Winchester is a city and the county town of Hampshire, England. The city lies at the heart of the wider City of Winchester, a local government district, is located at the western end of the South Downs National Park, along the course of the River Itchen, it is situated 60 miles south-west of London and 13.6 miles from its closest city. At the time of the 2011 Census, Winchester had a population of 45,184; the wider City of Winchester district which includes towns such as Alresford and Bishop's Waltham has a population of 116,800. Winchester developed from the Roman town of Venta Belgarum, which in turn developed from an Iron Age oppidum. Winchester's major landmark is Winchester Cathedral, one of the largest cathedrals in Europe, with the distinction of having the longest nave and overall length of all Gothic cathedrals in Europe; the city is home to the University of Winchester and Winchester College, the oldest public school in the United Kingdom still using its original buildings. The area around Winchester has been inhabited since prehistoric times, with three Iron Age hillforts, Oram's Arbour, St. Catherine's Hill, Worthy Down all in the nearby vicinity.
In the Late Iron Age, a more urban settlement type developed, known as an oppidum, although the archaeology of this phase remains obscure. It was overrun by the confederation of Gaulish tribes known as the Belgae sometime during the first century BCE, it seems to have been known as Wentā or Venta, derived from the Brittonic for "town" or "meeting place", or the word for "white", due to Winchester's situation upon chalk. After the Roman conquest of Britain, the settlement served as the capital of the Belgae and was distinguished as Venta Belgarum, "Venta of the Belgae". Although in the early years of the Roman province it was of subsidiary importance to Silchester and Chichester, Venta eclipsed them both by the latter half of the second century. At the beginning of the third century, Winchester was given protective stone walls. At around this time the city covered an area of 144 acres, making it among the largest towns in Roman Britain by surface area. There was a limited suburban area outside the walls.
Like many other Roman towns however, Winchester began to decline in the fourth century. Following the Roman withdrawal from Britain in 410, urban life seems to have continued at Venta Belgarum until around 450 AD, a small administrative centre might have continued after that on the site of the Anglo-Saxon palace. Ford identifies the community as the Cair Guinntguic listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain in his History of the Britons. Amid the Saxon invasions of Britain, cemeteries dating to the 6th and 7th centuries suggest a revival of settlement; the city became known as Wintan-ceastre in Old English. In 648, King Cenwalh of Wessex erected the Church of SS Peter and Paul known as the Old Minster; this became a cathedral in the 660s when the West Saxon bishopric was transferred from Dorchester-on-Thames. The present form of the city dates to reconstruction in the late 9th century, when King Alfred the Great obliterated the Roman street plan in favour of a new grid in order to provide better defence against the Vikings.
The city's first mint appears to date from this period. In the early tenth century there were two new ecclesiastical establishments, the convent of Nunnaminster, founded by Alfred's widow Ealhswith, the New Minster. Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester was a leading figure in the monastic reform movement of the tenth century, he replaced them with monks. He created the drainage system, the'Lockburn', which served as the town drain until 1875, still survives. In the late tenth century, the Old Minster was enlarged as a centre of the cult of the ninth century Bishop of Winchester, Saint Swithun; the three minsters were the home of what architectural historian John Crook describes as "the supreme artistic achievements" of the Winchester School. The consensus among historians of Anglo-Saxon England is that the court was mobile in this period and there was no fixed capital. Martin Biddle has suggested that Winchester was a centre for royal administration in the seventh and eighth centuries, but this is questioned by Barbara Yorke, who sees it as significant that the shire was named after Hamtun, the forerunner of Southampton.
However, Winchester is described by the historian Catherine Cubitt as "the premier city of the West Saxon kingdom." There was a fire in the city in 1141 during the Rout of Winchester. William of Wykeham played a role in the city's restoration; as Bishop of Winchester he was responsible for much of the current structure of the cathedral, he founded the still extant public school Winchester College. During the Middle Ages, the city was an important centre of the wool trade, before going into a slow decline; the curfew bell in the bell tower, still sounds at 8:00 pm each evening. While Jews lived in Winchester from at least 1148, in the 13th century the Jewish community in the city was one of the most important in England. There was an archa in the city, the Jewish quarter was located in the city's heart. There were a series of blood libel claims levied against the Jewish community in the 1220s and 1230s, the cause of the hanging of the community's leader, Abraham Pinch, in front of the synagogue that he was head of.
Simon de Montfort ransacked the Jewish quarter in 1264, in 1290 all Jews were expelled from England. The City Cross has been dated to the 15th century, features 12 statues of the Virgin Mary and various historical figures. Several statues appear to have been added t
Colchester is a historic market town and the largest settlement within the borough of Colchester in the county of Essex. Colchester was the first Roman-founded city in Britain, Colchester lays claim to be regarded as Britain's oldest recorded town, it was for a time the capital of Roman Britain, is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network. Situated on the River Colne, Colchester is 50 miles northeast of London and is connected to the capital by the A12 road and its railway station, on the Great Eastern Main Line, it is seen as a popular town for commuters, is less than 30 miles from London Stansted Airport and 20 miles from the passenger ferry port of Harwich. Colchester is home to Colchester United Football Club; the demonym is Colcestrian. There are several theories about the origin of the name Colchester; some contend, derived from the Latin words Colonia and Castra, meaning fortifications. The earliest forms of the name Colchester are Colenceaster and Colneceastre from the 10th century, with the modern spelling of Colchester being found in the 15th century.
In this way of interpreting the name, the River Colne which runs through the town takes its name from Colonia as well. Cologne gained its name from a similar etymology. Other etymologists are confident that the Colne's name is of Celtic origin, sharing its origin with several other rivers Colne or Clun around Britain, that Colchester is derived from Colne and Castra. Ekwall went as far as to say "it has been held that Colchester contains as first element colonia... this derivation is ruled out of court by the fact that Colne is the name of several old villages situated a good many miles from Colchester and on the Colne. The identification of Colonia with Colchester is doubtful."The popular association of the name with King Coel has no academic merit. The gravel hill upon which Colchester is built was formed in the Middle Pleistocene period, was shaped into a terrace between the Anglian glaciation and the Ipswichian glaciation by an ancient precursor to the River Colne. From these deposits beneath the town have been found Palaeolithic flint tools, including at least six Acheulian handaxes.
Further flint tools made by hunter gatherers living in the Colne Valley during the Mesolithic have been discovered, including a tranchet axe from Middlewick. In the 1980s an archaeological inventory showed that over 800 shards of pottery from the Neolithic, Bronze Age and early Iron Age have been found within Colchester, along with many examples of worked flint; this included a pit found at Culver Street containing a ritually placed Neolithic grooved ware pot, as well as find spots containing Deverel-Rimbury bucket urns. Colchester is surrounded by Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments that pre-date the town, including a Neolithic henge at Tendring, large Bronze Age barrow cemeteries at Dedham and Langham, a larger example at Brightlingsea consisting of a cluster of 22 barrows. Colchester is said to be the oldest recorded town in Britain on the grounds that it was mentioned by Pliny the Elder, who died in AD 79, although the Celtic name of the town, Camulodunon appears on coins minted by tribal chieftain Tasciovanus in the period 20–10 BC.
Before the Roman conquest of Britain it was a centre of power for Cunobelin – known to Shakespeare as Cymbeline – king of the Catuvellauni, who minted coins there. Its Celtic name, variously represented as CA, CAM, CAMV, CAMVL and CAMVLODVNO on the coins of Cunobelinus, means'the fortress of Camulos'. During the 30s AD Camulodunon controlled a large swathe of Southern and Eastern Britain, with Cunobelin called "King of the Britons" by Roman writers. Camulodunon is sometimes popularly considered one of many possible sites around Britain for the legendary Camelot of King Arthur, though the name Camelot is most a corruption of Camlann, a now unknown location first mentioned in the 10th century Welsh annalistic text Annales Cambriae, identified as the place where Arthur was slain in battle. Soon after the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, a Roman legionary fortress was established, the first in Britain; when the Roman frontier moved outwards and the twentieth legion had moved to the west, Camulodunum became a colonia named in a second-century inscription as Colonia Victricensis.
This contained a large and elaborate Temple to the Divine Claudius, the largest classical-style temple in Britain, as well as at least seven other Romano-British temples. Colchester is home to two of the five Roman theatres found in Britain, the one at Gosbecks being the largest in Britain, able to seat 5,000. Camulodunum served as a provincial Roman capital of Britain, but was attacked and destroyed during Boudica's rebellion in AD 61. Sometime after the destruction, London became the capital of the province of Britannia. Colchester's town walls c. 3,000 yd. long were built c.65–80 A. D. when the Roman town was rebuilt after the Boudicca rebellion. In 2004, Colchester Archaeological Trust discovered the remains of a Roman Circus underneath the Garrison in Colchester, a unique find in Britain; the Roman town of Camulodunum known as Colonia Victricensis, reached its peak in the Second and Third centuries AD. A hoard of jewellery, known as The Fenwick Hoard, has b
Thetford is a market town and civil parish in the Breckland district of Norfolk, England. It is on the A11 road between London, just south of Thetford Forest. After World War II Thetford became an ‘overspill town’ taking people from London, as a result of which its population increased substantially; the civil parish, covering an area of 29.55 km2, has a population of 24,340. The Iceni were parts of Cambridgeshire. Archaeological evidence suggests that Thetford was an important tribal centre during the late Iron Age and early Roman period. A ceremonial'grove' was uncovered there during excavations. In 1979, a hoard of Romano-British metalwork, known as the Thetford treasure was located just outside Thetford. Dating from the mid-4th century AD, this hoard is a collection of thirty three inscribed spoons, twenty gold finger rings, four pendants, several necklaces and a 2" gold buckle depicting a dancing satyr; the origin of the name Thetford is unclear. The site was an important crossing of the River Little Ouse, so one possibility is that the settlement drew its name from the Anglo-Saxon Theodford or peoples ford.
It is unclear if the nearby River Thet is named after the crossing or the settlement. The Domesday Book lists William of Bello Fargo as the Bishop of Thetford in 1085. Castle Hill, to the south-east of the town centre, is a Norman motte though no trace remains of the castle which once surmounted it; the mound is open to the public, provides views of the town from its summit and extensive earthworks. It is in a public park, near the Three Nuns Bridges and close to the town centre overlooking the rivers. Thetford contains the ruins of a 12th-century Cluniac priory. Thetford Priory was closed during the Reformation. Both the Priory and the Bell Inn in Thetford, were featured for their alleged hauntings on the television series Ghosthunters; the Black Horse public house dates from the mid 18th century, is grade II listed. The Norfolk Lent Assizes were held at Thetford from 1264 because there was only one Assize for both Norfolk and Suffolk. Thetford, being close to the border between the two, was convenient for both.
However, after much pressure, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1832 to transfer them to Norwich. There had been pressure to do so for many years. In 1825 an MP, Mr John Buxton, told the House of Commons that prisoners had to be carried the 30 miles from Norwich Gaol in an open waggon and, on arrival at Thetford, were placed in a prison, which, "if he were to describe it, would shock and offend the House". Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk and other early Tudor dynasty officials were once buried in Thetford before removal to Framlingham; the Duke of Norfolk died on 21 May 1524. His funeral and burial on 22 June at Thetford Priory were said to have been'spectacular and enormously expensive, costing over £1300 and including a procession of 400 hooded men bearing torches and an elaborate bier surmounted with 100 wax effigies and 700 candles', befitting the richest and most powerful peer in England. After the dissolution of Thetford Priory, the Howard tombs were moved to the Church of St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham.
Thetford was the birthplace of Thomas Paine and his statue stands on King Street, holding a quill and his book Rights of Man, upside down. Paine attended Thetford Grammar School. Born in Thetford on 9 February 1737, Paine emigrated to the British American colonies in 1774 where he was to participate in the American Revolution, his principal contributions were the pamphlet Common Sense, advocating colonial America's independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain, The American Crisis, a pro-revolutionary pamphlet series. Dr Allan Glaisyer Minns, born in Inagua, the Bahamas, Mayor of Thetford in 1904, was the first black man to become a mayor in Britain, his son Allan Noel Minns a doctor, was awarded the DSO and MC in the First World War. From the 1950s Thetford became a London overspill town. In 1953 the Thetford Borough Council approached the London County Council to become part of the town's expansion scheme. An agreement was signed in 1957 and work began on new housing estates to accommodate 5,000 Londoners.
In 1960 another 5,000 Londoners moved to Thetford increasing the population to about 17,000 people. An additional 1,500 houses were built by 1965. Development shifted to the Abbey Farm estate to the north of the river, construction of which started in 1967, with 1,000 houses, public open spaces and footpaths. By the late 1980s the population of Thetford had reached around 21,000 people; this meant that Thetford grew faster than any other town in Norfolk, indeed in the whole country. The British Trust for Ornithology moved its headquarters into the former Nunnery, south of the town centre, in 1991; the Ancient House Museum, situated on White Hart Street, is an oak-framed Tudor merchant's house. The museum holds replicas of the Thetford Treasure and has displays about flint knapping, rabbit warreners and wildlife in the brecks; the Ancient House was gifted to the town by Prince Frederick Duleep Singh. The surrounding Breckland has been replaced by the Thetford Forest, though Thetford Chase remains.
East Harling near Thetford hosts an annual Autumn Equinox Festival for astronomy. The town is the site for the UK's Star Party, as it is centrally located in a rural area with dark night skies. An annual concert, STORM open air festival used to take place at the Castle Green; the local football club, Thetford Town F. C. plays in the Eastern Counties Football League. The Breckland & District Sunday Football League, encompasses teams from within a 20-mile radius of Thetford. Thetford Cricket Club play their home games next to the football club on Mundford Road, they have 3 men's teams
Leicester is a city and unitary authority area in the East Midlands of England, the county town of Leicestershire. The city close to the eastern end of the National Forest; the 2016 mid year estimate of the population of the City of Leicester unitary authority was 348,300, an increase of 18,500 from the 2011 census figure of 329,839, making it the most populous municipality in the East Midlands region. The associated urban area is the 11th most populous in England and the 13th most populous in the United Kingdom. Leicester is at the intersection of two major railway lines—the north/south Midland Main Line and the east/west Birmingham to London Stansted CrossCountry line. Leicester is the home to football club Leicester City and rugby club Leicester Tigers; the name of Leicester is recorded in the 9th-century History of the Britons as Cair Lerion, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle as Ligora-ceastre. In the Domesday Book of 1086, it is recorded as Ledecestre; the first element of the name, Ligora or Legora, is explained as a Brittonic river name, in a suggestion going back to William Somner an earlier name of the River Soar, cognate with the name of the Loire.
The second element of the name comes from the Latin castrum, reflected in both Welsh cair and Anglo-Saxon ceastre. Based on the Welsh name, Geoffrey of Monmouth proposes a king Leir of Britain as an eponymous founder in his Historia Regum Britanniae. Leicester is one of the oldest cities in England, with a history going back at least two millennia; the native Iron Age settlement encountered by the Romans at the site seems to have developed in the 2nd or 1st centuries BC. Little is known about this settlement or the condition of the River Soar at this time, although roundhouses from this era have been excavated and seem to have clustered along 8 hectares of the east bank of the Soar above its confluence with the Trent; this area of the Soar was split into two channels: a main stream to the east and a narrower channel on the west, with a marshy island between. The settlement seems to have controlled a ford across the larger channel; the Roman name was a latinate form of the Brittonic word for "ramparts", suggesting the site was an oppidum.
The plural form of the name suggests it was composed of several villages. The Celtic tribe holding the area was recorded as the "Coritanians" but an inscription recovered in 1983 showed this to have been a corruption of the original "Corieltauvians"; the Corieltauvians are believed to have ruled over the area of the East Midlands. It is believed that the Romans arrived in the Leicester area around AD 47, during their conquest of southern Britain; the Corieltauvian settlement lay near a bridge on the Fosse Way, a Roman road between the legionary camps at Isca and Lindum. It remains unclear whether the Romans fortified and garrisoned the location, but it developed from around the year 50 onwards as the tribal capital of the Corieltauvians under the name Ratae Corieltauvorum. In the 2nd century, it received a bathhouse. In 2013, the discovery of a Roman cemetery found just outside the old city walls and dating back to AD 300 was announced; the remains of the baths of Roman Leicester can be seen at the Jewry Wall.
Knowledge of the town following the Roman withdrawal from Britain is limited. There is some continuation of occupation of the town, though on a much reduced scale in the 5th and 6th centuries, its memory was preserved as the Cair Lerion of the History of the Britons. Following the Saxon invasion of Britain, Leicester was occupied by the Middle Angles and subsequently administered by the kingdom of Mercia, it was elevated to a bishopric in either 679 or 680. Their settlement became one of the Five Burghs of the Danelaw, although this position was short-lived; the Saxon bishop, fled to Dorchester-on-Thames and Leicester did not become a bishopric again until the Church of St Martin became Leicester Cathedral in 1927. The settlement was recorded under the name Ligeraceaster in the early 10th century. Following the Norman conquest, Leicester was recorded by William's Domesday Book as Ledecestre, it was noted as a city but lost this status in the 11th century owing to power struggles between the Church and the aristocracy and did not become a legal city again until 1919.
Geoffrey of Monmouth composed his History of the Kings of Britain around the year 1136, naming a King Leir as an eponymous founder figure. According to Geoffrey's narrative, Cordelia had buried her father beneath the river in a chamber dedicated to Janus and his feast day was an annual celebration; when Simon de Montfort became Lord of Leicester in 1231, he gave the city a grant to expel the Jewish population "in my time or in the time of any of my heirs to the end of the world". He justified his action as being "for the good of my soul, for the souls of my ancestors and successors". Leicester's Jews were allowed to move to the eastern suburbs, which were controlled by de Montfort's great-aunt and rival, Countess of Winchester, after she took advice from the scholar and cleric Robert Grosseteste. There is evidence that Jews remained there until 1253, enforcement of the banishment within the city was not rigorously enforced. De Montfort however issued a second edict for the expulsion of Leicester's Jews in 1253, after Grosseteste's death.
De Montfort's m
Bedford is the county town of Bedfordshire, England. The town has an estimated population of 87,590, whereas the Borough of Bedford had an estimated population of 169,912. Bedford was founded at a ford on the River Great Ouse, is thought to have been the burial place of Offa of Mercia. Bedford Castle was built by Henry I, although it was destroyed in 1224. Bedford was granted borough status in 1165 and has been represented in Parliament since 1265, it is well known for its large population of Italian descent. Bedford is on the Midland Main Line, with stopping services to London and Brighton operated by Thameslink, express services to London and the East Midlands operated by East Midlands Trains; the name of the town is thought to derive from the name of a Saxon chief called Beda, a ford crossing the River Great Ouse. Bedford was a market town for the surrounding agricultural region from the early Middle Ages The Anglo-Saxon King Offa of Mercia was buried in the town in 796. In 886 it became a boundary town separating Danelaw.
It was the seat of the Barony of Bedford. In 919 Edward the Elder built the town's first known fortress, on the south side of the River Great Ouse and there received the area's submission; this fortress was destroyed by the Danes. William II gave the barony of Bedford to Paine de Beauchamp who built a strong castle. Bedford traces its borough charter in 1166 by Henry II and elected two members to the unreformed House of Commons, it remained a small agricultural town, with wool being an important industry in the area for much of the Middle Ages. The new Bedford Castle was razed in 1224 and today only a mound remains. From the 16th century Bedford and much of Bedfordshire became one of the main centres of England's lace industry, lace continued to be an important industry in Bedford until the early 20th century. In 1660 John Bunyan was imprisoned for 12 years in Bedford Gaol, it was here. The River Great Ouse became navigable as far as Bedford in 1689. Wool declined in importance with brewing becoming a major industry in the town.
The 19th century saw Bedford transform into an important engineering hub. In 1832 gas lighting was introduced, the railway reached Bedford in 1846; the first corn exchange was built 1849, the first drains and sewers were dug in 1864. Bedford is the largest settlement in Borough of Bedford; the borough council is led by a directly elected mayor who holds the title'Mayor of Bedford', an office, first held by Frank Branston, until his death in 2009. The current Mayor of Bedford is Dave Hodgson from the Liberal Democrat Party. Bedford itself is divided into 10 wards: Brickhill, Cauldwell, De Parys, Harpur, Newnham, Queens Park, Kempston East and Kempston West. Brickhill elects its own parish council. Bedford is served by Bedfordshire Police; the Bedfordshire Police and Crime Commissioner of that force is Kathryn Holloway. Bedford forms part of the Bedford constituency, represented in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom Parliament; the current Member of Parliament for Bedford is Mohammad Yasin, a member of the Labour Party.
Bedford is 46 miles miles north-northwest of London, 65 miles southeast of Birmingham, 25 miles west of Cambridge and 19 miles east-southeast of Northampton. The town of Kempston is adjacent to Bedford, as are the villages of Elstow and Ravensden. Wixams is a new town, being developed to the south of Bedford. Villages in the Borough of Bedford with populations of more than 2,000 as of 2005 were Biddenham, Clapham, Oakley, Shortstown and Wootton. There are many smaller villages in the borough; the villages in the borough are popular with commuters to Bedford, with people who commute to Milton Keynes and towns in Northamptonshire and Cambridgeshire. Nearby small towns include Ampthill, Biggleswade and Sandy, all of which are in Central Bedfordshire, as well as Rushden in Northamptonshire and St Neots in Cambridgeshire; the nearest towns and cities with larger populations than Bedford are Northampton to the north west, Cambridge to the east, Milton Keynes to the south west, Luton to the south, all of which have urban area populations of 150,000 or more.
As with the rest of the United Kingdom, Bedford has a maritime climate, with a limited range of temperatures, even rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office weather station to Bedford is Bedford airport, about 6.5 miles north of Bedford town centre at an elevation of 85 metres. Since 1980, temperature extremes at the site have ranged from 35.9 °C in August 2003 and 35.3 °C during July 2006 down to −15.3 °C in January 1982. However, such extremes would be superseded if longer term records were available – Historically, the nearest weather station to Bedford was Cardington about 2.4 miles south south east of the town centre with an elevation of 30 metres. This location recorded a minimum of −18.3 °C during January 1963. Rainfall averages around 585mm a year, with an excess of 1mm falling on 109 days. Sunshine at around 1500 hours a year is typical of inland areas of southern-central England. Bedford is home to one of the largest concentrations of Italian immigrants in the United Kingdom.
According to the 2001 census 30% of Bedford's population were of at least partial Italian descent. This is as a result of labour recruitment in the early 1950s by the London Brick Company from Southern Italy. From 1954 to 20
Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England. The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln had a 2012 population of 94,600; the 2011 census gave the urban area of Lincoln, which includes North Hykeham and Waddington, a population of 130,200. The Roman town of Lindum Colonia developed from an Iron Age settlement on the River Witham. Lincoln's major landmarks are Lincoln Cathedral, an example of English Gothic architecture and the tallest building in the world for over 200 years, as well as Lincoln Castle, an 11th-century Norman castle; the city is home to the University of Lincoln and Bishop Grosseteste University, to Lincoln City FC and Lincoln United FC. The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings that have been dated to the 1st century BC; this settlement was built by a deep pool in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill. The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon "The Pool" referring to Brayford Pool.
The extent of this original settlement is unknown as its remains are now buried deep beneath the Roman and medieval ruins and modern Lincoln. The Romans conquered this part of Britain in AD 48 and shortly afterwards built a legionary fortress high on a hill overlooking the natural lake formed by the widening of the River Witham and at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road; the Celtic name Lindon was subsequently Latinised to Lindum and given the title Colonia when it was converted into a settlement for army veterans. The conversion to a colonia was made when the legion moved on to York in AD 71. Lindum colonia or more Colonia Domitiana Lindensium, after the Emperor Domitian who ruled at the time, was established within the walls of the hilltop fortress with the addition of an extension of about equal area, down the hillside to the waterside below, it became a major flourishing settlement, accessible from the sea both through the River Trent and through the River Witham. On the basis of the patently corrupt list of British bishops who attended the 314 Council of Arles, the city is now considered to have been the capital of the province of Flavia Caesariensis, formed during the late-3rd century Diocletian Reforms.
Subsequently, the town and its waterways fell into decline. By the close of the 5th century the city was deserted, although some occupation continued under a Praefectus Civitatis, for Saint Paulinus visited a man of this office in Lincoln in AD 629. During this period the Latin name Lindum Colonia was shortened in Old English to become first Lindocolina Lincylene. After the first destructive Viking raids, the city once again rose to some importance, with overseas trading connections. In Viking times Lincoln was a trading centre that issued coins from its own mint, by far the most important in Lincolnshire and by the end of the 10th century, comparable in output to the mint at York. After the establishment of the Danelaw in 886, Lincoln became one of the Five Boroughs in the East Midlands. Excavations at Flaxengate reveal that this area, deserted since Roman times, received new timber-framed buildings fronting a new street system in about 900. Lincoln experienced an unprecedented explosion in its economy with the settlement of the Danes.
Like York, the Upper City seems to have been given over to purely administrative functions up to 850 or so, while the Lower City, running down the hill towards the River Witham, may have been deserted. By 950, the banks of the Witham were newly developed with the Lower City being resettled and the suburb of Wigford emerging as a major trading centre. In 1068, two years after the Norman conquest, William I ordered Lincoln Castle to be built on the site of the former Roman settlement, for the same strategic reasons and controlling the same road. Construction of the first Lincoln Cathedral, within its close or walled precinct facing the castle, began when the see was removed from the quiet backwater of Dorchester-on-Thames and was completed in 1092; the rebuilt Lincoln Minster, enlarged to the east at each rebuilding, was on a magnificent scale, its crossing tower crowned by a spire reputed to have been 525 ft high, the highest in Europe. When completed the central of the three spires is accepted to have succeeded the Great Pyramids of Egypt as the tallest man-made structure in the world.
The Bishops of Lincoln were among the magnates of medieval England: the Diocese of Lincoln, the largest in England, had more monasteries than the rest of England put together, the diocese was supported by large estates. When Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Bishop of Lincoln. One of only four surviving originals of the document is preserved in Lincoln Castle. Among the most famous bishops of Lincoln were Robert Bloet, the magnificent justiciar to Henry I, Hugh of Avalon, the cathedral builder canonised as St Hugh of Lincoln, Robert Grosseteste, the 13th century intellectual, Henry Beaufort, chancellor of Henry V and Henry VI, Thomas Rotherham, a politician involved in the Wars of the Roses, Philip Repyngdon, chaplain to Henry IV and defender of Wycliffe, Thomas Wolsey, the lord chancellor of Henry VIII. Theologian William de Montibus was the head of the cathedral school and c
Salisbury is a cathedral city in Wiltshire, with a population of 40,302, at the confluence of the rivers Avon, Ebble and Bourne. The city is 20 miles from Southampton and 30 miles from Bath. Salisbury is near the edge of Salisbury Plain. Salisbury Cathedral was north of the city at Old Sarum. Following the cathedral's relocation, a settlement grew up around it which received a city charter in 1227 as New Sarum, which continued to be its official name until 2009 when Salisbury City Council was established. Salisbury railway station is an interchange between the West of England Main Line and the Wessex Main Line. Stonehenge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is 8 miles northwest of Salisbury; the name Salisbury, first recorded around the year 900 as Searoburg, is a partial translation of the Roman Celtic name Sorviodūnum. The Brittonic suffix -dūnon, meaning "fortress", was replaced by its Old English equivalent -burg; the first part of the name is of obscure origin. The form "Sarum" is a Latinization of a medieval abbreviation for Middle English Sarisberie.
The two names for the city and Sarum, are humorously alluded to in a 1928 limerick from Punch: The ambiguous pronunciation was used in the following limerick: Salisbury appeared in the Welsh Chronicle of the Britons as Caer-Caradog, Caer-Gradawc and Caer-Wallawg. Cair-Caratauc, one of the 28 British cities listed in the History of the Britons, has been identified with Salisbury; the hilltop at Old Sarum lies near the Neolithic sites of Stonehenge and Avebury and shows some signs of early settlement. It commanded a salient between the River Bourne and the Hampshire Avon, near a crossroads of several early trade-routes. During the Iron Age, sometime between 600 and 300 BC, a hillfort was constructed around it; the Romans left it in the hands of an allied tribe. At the time of the Saxon invasions, Old Sarum fell to King Cynric of Wessex in 552. Preferring settlements in bottomland, such as nearby Wilton, the Saxons ignored Old Sarum until the Viking invasions led King Alfred to restore its fortifications.
Along with Wilton, however, it was abandoned by its residents to be sacked and burned by the Dano-Norwegian king Sweyn Forkbeard in 1003. It subsequently became the site of Wilton's mint. Following the Norman invasion of 1066, a motte-and-bailey castle was constructed by 1070; the castle was held directly by the Norman kings. In 1075 the Council of London established Herman as the first bishop of Salisbury, uniting his former sees of Sherborne and Ramsbury into a single diocese which covered the counties of Dorset and Berkshire. In 1055, Herman had planned to move his seat to Malmesbury. Herman and his successor, Saint Osmund, began the construction of the first Salisbury cathedral, though neither lived to see its completion in 1092. Osmund served as Lord Chancellor of England; the cathedral was consecrated on 5 April 1092 but suffered extensive damage in a storm, traditionally said to have occurred only five days later. Bishop Roger was a close ally of Henry I: he served as viceroy during the king's absence in Normandy and directed, along with his extended family, the royal administration and exchequer.
He refurbished and expanded Old Sarum's cathedral in the 1110s and began work on a royal palace during the 1130s, prior to his arrest by Henry's successor, Stephen. After this arrest, the castle at Old Sarum was allowed to fall into disrepair, but the sheriff and castellan continued to administer the area under the king's authority. Bishop Hubert Walter was instrumental in the negotiations with Saladin during the Third Crusade, but he spent little time in his diocese prior to his elevation to archbishop of Canterbury; the brothers Herbert and Richard Poore succeeded him and began planning the relocation of the cathedral into the valley immediately. Their plans were approved by King Richard I but delayed: Herbert was first forced into exile in Normandy in the 1190s by the hostility of his archbishop Walter and again to Scotland in the 1210s owing to royal hostility following the papal interdiction against King John; the secular authorities were incensed, according to tradition, owing to some of the clerics debauching the castellan's female relations.
In the end, the clerics were refused permission to reenter the city walls following their rogations and processions. This caused Peter of Blois to describe the church as "a captive within the walls of the citadel like the ark of God in the profane house of Baal", he advocated Let us descend into the plain! There are rich fields and fertile valleys abounding in the fruits of the earth and watered by the living stream. There is a seat for the Virgin Patroness of our church, his successor and brother Richard Poore moved the cathedral to a new town on his estate at Veteres Sarisberias in 1220. The site was at "Myrifield", a meadow near the confluence of the River Nadder and the Hampshire Avon, it was first known as "New Sarum" or New Saresbyri. The town was laid out on a grid. Work on the new cathedral building, the present Salisbury Cathedral, began in 1221