Zionism is the nationalist movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel. Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement, both in reaction to newer waves of antisemitism and as an imitative response to other nationalist movements. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire; until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles, liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues to advocate on behalf of Israel and to address threats to its continued existence and security. A religious variety of Zionism supports Jews upholding their Jewish identity defined as adherence to religious Judaism, opposes the assimilation of Jews into other societies, has advocated the return of Jews to Israel as a means for Jews to be a majority nation in their own state.
A variety of Zionism, called cultural Zionism and represented most prominently by Ahad Ha'am, fostered a secular vision of a Jewish "spiritual center" in Israel. Unlike Herzl, the founder of political Zionism, Ahad Ha'am strived for Israel to be "a Jewish state and not a state of Jews". Advocates of Zionism view it as a national liberation movement for the repatriation of a persecuted people residing as minorities in a variety of nations to their ancestral homeland. Critics of Zionism view it as a colonialist and exceptionalist ideology that led advocates to violence during Mandatory Palestine, followed by the exodus of Palestinians, the subsequent denial of their right to return to property lost during the 1948 war; the term "Zionism" is derived from the word Zion. Throughout eastern Europe in the late 19th century, numerous grassroots groups were promoting the national resettlement of the Jews in their homeland, as well as the revitalization and cultivation of the Hebrew language; these groups were collectively called the "Lovers of Zion" and were seen to encounter a growing Jewish movement toward assimilation.
The first use of the term is attributed to the Austrian Nathan Birnbaum, founder of the Kadimah nationalist Jewish students' movement. The common denominator among all Zionists is the claim to Eretz Israel as the national homeland of the Jews and as the legitimate focus for Jewish national self-determination, it is based on historical ties and religious traditions linking the Jewish people to the Land of Israel. Zionism does not have a uniform ideology, but has evolved in a dialogue among a plethora of ideologies: General Zionism, Religious Zionism, Labor Zionism, Revisionist Zionism, Green Zionism, etc. After two millennia of the Jewish diaspora residing in various countries without a national state, the Zionist movement was founded in the late 19th century by secular Jews as a response by Ashkenazi Jews to rising antisemitism in Europe, exemplified by the Dreyfus affair in France and the anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire; the political movement was formally established by the Austro-Hungarian journalist Theodor Herzl in 1897 following the publication of his book Der Judenstaat.
At that time, the movement sought to encourage Jewish migration to Ottoman Palestine. Although one of several Jewish political movements offering alternative responses to assimilation and antisemitism, Zionism expanded rapidly. In its early stages, supporters considered setting up a Jewish state in the historic territory of Palestine. After World War II and the destruction of Jewish life in Central and Eastern Europe where these alternative movements were rooted, it became dominant in the thinking about a Jewish national state. Creating an alliance with Great Britain and securing support for some years for Jewish emigration to Palestine, Zionists recruited European Jews to immigrate there Jews who lived in areas of the Russian Empire where anti-semitism was raging; the alliance with Britain was strained as the latter realized the implications of the Jewish movement for Arabs in Palestine, but the Zionists persisted. The movement was successful in establishing Israel on May 14, 1948, as the homeland for the Jewish people.
The proportion of the world's Jews living in Israel has grown since the movement emerged. By the early 21st century, more than 40% of the world's Jews lived in Israel, more than in any other country; these two outcomes represent the historical success of Zionism, are unmatched by any other Jewish political movement in the past 2,000 years. In some academic studies, Zionism has been analyzed both within the larger context of diaspora politics and as an example of modern national liberation movements. Zionism sought assimilation of Jews into the modern world; as a result of the diaspora, many of the Jewish people remained outsiders within their adopted countries and became detached from modern ideas. So-called "assimilationist" Jews desired complete integration into European society, they were willing to downplay their Jewish identity and in some cases to abandon traditional views and opinions in an attempt at modernization and assimilation
Louis IX of France
Louis IX known as Saint Louis, was King of France, the ninth from the House of Capet, is a canonized Catholic and Anglican saint. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louis' childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals and put an end to the Albigensian Crusade which had started 20 years earlier; as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most-powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions, but was utterly defeated at the battle of Taillebourg, his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably parts of Aquitaine and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king was the supreme judge to whom anyone could appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment, he banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, introduced the presumption of innocence in criminal procedure.
To enforce the application of this new legal system, Louis IX created bailiffs. Following a vow he made after a serious illness and confirmed after a miraculous cure, Louis IX took an active part in the Seventh and Eighth Crusades, he died from dysentery during the latter crusade, was succeeded by his son Philip III. Louis's actions were inspired by Catholic devotion, he decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution. He spent exorbitant sums on presumed relics of Christ, for which he built the Sainte-Chapelle, he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds and other Jewish books, he is the only canonized king of France, there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louis's life comes from Jean de Joinville's famous Life of Saint Louis. Joinville was a close friend and counselor to the king, he participated as a witness in the papal inquest into Louis' life that ended with his canonisation in 1297 by Pope Boniface VIII. Two other important biographies were written by the king's confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, his chaplain, William of Chartres.
While several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the king's death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king, all three are biased favorably to the king. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus' 19th century biography, which he wrote using the papal inquest mentioned above. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church, his grandfather on his father's side was king of France. Tutors of Blanche's choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, government, he was nine years old when his grandfather Philip II died and his father ascended as Louis VIII. Louis was 12 years old when his father died on 8 November 1226, he was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral. Because of Louis's youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority.
Louis' mother trained him to be a good Christian. She used to say: I love you, my dear son, as much as a mother can love her child, his younger brother Charles I of Sicily was created count of Anjou, thus founding the Capetian Angevin dynasty. No date is given for the beginning of Louis's personal rule, his contemporaries viewed his reign as co-rule between the king and his mother, though historians view the year 1234 as the year in which Louis began ruling with his mother assuming a more advisory role. She continued to have a strong influence on the king until her death in 1252. On 27 May 1234, Louis married Margaret of Provence, whose sister Eleanor became the wife of Henry III of England; the new queen's religious zeal made her a well suited partner for the king. He enjoyed her company, was pleased to show her the many public works he was making in Paris, both for its defense and for its health, they enjoyed riding together and listening to music. This attention raised a certain amount of jealousy in his mother, who tried to keep them apart as much as she could.
In the 1230s, Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, translated the Talmud and pressed 35 charges against it to Pope Gregory IX by quoting a series of blasphemous passages about Jesus, Mary or Christianity. There is a Talmudic passage, for example, where Jesus of Nazareth is sent to Hell to be boiled in excrement for eternity. Donin selected an injunction of the Talmud that permits Jews to kill non-Jews; this led to the Disputation of Paris, which took place in 1240 at the court of Louis IX, where rabbi Yechiel of Paris defended the Talmud against the accusations of Nicholas Donin. The translation of the Talmud from Judeo Aramaic to a non-Jewish, profane language was seen by Jews as a profound violation; the disputation led to the burning of thousands of copies. When Louis was 15, his mother brought an end to the Albigensian Crusade in 1229 after signing an agreement with Count Raymond VII, Count of Toulouse that cleared the latter's father of wrongdoing. Raymond VI, Count of Toulouse had been suspected of murde
History of the Middle East
Home to the Cradle of Civilization, the Middle East has seen many of the world's oldest cultures and civilizations. This history started from the earliest human settlements, continuing through several major pre- and post-Islamic Empires through to the nation-states of the Middle East today. Sumerians were the first people to develop complex systems as to be called "Civilization", starting as far back as the 5th millennium BC. Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the first pharaoh. Mesopotamia was home to several powerful empires that came to rule the entire Middle East—particularly the Assyrian Empires of 1365–1076 BC and the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911–609 BC. From the early 7th century BC and onwards, the Iranian Medes followed by Achaemenid Persia and other subsequent Iranian states empires dominated the region. In the 1st century BC, the expanding Roman Republic absorbed the whole Eastern Mediterranean, which included much of the Near East.
The Eastern Roman Empire, today known as the Byzantine Empire, ruling from the Balkans to the Euphrates, became defined by and dogmatic about Christianity creating religious rifts between the doctrines dictated by the establishment in Constantinople and believers in many parts of the Middle East. From the 3rd up to the course of the 7th century AD, the entire Middle East was dominated by the Byzantines and Sassanid Persia. From the 7th century, a new power was rising in that of Islam; the dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the mid-11th century with the arrival of the Seljuq Turks. In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders, the armies of the Mongol Empire Turkic, swept through the region. By the early 15th century, a new power had arisen in western Anatolia, the Ottoman emirs, linguistically Turkic and religiously Islamic, who in 1453 captured the Christian Byzantine capital of Constantinople and made themselves sultans. Large parts of the Middle East became a warground between the Ottomans and Iranian Safavids for centuries starting in the early 16th century.
By 1700, the Ottomans had been driven out of Hungary and the balance of power along the frontier had shifted decisively in favor of the West. The British established effective control of the Persian Gulf, the French extended their influence into Lebanon and Syria. In 1912, the Italians seized Libya and the Dodecanese islands, just off the coast of the Ottoman heartland of Anatolia. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Middle Eastern rulers tried to modernize their states to compete more with the European powers. A turning point in the history of the Middle East came when oil was discovered, first in Persia in 1908 and in Saudi Arabia and the other Persian Gulf states, in Libya and Algeria. A Western dependence on Middle Eastern oil and the decline of British influence led to a growing American interest in the region. During the 1920s, 1930s, 1940s, Syria and Egypt made moves towards independence; the British, the French, the Soviets departed from many parts of the Middle East during and after World War II.
The struggle between the Arabs and the Jews in Palestine culminated in the 1947 United Nations plan to partition Palestine. In the midst of Cold War tensions, the Arabic-speaking countries of Western Asia and Northern Africa saw the rise of pan-Arabism; the departure of the European powers from direct control of the region, the establishment of Israel, the increasing importance of the oil industry, marked the creation of the modern Middle East. In most Middle Eastern countries, the growth of market economies was inhibited by political restrictions and cronyism, overspending on arms and prestige projects, over-dependence on oil revenues; the wealthiest economies in the region per capita are the small oil-rich countries of Persian Gulf: Qatar, Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates. A combination of factors—among them the 1967 Six-Day War, the 1970s energy crisis beginning with the 1973 OPEC oil embargo in response to U. S. support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War, the concurrent Saudi-led popularization of Salafism/Wahhabism, the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution—promoted the increasing rise of Islamism and the ongoing Islamic revival.
The Fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 brought a global security refocus from the Cold War to a War on Terror. Starting in the early 2010s, a revolutionary wave popularly known as the Arab Spring brought major protests and revolutions to several Middle Eastern and Maghreb countries. Clashes in western Iraq on 30 December 2013 were preliminary to the Sunni pan-Islamist ISIL uprising; the term Near East can be used interchangeably with Middle East, but in a different context when discussing ancient times, it may have a limited meaning, namely the northern Aramaic-speaking Semitic area and adjacent Anatolian territories, marked in the two maps below. Geographically, the Middle East can be thought of as Western Asia with the addition of Egypt and with the exclusion of the Caucasus; the Middle East was the first to experience a Neolithic Revolution, as well as the first to enter the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Human populations have tended to settle around bodies of water, reflected in modern population density patterns.
Irrigation systems were important for the agricultural Middle East: for Egypt that of the lower Nile River, for Mesopotamia that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Levantine agriculture depended on precipitation rather than on the river-based irrigation of Egyp
Edward Gibbon FRS was an English historian and Member of Parliament. His most important work, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, was published in six volumes between 1776 and 1788 and is known for the quality and irony of its prose, its use of primary sources, its polemical criticism of organised religion. Edward Gibbon was born in 1737, the son of Edward and Judith Gibbon at Lime Grove, in the town of Putney, Surrey, he had six siblings: one sister, all of whom died in infancy. His grandfather named Edward, had lost all of his assets as a result of the South Sea Bubble stock market collapse in 1720, but regained much of his wealth. Gibbon's father was thus able to inherit a substantial estate. One of his grandparents, Catherine Acton, descended from 2nd Baronet; as a youth, Gibbon's health was under constant threat. He described himself as "a puny child, neglected by my Mother, starved by my nurse". At age nine, he was sent to Dr. Woddeson's school at Kingston upon Thames, shortly after which his mother died.
He took up residence in the Westminster School boarding house, owned by his adored "Aunt Kitty", Catherine Porten. Soon after she died in 1786, he remembered her as rescuing him from his mother's disdain, imparting "the first rudiments of knowledge, the first exercise of reason, a taste for books, still the pleasure and glory of my life". By 1751, Gibbon's reading was extensive and pointed toward his future pursuits: Laurence Echard's Roman History, William Howel's An Institution of General History, several of the 65 volumes of the acclaimed Universal History from the Earliest Account of Time. Following a stay at Bath in 1752 to improve his health, at the age of 15 Gibbon was sent by his father to Magdalen College, where he was enrolled as a gentleman-commoner, he was ill-suited, however, to the college atmosphere and rued his 14 months there as the "most idle and unprofitable" of his life. Because he himself says so in his autobiography, it used to be thought that his penchant for "theological controversy" bloomed when he came under the spell of the deist or rationalist theologian Conyers Middleton, the author of Free Inquiry into the Miraculous Powers.
In that tract, Middleton denied the validity of such powers. The product of that disagreement, with some assistance from the work of Catholic Bishop Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, that of the Elizabethan Jesuit Robert Parsons, yielded the most memorable event of his time at Oxford: his conversion to Roman Catholicism on 8 June 1753, he was further "corrupted" by the'free thinking' deism of the playwright/poet couple David and Lucy Mallet. David Womersley has shown, that Gibbon's claim to having been converted by a reading of Middleton is unlikely, was introduced only into the final draft of the "Memoirs" in 1792–93. Bowersock suggests that Gibbon fabricated the Middleton story retrospectively in his anxiety about the impact of the French Revolution and Edmund Burke's claim that it was provoked by the French philosophes, so influential on Gibbon. Within weeks of his conversion, the adolescent was removed from Oxford and sent to live under the care and tutelage of Daniel Pavillard, Reformed pastor of Lausanne, Switzerland.
It was here that he made one of his life's two great friendships, that of Jacques Georges Deyverdun, that of John Baker Holroyd. Just a year and a half after his father threatened to disinherit him, on Christmas Day, 1754, he reconverted to Protestantism. "The various articles of the Romish creed," he wrote, "disappeared like a dream". He remained in Lausanne for five intellectually productive years, a period that enriched Gibbon's immense aptitude for scholarship and erudition: he read Latin literature, he met the one romance in his life: the daughter of the pastor of Crassy, a young woman named Suzanne Curchod, to become the wife of Louis XVI's finance minister Jacques Necker, the mother of Madame de Staël. The two developed a warm affinity. Gibbon returned to England in August 1758 to face his father. There could be no refusal of the elder's wishes. Gibbon put it this way: "I sighed as a lover, I obeyed as a son." He proceeded to cut off all contact with Curchod as she vowed to wait for him.
Their final emotional break came at Ferney, France in early 1764, though they did see each other at least one more time a year later. Upon his return to England, Gibbon published his first book, Essai sur l'Étude de la Littérature in 1761, which produced an initial taste of celebrity and distinguished him, in Paris at least, as a man of letters. From 1759 to 1770, Gibbon served on active duty and in reserve with the South Hampshire militia, his deactivation in December 1762 coinciding with the militia's dispersal at the end of the Seven Years' War; the following year he embarked on the Grand Tour. In his autobiography Gibbon vividly records his rapture when he neared "the great object of pilgrimage":...at
Charles Mills (historian)
Charles Mills was an English historian. His works include History of the Crusades for the Recovery and Possession of the Holy Land, History of Mohammedanism and History of Chivalry. Born on 29 July 1788 at Croom's Hill, Greenwich, he was youngest son of Samuel Gillam Mills, a surgeon, he was educated and, after a brief experience in a merchant's counting-house, was articled in 1804 to a firm of solicitors. In 1810 he placed himself for a year's study in conveyancing under James Humphreys. Lung disease compelled Mills to winter in Nice in 1814–15. On inheriting a moderate fortune, he abandoned the law to write, he died of a recurrence of his old complaint at Southampton on 9 October 1826, unmarried. A few months before his death he was elected one of the knights of the British Order of Saint John, in recognition of his History of the Crusades. Mills's friend Augustine Skottowe published a Memoir. Another friend was William Frederick Deacon. Mills was a follower of Edward Gibbon, his first work, An History of Muhammedanism, had been seen in manuscript by Sir John Malcolm, who supported its publication, in the revision by loans from his own library.
It was translated into French by Germain Buisson, Guernsey, 1826. His next book The History of the Crusades, 2 vols. London, 1820, bears fewer signs of the influence of Gibbon, was praised by Sir Walter Scott, who assisted him with notes from Scottish chronicles. An imitation of the Travels of Anacharsis of Jean-Jacques Barthélemy, entitled The Travels of Theodore Ducas of Candia in Various Countries in Europe at the Revival of Letters and Art, 2 vols. London, 1822, followed, it proved unsuccessful, only the first part Italy appeared. Mills's last book was The History of Chivalry, or Knighthood and its Times,’ 2 vols. London, 1825. Mills's collected. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Mills, Charles". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Works by Charles Mills at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Charles Mills at Internet Archive
Joseph François Michaud
Joseph François Michaud was a French historian and publicist. Michaud was born at Albens, educated at Bourg-en-Bresse, afterwards engaged in literary work at Lyon, where the French Revolution first aroused the strong dislike of revolutionary principles which manifested itself throughout the rest of his life. In 1791 he went to Paris, where, at great risk to his own safety, he took part in editing several royalist journals. One of those was the Gazette universelle that he founded together with Pascal Boyer and Antoine Marie Cerisier, it was successful until it was suppressed in August 1792 and its editors had to flee to escape arrest. In 1796 he became editor of La Quotidienne. Having resumed the editorship of his newspaper on the establishment of the Directory, he was again proscribed on the 18th of Fructidor, but after two years returned to Paris, when the Consulate had superseded the Directory, his Bourbon sympathies led to a brief imprisonment in 1800, on his release he temporarily abandoned journalism, began to write and edit books.
In 1806, with his brother Louis Gabriel Michaud and two colleagues, he published Biographie moderne ou dictionnaire des hommes qui se sont fait un nom en Europe, depuis 1789, the earliest work of its kind. In 1811 published the first volume of his Histoire des Croisades and the first volume of his Biographie Universelle. In 1813 he was elected Academician, taking up the vacancy left by the death of Jean-François Cailhava de L'Estandoux. In 1814 he resumed the editorship of La Quotidienne, his brochure Histoire des quinze semaines ou le dernier règne de Bonaparte met with extraordinary success, passing through twenty-seven editions within a short time. His political services were now rewarded with the cross of an officer in the Legion of Honour and the modest post of king's reader, of which last he was deprived in 1827 for having opposed Peyronnet's "Loi d'Amour" against the freedom of the Press. In 1830-1831 he travelled in Syria and Egypt for the purpose of collecting additional materials for the Histoire des Croisades.
Like the Histoire, it is more interesting than exact. The Bibliothèque des croisades, in four volumes more, contained the "Pièces justificatives" of the Histoire. Michaud died at Passy, where his home had been since 1832. Michaud's Histoire des croisades was published in its final form in six volumes in 1840 under the editorship of his friend Poujoulat. Michaud, along with Poujoulat edited Nouvelle collection des mémoires pour servir de l'histoire de France. See Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, vol. vii. In 1875, the famous illustrator Gustave Dore produced 100 pictures for a 2 volume medium folio edition of the Histoire, published by Hachette and Company. Joseph Michaud in The New American Encyclopaedia, 1865; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Michaud, Joseph François". Encyclopædia Britannica. 18. Cambridge University Press. P. 361. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bréhier. "Joseph-François Michaud".
In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Works by Joseph François Michaud at Project Gutenberg