the pollution" Division of Public Water Supply - "to protect the public from disease and to assure an adequate supply of pure water for all beneficial uses"There are offices designed to assist both industry and the public in the areas of pollution prevention, community relations, environmental justice.
List of ecoregions of Illinois Illinois EPA website Illinois Pollution Control Board – the Illinois EPA's "sister" agency which adopts environmental rules and regulations, adjudicates enforcement actions, processes permit denial appeals, hears variance petitions
The 2007 Sunshine Tour was the eighth season of professional golf tournaments since the southern Africa based Sunshine Tour was rebranded in 2000, the marked the beginning of a new era as the tour switched to a calendar based season, having been seasonal. The Sunshine Tour represents the highest level of competition for male professional golfers in the region; the tour was based predominantly in South Africa, with 24 of the 28 tournaments being held in the country. Two events were held with one each in Zambia and Namibia. There were five new tournaments, the Joburg Open, one of three events co-sanctioned by the PGA European Tour, the Nashua Golf Challenge, the Lombard Insurance Classic, the returning Mount Edgecombe Trophy, the Nedbank Affinity Cup, introduced to the schedule as an appetizer to the high profile Nedbank Golf Challenge; the Order of Merit was won for the first time by James Kingston, breaking Charl Schwartzel's three year stranglehold on the title. The table below shows schedule of events for the 2007 Sunshine Tour.
As usual, the tour consisted of two distinct parts referred to as the "Summer Swing" and "Winter Swing". Tournaments held during the Summer Swing had much higher prize funds, attracted stronger fields, were the only tournaments on the tour to carry world ranking points, with three events being co-sanctioned with the European Tour; the Winter Swing ran from March to November, starting with the Mount Edgecombe Trophy, closing with the Coca-Cola Charity Championship. Since the tour switched to a calendar based season, this part of the tour splits the Summer Swing into two, with five events being held at the start of the year, the remainder in December. Due to these scheduling changes, the first five events of the 2007 season had been part of the 2006–07 tour schedule, but continued to count towards the final standings of both. Prize funds shown did not count directly towards the Order of Merit; the number in brackets after each winner's name is the number of official money Sunshine Tour events he had won up to and including that tournament.
This information is only shown for Sunshine Tour members. Ernie Els was the fifth highest money winner but did not qualify for the Order of Merit, having only played in three events. John Bickerton and Ariel Cañete were second and fourth in the money list thanks to their victories in the Alfred Dunhill Championship and the Joburg Open, but as non tour members, having not entered sufficient events, they were ineligible for the Order of Merit. Official website