The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition known as the Spanish Inquisition, was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms and to replace the Medieval Inquisition, under Papal control, it became the most substantive of the three different manifestations of the wider Catholic Inquisition along with the Roman Inquisition and Portuguese Inquisition. The "Spanish Inquisition" may be defined broadly, operating in Spain and in all Spanish colonies and territories, which included the Canary Islands, the Spanish Netherlands, the Kingdom of Naples, all Spanish possessions in North and South America. According to modern estimates, around 150,000 were prosecuted for various offenses during the three centuries of duration of the Spanish Inquisition, out of which between 3,000 and 5,000 were executed; the Inquisition was intended to identify heretics among those who converted from Judaism and Islam to Catholicism.
The regulation of the faith of newly converted Catholics was intensified after the royal decrees issued in 1492 and 1502 ordering Jews and Muslims to convert to Catholicism or leave Castile. The Inquisition was not definitively abolished until 1834, during the reign of Isabella II, after a period of declining influence in the preceding century; the Spanish Inquisition is cited in popular literature and history as an example of religious intolerance and repression. Some historians have come to conclude that many of the charges levied against the Inquisition are exaggerated, are a result of the Black Legend produced by political and religious enemies of Spain England; the Inquisition was created through papal bull, Ad Abolendam, issued at the end of the 12th century by Pope Lucius III to combat the Albigensian heresy in southern France. There were a large number of tribunals of the Papal Inquisition in various European kingdoms during the Middle Ages through different diplomatic and political means.
In the Kingdom of Aragon, a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition was established by the statute of Excommunicamus of Pope Gregory IX, in 1232, during the era of the Albigensian heresy, as a condition for peace with Aragon. The Inquisition was ill-received by the Aragonese, which led to prohibitions against insults or attacks on it. Rome was concerned about the'heretical' influence of the Iberian peninsula's large Muslim and Jewish population on the Catholic, it pressed the kingdoms to accept the Papal Inquisition after Aragon. Navarra conceded in the 13th century and Portugal by the end of the 14th, however its'Roman Inquisition' was famously inactive. Castile refused trusting on its prominent position in Europe and its military power to keep the Pope's interventionism in check. By the end of the Middle Ages, due to distance and voluntary compliance, Castile due to resistance and power, were the only Western European kingdoms to resist establishment of the Inquisition in their realms. Although Raymond of Penyafort was not an inquisitor, as a canon lawyer and the king's advisor, James I of Aragon, had consulted him on questions of law regarding the practices of the Inquisition in the king's domains.
"...he lawyer's deep sense of justice and equity, combined with the worthy Dominican's sense of compassion, allowed him to steer clear of the excesses that were found elsewhere in the formative years of the inquisitions into heresy."Despite its early implantation, the Papal inquisition was resisted within the crown of Aragon by both population and monarchs. With time, its importance was diluted, and, by the middle of the fifteenth century, it was forgotten although still there according to the law. Regarding the living conditions of minorities, the kings of Aragon and other monarchies imposed some discriminatory taxation of religious minorities, so false conversions were a way of tax evasion. In addition to said discriminatory legislation, Aragon had laws targeted at protecting minorities. For example, crusades attacking Jewish or Muslim subjects of the King of Aragon while on their way to fight in the reconquest were punished with death by hanging. Up to the 14th century, the census and weddings records show an absolute lack of concern with avoiding intermarriage or blood mixture.
Said laws were now common in most of central Europe. Both the Roman Inquisition and neighbouring Christian powers showed discomfort with Aragonese law and lack of concern with ethnicity, but to little effect. High-ranking officials of Jewish religion were not as common as in Castile, but were not unheard of either. Abraham Zacuto was a professor in the university of Cartagena. Vidal Astori was the royal silversmith for Ferdinand II of Aragon and conducted business in his name, and King Ferdinand himself was said to have Jewish ancestry on his mother's side. There was never a tribunal of the Papal Inquisition in Castile, nor any inquisition during the Middle Ages. Members of the episcopate were charged with surveillance of the faithful and punishment of transgressors, always under the direction of the king. During the Middle Ages, in Castile, little to no attention was paid to heresy by the Catholic ruling class, or by the population. Castile didn´t see proliferation of anti-Jew pamphlets like England and France did during the 13th and 14th century, those who have been found had modified, somehow watered down versions form the original stories.
Jews and Muslims were tolerated and allowed to follow their traditional customs in domestic matters. The legislation regarding Muslims and Jews in Castilian territory varied becoming m
John Locke was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of Liberalism". Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, following the tradition of Sir Francis Bacon, he is important to social contract theory, his work affected the development of epistemology and political philosophy. His writings influenced Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, many Scottish Enlightenment thinkers, as well as the American revolutionaries, his contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence. Locke's theory of mind is cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self, figuring prominently in the work of philosophers such as David Hume and Immanuel Kant. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness, he postulated that, at birth, the mind was a blank tabula rasa. Contrary to Cartesian philosophy based on pre-existing concepts, he maintained that we are born without innate ideas, that knowledge is instead determined only by experience derived from sense perception.
This is now known as empiricism. An example of Locke's belief in empiricism can be seen in his quote, "whatever I write, as soon as I discover it not to be true, my hand shall be the forwardest to throw it into the fire." This shows the ideology of science in his observations in that something must be capable of being tested and that nothing is exempt from being disproven. Challenging the work of others, Locke is said to have established the method of introspection, or observing the emotions and behaviours of one's self. Locke's father called John, was an attorney who served as clerk to the Justices of the Peace in Chew Magna, his mother was Agnes Keene. Both parents were Puritans. Locke was born on 29 August 1632, in a small thatched cottage by the church in Wrington, about 12 miles from Bristol, he was baptised the same day. Soon after Locke's birth, the family moved to the market town of Pensford, about seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton. In 1647, Locke was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Popham, a member of Parliament and his father's former commander.
After completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ Church, Oxford, in the autumn of 1652 at the age of twenty. The dean of the college at the time was vice-chancellor of the university. Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time, he found the works of modern philosophers, such as René Descartes, more interesting than the classical material taught at the university. Through his friend Richard Lower, whom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Society, of which he became a member. Locke was awarded a bachelor's degree in February 1656 and a master's degree in June 1658, he obtained a bachelor of medicine in February 1675, having studied medicine extensively during his time at Oxford and worked with such noted scientists and thinkers as Robert Boyle, Thomas Willis, Robert Hooke and Richard Lower. In 1666, he met Lord Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, who had come to Oxford seeking treatment for a liver infection.
Cooper was persuaded him to become part of his retinue. Locke had been looking for a career and in 1667 moved into Shaftesbury's home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley's personal physician. In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Sydenham had a major effect on Locke's natural philosophical thinking – an effect that would become evident in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. Locke's medical knowledge was put to the test when Shaftesbury's liver infection became life-threatening. Locke coordinated the advice of several physicians and was instrumental in persuading Shaftesbury to undergo surgery to remove the cyst. Shaftesbury prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietor of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics. Shaftesbury, as a founder of the Whig movement, exerted great influence on Locke's political ideas.
Locke became involved in politics when Shaftesbury became Lord Chancellor in 1672. Following Shaftesbury's fall from favour in 1675, Locke spent some time travelling across France as tutor and medical attendant to Caleb Banks, he returned to England in 1679. Around this time, most at Shaftesbury's prompting, Locke composed the bulk of the Two Treatises of Government. While it was once thought that Locke wrote the Treatises to defend the Glorious Revolution of 1688, recent scholarship has shown that the work was composed well before this date; the work is now viewed as a more general argument against absolute monarchy and for individual consent as the basis of political legitimacy. Although Locke was associated with the influential Whigs, his ideas about natural rights and government are today considered quite revolutionary for that period in English history. Locke fled to the Netherlands in 1683, under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot, although there is little eviden
Sullivan's Island, South Carolina
Sullivan's Island is a town and island in Charleston County, South Carolina, United States, at the entrance to Charleston Harbor, with a population of 1,791 at the 2010 census. The town is part of the Charleston metropolitan area, is considered a affluent suburb of Charleston. Sullivan's Island was the point of entry for 40 percent of the 400,000 enslaved Africans brought to British North America. During the American Revolution, the island was the site of a major battle at Fort Sullivan on June 28, 1776, since renamed Fort Moultrie in honor of the American commander at the battle. On September 23, 1989, Hurricane Hugo came ashore near Sullivan's Island; the eye of the hurricane passed directly over Sullivan's Island. The Ben Sawyer Bridge was a casualty. Before the storm was over, one end of the bridge was in the water and the other was pointing skyward. Sullivan's Island police chief, Jack Lilien, was the last person to leave the island before the bridge gave way; the island was known as O'Sullivan's Island, named for Captain Florence O'Sullivan, stationed here as a lookout in the late 17th century.
O'Sullivan was captain of one of the ships in the first fleet to establish English and Irish settlement at Charleston. In 1671, he became surveyor general, he appears in the earliest record of Irish immigration to the Carolinas, mentioned as being taken on "at Kingsayle in Ireland". Sullivan's Island was used as a quarantine station for African captives, who were housed in various "pest houses" on the island and checked for communicable diseases before they were transported to Charleston for sale at public auction. Sullivan's Island was the port of entry for over 40% of the estimated 400,000 slaves transported from Africa to Britain's North American Colonies, making it the largest slave port in North America, it is estimated that more than half of all African Americans have ancestors who passed through Sullivan's Island. "There is no suitable memorial, or plaque, or wreath or wall, or park or skyscraper lobby," writer Toni Morrison said in 1989. "There's no 300-foot tower, there's no small bench by the road."On July 26, 2008, the Toni Morrison Society dedicated a small, steel bench on Sullivan's Island to the memory of the Africans forced into slavery, one of several which are planned.
The memorial was funded. In 2009, the National Park Service installed a commemorative marker at Fort Moultrie describing the Sullivan's Island Quarantine Station. Albert Wheeler Todd, an architect from Charleston, designed a town hall for the island. For most of its history, the town, located on the southwest half of the island, was known as "Moultrieville". Atlanticville, a community on the north-east of the islands, merged with Moultrieville and together the two became the town of Sullivan's Island. In 1962, the new Charleston Light was built. In May 2006, the Town of Sullivan's Island became the first municipality in South Carolina to ban smoking in all public places; the ordinance passed the ban went into effect in June. The Atlanticville Historic District, Battery Gadsden, Battery Thomson, Fort Moultrie Quartermaster and Support Facilities Historic District, Moultrieville Historic District, Dr. John B. Patrick House, Sullivan's Island Historic District, U. S. Coast Guard Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
On June 28, 1776, an incomplete fort was held by colonial forces under Colonel William Moultrie against an onslaught by the British under General Sir Henry Clinton's army sailing with Commodore Sir Peter Parker's men-of-war. The British cannon had no effect on the sand-filled palmetto log walls of the fort. During this battle, a flag designed by Moultrie flew over the fortress; when this flag was shot down, Sergeant William Jasper picked it up and held it aloft, rallying the troops until a new standard could be provided. Because of the importance of this pivotal battle, that flag became symbolic of liberty in South Carolina, the South, the nation as a whole; the Battle of Sullivan's Island was commemorated by the addition of a white palmetto tree to the flag used to rally that day, known as the Moultrie Flag. This was used as the basis of the state flag of South Carolina; the victory is celebrated and June 28 is known as Carolina Day. The history of the island has been dominated by Fort Moultrie, until its closure in the late 1940s, served as the base of command for the defense of Charleston.
After World War II, the Department of Defense concluded that such coastal defense installations were no longer needed, given current technology and style of war. It is now used as heritage tourism. Sullivan's Island is located along the Atlantic Ocean near the center of Charleston County; the town is bordered to the west by the entrance to Charleston Harbor, to the north by Cove Inlet and the Intracoastal Waterway, to the east by Breach Inlet and Swinton Creek. The Ben Sawyer Bridge connects Sullivan's Island to Mount Pleasant to the north. A bridge spanning Breach Inlet connects it to Isle of Palms to the east. By road it is 9 miles north and west into Charleston. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the town of Sullivan's Island has a total area of 3.4 square miles, of which 2.5 square miles is land and 0.93 square miles, or 27.36%, is water. The town of Sullivan's Island is served by the Charleston International Airport, it is located in the City of North Charleston and is about 12 mi
History of Jews in Denver
The history of the Jews in Denver, Colorado extends from the discovery of gold in 1858 to the present day. Early Jewish pioneers were of German backgrounds and were involved in politics and local affairs, some were among the most prominent citizens of the time. Beginning in the 1880s, the influx of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe to the U. S. expanded the Denver Jewish community and exposed cultural rifts between Jews from German versus Yiddish speaking backgrounds. As Denver became a center for those seeking tuberculosis treatment, Jews were among those who came seeking healing, the Jewish community set up two important organizations that aided not only sick Jews, but the sick poor of all backgrounds. In the early 20th century, the Orthodox community in the city's West Side attracted religious new immigrants and built up a number of communal institutions; the community the poor in the West Side, had to deal with anti-Semitism, sometimes violent, the rise of the Ku Klux Klan in Colorado.
Beginning in the 1950s and continuing through the 1970s, the community began to spread out of the West Side to the East Side, the suburbs. The community remains vibrant today, as it has grown in the past decades so have the number of educational and religious organizations and institutions that serve it. By the year after the discovery of gold, 1859, there were about a dozen Jews in Denver from German or Central European backgrounds. Among them were four men – Hyman and Fred Salomon, Leopold Mayer, Abraham Jacobs – who would go on to serve on the Denver City Council, they are thought to have held the first religious service of any kind in Denver, in September 1859. In 1860, the first Jewish organization, the Hebrew Burial and Prayer Society, was formed. A B'nai B'rith lodge was started in 1872, Colorado's first synagogue, Temple Emanuel, was established in 1874. In 1889, Wolfe Londoner became the city's first Jewish mayor, although his tenure was short as he had to step down over corruption charges.
The wave of Eastern European Jewish immigrants to the U. S. that began in the 1880s from Imperial Russia, changed the makeup of the Denver Jewish community. The first Jews to come to Denver and establish the community were Reform, of German backgrounds, with some financial means; the new Jewish immigrants, were more traditional and Orthodox, spoke Yiddish, were poor. At this time, Colorado was starting to gain notoriety as "The World’s Sanitarium", a significant destination for those wanting to cure their tuberculosis known as consumption. A number of Jews recent immigrants, were in this category along with an estimated one third of the state and arrived in hopes that the drier, sunnier climate would help their illness. To meet the needs of this growing segment of Jews and the city's other sick poor, the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives, today known as National Jewish Health, the Jewish Consumptives Relief Society were formed. A certain rivalry and tension existed between the two organizations, in many ways mirroring the broader conflict and between German and Eastern European Jews in Denver.
While both were free, NHS, founded by the German Jewish community, had strict admissions criteria. These included that the illness was in an earlier stage, that the patient could prove they had funds to remain in the city or purchase a return home after discharge, the maximum stay at the facilities was limited to six months; these requirements, combined with a feeling that they were being condescended to or were unwelcome, made National Jewish appear infeasible to some Eastern European Jews, creating a sizable need that the Jewish Consumptives Relief Society was created to fill. Key in the formation of the city's charitable organizations and otherwise, was Frances Wisebart Jacobs, she was instrumental in the founding of both the National Jewish Hospital and the community chest, which would become United Way, her tireless work on behalf of the needy earned her a tribute in the stained glass of the Colorado capitol rotunda, one of 16 pioneers and the only woman depicted. Following a failed attempt to build a Jewish agriculture-based colony in Cotopaxi by a group of Orthodox families who had immigrated from the Russian Empire and HIAS, Denver's West Colfax neighborhood and West Side became home to a considerable Jewish population.
In 1897, the former colonists helped to found the neighborhood's first synagogue, Congregation Zera Abraham, which remains an active Orthodox synagogue today. At the turn of the 20th century, the Orthodox community in the West Side was continuously expanding by establishing synagogues, mikva’ot, educational institutions, Yiddish theater. A number of prominent Yiddish writers and Jewish intellectuals came to Denver to treat their tuberculosis, such as the poet Yehoash. Between 1900 and 1907, many Jewish immigrants moved directly to Denver due to its burgeoning religious community, Jewish settlement in the city reached its peak just prior to World War I. Bolstered by the number of tuberculosis patients, the Jewish population of the city reached 15,000 in 1912. In 1913, the Intermountain Jewish News was founded, which today is the largest Jewish paper in Colorado. After running away from home as a teenager, future Israeli Prime Minister Golda Meir lived in the West Side of Denver from 1913 to 1914 with her sister, who had moved to the city due to her tuberculosis.
It was in Denver that Golda met her future husband, Morris Meyerson, in her autobiography, My Life, she wrote "to the extent that my own future convictions were shaped and given form, ideas were discarded or accepted by me while I was growing up, those ta
Free people of color
In the context of the history of slavery in the Americas, free people of color were people of mixed African and European descent who were not enslaved. The term arose in the French colonies, including La Louisiane and settlements on Caribbean islands, such as Saint-Domingue and Martinique, where a distinct group of free people of color developed. Freed African slaves were included in the term affranchis, but they were considered as distinct from the free people of color. In these territories and major cities New Orleans, those cities held by the Spanish, a substantial third class of mixed-race, free people developed; these colonial societies classified mixed-race people in a variety of ways related to visible features and to the proportion of African ancestry. Racial classifications were numerous in Latin America; the term gens de couleur was used in France's West Indian colonies prior to the abolition of slavery, where it was a short form of gens de couleur libres. It referred to free people of mixed race African and European.
In the Thirteen Colonies settled by the British to become the United States, the term free negro was used to cover the same class of people – those who were free and visibly of ethnic African descent. Many were people of mixed race, freed because of relation to their master or other whites. By the late eighteenth century, the Upper South included many slaves of mixed race. Among the most well-known is Sally Hemings, a slave held by Thomas Jefferson and considered his concubine, she was three-quarters white, a half-sister to his late wife. Their four surviving Hemings children were born into slavery because of her status, were seven-eighths white; as adults, three passed into white society and married white in generations. By the late eighteenth century prior to the Haitian Revolution, Saint-Domingue was divided into three distinct groups: free whites. More than half of the affranchis were gens de couleur libres. In addition, maroons were sometimes able to establish independent small communities and a kind of freedom in the mountains, along with remnants of Haiti's original Taino people.
When slavery was ended in the colony in 1793, by action of the French government following the French Revolution, there were 28,000 anciens libres in Saint-Domingue. The term was used to distinguish those who were free, compared to those liberated by the general emancipation of 1793. About 16,000 of these anciens libres were gens de couleur libres. Another 12,000 were affranchis, black slaves who had either purchased their freedom or had been given it by their masters for various reasons. Regardless of their ethnicity, in Saint-Domingue freedmen had been able to own land; some owned large numbers of slaves themselves. The slaves were not friendly with the freedmen, who sometimes portrayed themselves to whites as bulwarks against a slave uprising; as property owners, freedmen tended to support distinct lines set between their own class and that of slaves. Working as artisans, shopkeepers or landowners, the gens de couleur became quite prosperous, many prided themselves on their European culture and descent.
They were well-educated in the French language, they tended to scorn the Haitian Creole language used by slaves. Most gens de couleur were reared as Roman Catholic part of French culture, many denounced the Vodoun religion brought with slaves from Africa. Under the ancien régime, despite the provisions of equality nominally established in the Code Noir, the gens de couleur were limited in their freedoms, they did not possess the same rights as white Frenchmen the right to vote. Most supported slavery on the island, at least up to the time of the French Revolution, but they sought equal rights for free people of color, which became an early central issue of the unfolding Haitian Revolution. The primary adversary of the gens de couleur before and into the Haitian Revolution were the poor white farmers and tradesmen of the colony, known as the petits blancs; because of the freedmen's relative economic success in the region, sometimes related to blood ties to influential whites, the petits blancs farmers resented their social standing and worked to keep them shut out of government.
Beyond financial incentives, the free coloreds caused the poor whites further problems in finding women to start a family. The successful mulattoes won the hands of the small number of eligible women on the island. With growing resentment, the working class whites monopolized assembly participation and caused the free people of color to look to France for legislative assistance; the free people of color won a major political battle on May 15, 1791 when the National Assembly in France voted to give full French citizenship to free men of color. The decree restricted citizenship to those persons; the free people of color were encouraged, many petits blancs were enraged. Fighting broke out in Saint-Domingue over exercising the National Assembly's decree; this turmoil played into the slaves' revolts on the island. In their competition for power, both the poor whites and free coloreds enlisted the help of slaves. By doing this, the feud helped to disintegrate class discipline and propel the slave population in the colony to seek further inclusion
Freedom of thought
Freedom of thought is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints. Freedom of thought is the precursor and progenitor of—and thus is linked to—other liberties, including freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of expression. Though freedom of thought is axiomatic for many other freedoms, they are in no way required for it to operate and exist; the conception of a freedom or a right does not guarantee its inclusion, legality, or protection via a philosophical caveat. It is a important concept in the Western world and nearly all democratic constitutions protect these freedoms. For instance, the Bill of Rights contains the famous guarantee in the First Amendment that laws may not be made that interfere with religion "or prohibiting the free exercise thereof". U. S. Supreme Court Justice Benjamin Cardozo reasoned in Palko v. Connecticut: Freedom of thought... is the matrix, the indispensable condition, of nearly every other form of freedom.
With rare aberrations a pervasive recognition of this truth can be traced in our history and legal. Such ideas are a vital part of international human rights law. In the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, binding on member states of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, "freedom of thought" is listed under Article 18: Everyone has the right to freedom of thought and religion; the United Nations' Human Rights Committee states that this, "distinguishes the freedom of thought, religion or belief from the freedom to manifest religion or belief. It does not permit any limitations whatsoever on the freedom of thought and conscience or on the freedom to have or adopt a religion or belief of one's choice; these freedoms are protected unconditionally". Article 19 of the UDHR guarantees that "Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression, it is impossible to know with certainty what another person is thinking, making suppression difficult. The concept is developed throughout the Bible, most in the writings of Paul of Tarsus.
Although Greek philosophers Plato and Socrates had discussed Freedom of Thought minimally, the edicts of King Ashoka have been called the first decree respecting Freedom of Conscience. In European tradition, aside from the decree of religious toleration by Constantine I at Milan in 313, the philosophers Themistius, Michel de Montaigne, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Alexandre Vinet, John Stuart Mill and the theologians Roger Williams and Samuel Rutherford have been considered major proponents of the idea of Freedom of Conscience. Queen Elizabeth I revoked a thought censorship law in the late sixteenth century, according to Sir Francis Bacon, she did "not to make windows into men's souls and secret thoughts". During her reign, mathematician and astronomer Giordano Bruno took refuge in England from the Italian Inquisition, where he published a number of his books regarding an infinite universe and topics banned by the Catholic Church. After leaving the safety of England, Bruno was burned as a heretic in Rome for refusing to recant his ideas.
For this reason, he is considered by some to be a martyr for free thought. However, freedom of expression can be limited through censorship, book burning, or propaganda, this tends to discourage freedom of thought. Examples of effective campaigns against freedom of expression are the Soviet suppression of genetics research in favor of a theory known as Lysenkoism, the book-burning campaigns of Nazi Germany, the radical anti-intellectualism enforced in Cambodia under Pol Pot, the strict limits on freedom of expression imposed by the Communist governments of the People's Republic of China and Cuba or by right-wing authoritarian dictatorships such as those of Augusto Pinochet in Chile and Francisco Franco in Spain; the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, which states that thought is inherently embedded in language, would support the claim that an effort to limit the use of words of language is a form of restricting freedom of thought. This was explored in George Orwell's novel 1984, with the idea of Newspeak, a stripped-down form of the English language alleged to lack the capacity for metaphor and limiting expression of original ideas.
More the development of neuroimaging technologies have raised concerns about entities being able to read and subsequently suppress thought. Although the issue is complicated by the mind-body problem, these concerns form the emerging field of neuroethics and neuroprivacy. D. V. Coornhert, Synod on the Freedom of Conscience: A Thorough Examination during the Gathering Held in the Year 1582 in the City of Freetown English translation Richard Joseph Cooke, Freedom of thought in religious teaching Lucas Swaine, "Freedom of Thought as a Basic Liberty," Political Theory, 46:3: 405-25. Https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0090591716676293 Eugene J. Cooper, "Man's Basic Freedom and Freedom of Conscience in the Bible: Reflections on 1 Corinthians 8–10", Irish Theological Quarterly Dec 1975 George Botterill and Peter Carruthers,'The Philosophy of Psychology', Cambridge University Press, p. 3 The Hon. Sir John Laws,'The Limitations of Human Rights', P
History of the Jews in the United States
There have been Jewish communities in the United States since colonial times. Early Jewish communities were Sephardi, composed of immigrants from Brazil and merchants who settled in cities; until the 1830s, the Jewish community of Charleston, South Carolina, was the largest in North America. In the late 1800s and the beginning of the 1900s, many Jewish immigrants left from various nations to enter the U. S. as part of the general rise of immigration movements. For example, many German Jews arrived in the middle of the 19th century, established clothing stores in towns across the country, formed Reform synagogues, were active in banking in New York. Immigration of Eastern Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews, in 1880–1914, brought a large, traditional element to New York City, they were Conservative in religion. They founded the Zionist movement in the United States, were active supporters of the Socialist party and labor unions. Economically, they concentrated in the garment industry. Refugees arrived from diaspora communities in Europe after World War II and, after 1970, from the Soviet Union.
Politically, American Jews have been active as part of the liberal New Deal coalition of the Democratic Party since the 1930s, although there is a conservative Republican element among the Orthodox. They have displayed high education levels, high rates of upward social mobility; the Jewish communities in small towns have declined, with the population becoming concentrated in large metropolitan areas. In the 1940s, Jews comprised 3.7% of the national population. Today, at about 6.5 million, the population is 2% of the national total—and shrinking as a result of low birth rates and Jewish assimilation. The largest population centers are the metropolitan areas of New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and Boston; the Jewish population of the U. S. is the product of waves of immigration from diaspora communities in Europe. Few returned to Europe, although committed advocates of Zionism have made aliyah to Israel. From a population of 1,000–2,000 Jewish residents in 1790 Dutch Sephardic Jews, Jews from England, British subjects, the American Jewish community grew to about 15,000 by 1840, to about 250,000 by 1880.
Most of the mid-19th century Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants to the U. S. came from diaspora communities in German-speaking states, in addition to the larger concurrent indigenous German migration. They spoke German, settled across the nation, assimilating with their new countrymen. Between 1880 and the start of World War I in 1914, about 2,000,000 Yiddish-speaking Ashkenazi Jews immigrated from diaspora communities in Eastern Europe, where repeated pogroms made life untenable, they came from Jewish diaspora communities of Russia, the Pale of Settlement, the Russian-controlled portions of Poland. The latter group clustered in New York City, created the garment industry there, which supplied the dry goods stores across the country, were engaged in the trade unions, they immigrated alongside indigenous eastern and southern European immigrants, unlike the predominant American demographic from northern and western Europe. This feared change caused renewed nativist sentiment, the birth of the Immigration Restriction League, congressional studies by the Dillingham Commission from 1907 to 1911.
The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established immigration restrictions on these groups, the Immigration Act of 1924 further tightened and codified these limits. With the ensuing Great Depression, despite worsening conditions for Jews in Europe, with the rise of Nazi Germany, these quotas remained in place with minor alterations until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. Jews created support networks consisting of many small synagogues and Ashkenazi Jewish Landsmannschaften for Jews from the same town or village. Leaders of the time urged assimilation and integration into the wider American culture, Jews became part of American life. During World War II, 500,000 American Jews, about half of all Jewish males between 18 and 50, enlisted for service, after the war, Jewish families joined the new trend of suburbanization, as they became wealthier and more mobile; the Jewish community expanded to other major cities around Los Angeles and Miami. Their young people attended secular high schools and colleges and met non-Jews, so that intermarriage rates soared to nearly 50%.
Synagogue membership, grew from 20% of the Jewish population in 1930 to 60% in 1960. The earlier waves of immigration and immigration restriction were followed by the Holocaust that destroyed most of the European Jewish community by 1945. In 1900 there were 1.5 million American Jews. See Historical Jewish population comparisons On a theological level, American Jews are divided into a number of Jewish denominations, of which the most numerous are Reform Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Orthodox Judaism; however 25% of American Jews are unaffiliated with any denomination. Cons