History of the book in Brazil

The history of the book in Brazil focuses on the development of the access to publishing resources and acquisition of the book in the country, covering a period extending from the beginning of the editorial activity during colonization to today's publishing market, including the history of publishing and bookstores that allowed the modern accessibility to the book. It is believed that printing was only introduced by the settlers and colonisers in the colonies, which had a developed indigenous culture that the colonial power wanted to supplant or suppress; this idea is supported by others. Printing, in the first two centuries of Portuguese and Spanish colonization, was in part a result of Christian evangelization, it was deployed through religious initiative, so that its production was destined to meet the clergy's needs and that of the missions. "História da Companhia de Jesus no Brasil", by Serafim Leite, says that the library of Colégio Santo Inácio, in O Morro do Castelo, Rio de Janeiro.

This centre is believed to have undertaken some printed jobs around 1724, the accuracy of the claim not be ascertained. It could be referring to two books of the time, "Vocabulário de la lengua guarany", by Antônio Luiz Restrepo, "Arte de la lengua guarany", which were printed in a region, part of Brazil, but which at the time belonged to Paraguay, Pueblo de Santa Maria la Mayor. In most colonies, the necessities of governance made it an imperative to accept printing, only in Portuguese Latin America did the administration remained so elementary that this need was dispensed with; this need only become imminent when the government of the colony suffered the impact of the Napoleonic invasion, a few years later. The first attempt to introduce effective printing into Brazil was made by the Dutch, during the period of their occupation of northeastern Brazil, between 1630 and 1650. During the Dutch occupation, negotiations between Pernambuco and the Netherlands resulted in the selection of a printer, Janszonon Pieter, to be in charge of printing in Recife, but he died as soon as he arrived in Brazil on 3 August 1643.

Two years the Dutch West Indies Company was still looking out for a printer without success. At the time, Maurice of Nassau had left, the pressured Dutch no longer gave priority to the subject. About 60 years Recife had the first printer of Brazil according to historians Ferreira de Carvalho and Pereira da Costa, but the identity of the printer is not known. Serafim Leite, in "Arts and Workshops of the Jesuits in Brazil,", says the printer worked from 1703 to 1706, argues that the typesetter was a Jesuit, Antonio da Costa, but there is no proof, the existence of such a printer. In Rio de Janeiro, in 1747, there is definitive evidence is available that there was a printer, via leaflets printed at the time; the printer was Antonio Isidoro da Fonseca, a recognized typographer of Lisbon, who had sold his business and come to. Isidoro had problems in Lisbon, with the Inquisition, being considered as "The Jew" editor. Antonio Jose da Silva, of Rio, was born in 1703 from a family of converted Jews, that turned out to be burned in an auto de fé of the Inquisition on 19 October 1739.

At the time, the governor of and, Gomes Freire de Andrade, was interested in stimulating the intellectual life of the city of Rio de Janeiro. He encouraged the creation of Academia dos felizes in 1736, which became the Academia dos Selectos in 1752, which met at the Palácio do Governo itself. Concrete proof of the existence of printing was a leaflet, 1747, whose authorship is attributed to Luiz Antonio Rosado, a so-called volume "Hoc est Conclusiones real entity Metaphysicae, praeside RGM Francisco de Faria" in 1747. There are two other works; as soon as the news reached Lisbon, there was order to close the letterpress, because printing in the colony was not considered appropriate at the time. Isidoro returned to Portugal, after three years, requested a royal license to reinstate himself as a printer in the colony, in Rio de Janeiro or Salvador, promising never to print without the appropriate civil and ecclesiastical licenses; the request was rejected Portugal's prohibition of printing in Brazil was the factor that made all Brazilian documents to get to be published in Europe or to remain in the form of manuscripts.

There are several papers written by Brazilians and printed in Portugal at the time, including the poetry of Claudio Manuel da Costa, the work of José de Santa Rita Durão, Jose Basilio da Gama, Tomas Antonio Gonzaga. In 1792, there were only two bookstores in Rio de Janeiro, one of these was run by Paul Martim, a native of Tours and the first Rio bookseller, his son, Paul Martim Filho kept the bookstore running until 1823. The books offered were pertaining to medicine or religion, most of the books that arrived in Brazil at the time were smuggled in. In 1808, when the royal family, under pressure from Napoleon's invasion, moved to Brazil, it took with them 60,000 volumes of the Royal Library. Installed in the new capital, Rio de Janeiro, Dom João VI and his ministers created, among other developments, the Royal Library, now the National Library, established in 1810; the impact of this develo

Edwin Percy Whipple

Edwin Percy Whipple was an American essayist and critic. He was born in Gloucester, Massachusetts in 1819. For a time, he was the main literary critic for Philadelphia-based Graham's Magazine. In 1848, he became the Boston correspondent to The Literary World under Evert Augustus Duyckinck and George Long Duyckinck. Historian Perry Miller called Whipple "Boston's most popular critic". Whipple was a public lecturer. In 1850, he defended the intelligence of George Washington and compared him to other brilliant men of his time in a speech which became known as "The Genius of Washington". Whipple was a close friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne. After Hawthorne's death in 1864, Whipple served as a pallbearer for his funeral alongside Amos Bronson Alcott, Ralph Waldo Emerson, James Thomas Fields, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Whipple's close relationship with other Boston-area authors tinted his reviews. Edward Emerson noted, "No other member of the Saturday Club has been more loyally felicitous in characterizing the literary work of his associates."Whipple died in 1886 and was interred at Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

His first book was Essays and Reviews, followed by: Character and Characteristic Men Success and its Conditions Literature of the Age of Elizabeth Recollections of Eminent Men American Literature and Other Papers Outlooks on Society and Politics An edition of his Charles Dickens, with an introduction by Arlo Bates, appeared in 1912. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Whipple biography at the Boston Public Library web site Works by Edwin Percy Whipple at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Edwin Percy Whipple at Internet Archive The Genius of Washington speech

Clinical mental health counseling

Clinical mental health counseling is a distinct profession with national standards for education and clinical practice. Clinical mental health counselors operate from a wellness perspective, which emphasizes moving toward optimal human functioning in mind and spirit, away from distress and mental illness. Counselors view wellness and pathology as developmental in nature, take into consideration all levels of a client's environment when conducting assessment and treatment. Counselors frequently take a team approach, collaborating with other mental health professionals to provide the most comprehensive care possible for the client. Early Greek philosophy provides some of the earliest views of mental illness. Hippocrates, considered the father of medicine, related behavioral tendencies and a person's temperament to the relative balance of their body fluids, he believed. Other Greek philosophers such as Plato theorized that aberrant behaviors stemmed from societal issues that required a community response.

Promoting happiness and wellness was a major theme for the early Greeks and Romans. The founder of hedonism, advocated for the hedonistic lifestyle, but he warned that there was a risk of pain if the pleasures were withdrawn. Epictetus, on the other hand, believed that people were not disturbed by things, but by the view they took of those things, so he advocated for peace of mind to treat these disturbances. There were both humane treatments developed in the Middle Ages for the mentally ill. Most behaviors that could not be explained were attributed to supernatural causes and that humans innately had a battle between good and evil happening inside of them all the time. People were tested to see if they were evil or with the devil using “water tests”. In Baghdad and Damascus, however, in the ninth and tenth centuries, humane treatments were being developed in which centers of care for the mentally ill were based in love and kindness. Humanity regressed again in the 16th century when hospitals known as asylums were developed to provide a place for people who were unable to care for themselves.

These institutions were terrible and people were kept in restraints and left there in their own waste. In the late 1700s, there were people who began to reform the system and developed something known as moral treatment at the time. Moral treatment included organized schedules of productive behavior, entertainment, education and nutrition. In the early 1900s, counseling had not yet developed into treatment of mental health issues and was more focused in education. Frank Parsons, known as the father of guidance, developed a plan to educate counselors and began the Vocational Guidance Movement, he was concerned with the problems of youth as youth unemployment became a major concern for adolescents as urbanization occurred and sustainable work and family income generated on family farms was not as prevalent. At this time, counselors were considered vocational counselors and this initiated the approach that began to form the more contemporary counseling process. Around the same time, Clifford Beers, a former patient of mental health hospitals, wrote a book exposing the terrible conditions of mental health institutions and he advocated for reform.

Beers founded the National Committee for Mental Hygiene, which became the National Mental Health Association. Jessie B. Davis was the first individual to make guidance a regular part of the school curriculum, he was a superintendent or administrator and advocated for what became school guidance and counseling. During the great depression, counseling methods and strategies for employment grew as it was needed at the time. In 1932, Brewer wrote a book entitled “Education as Guidance”, which promoted the broadening of counseling beyond just occupation, he suggested that every teacher share the implementation of counseling and that guidance needed to be in every school curriculum. In the 1940s, Carl Rogers began the development of psychotherapy, he believed that the client knows best and that only they could explain what their needs are and what direction to go in counseling based on what problems were crucial and needed attention. Rogers indicated that he was not doing psychology and the courses he taught were based in the department of education.

World War II brought to the forefront the importance of testing and placement as there was a strong need for selection and training of specialists for the military and industry. Counselors and Psychologists had the necessary skills to fill this much needed role. At the same time, thousands of soldiers were in need as a result of their combat experiences; the veterans administration provided professional counseling services to soldiers after their discharge and in 1945, the VA granted stipends and internships for students in counseling and psychology, boosting the support and training available to counselors. This time marked the beginning of government spending on counselor preparation. Clinical psychologists were trained to treat and diagnose individuals with chronic disorders, counseling psychologists were trained to deal with issues presented by people with high levels of mental health; this led to a new division or category of psychologists and the Division of Counseling and Guidance of the American Psychological Association changed the title to the Division of Counseling Psychology.

In the 1950s, flaws in the existing mental health system were being exposed and clinically effective pharmacological treatments were being developed that could be provided in outpatient settings. This led to a need for community based clinics, but access to t