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History of the horse in the Indian subcontinent

The horse has been present in the Indian subcontinent from at least the middle of the second millennium BC, more than two millennia after its domestication in Central Asia. The earliest uncontroversial evidence of horse remains on the Indian Subcontinent date to the early Swat culture. Ashva is one of the significant animals finding references in several Hindu scriptures. In periods, the difficulty of breeding large numbers of horses in the Indian climate meant they needed to be imported in large numbers from Central Asia, but elsewhere. Although the usual assumption has been that the Indo-Aryan migration relied on riders, who may have introduced the domesticated horse to the subcontinent, there are few clear references to actual horse riding in their earliest text, the Rigveda, most in RV 5.61.2-3, describing the Maruts as riders: Where are your horses, where the reins? How came ye? How had ye the power? Rein was on seat on back; the whip is laid upon the flank. The heroes stretch their thighs apart, like women.

According to RV 7.18.19, Dasyu tribes had horses. McDonnell and Keith point out; this is in accord with the usual dating of the Rigveda to the late Bronze Age, when horses played a role as means of transport as draught animals. RV 1.163.2 mythologically alludes to the introduction of the horse and horseriding: This Steed which Yama gave hath Trita harnessed, him, the first of all, hath Indra mounted. His bridle the Gandharva grasped. O Vasus, from out the Sun ye fashioned forth the Courser; the Ashvamedha or horse sacrifice is a notable ritual of the Yajurveda. One of the famous avatars of Vishnu, Hayagriva, is depicted with a horse head. Hayagriva is worshipped as the God for Knowledge; the legend states the first horse emerged from the depth of the ocean during the churning of the oceans. It had two wings, it was known by the name of Uchchaihshravas. The legend continues that Indra, one of the gods of the Hindus, took away the mythical horse to his celestial abode, the svarga. Subsequently, Indra presented the same to the mankind.

The wings were severed to ensure the horse remains on the earth and does not fly back to Indra’s suvarga. According to Aurobindo, Asva may not always denote the horse. Aurobindo argued the words asvavati symbolize energy. Asva or ratha was interpreted to be sometimes the "psycho-physical complex on which the Atman stands or in which it is seated". In another symbolic interpretation based on RV 1.164.2 and Nirukta 4.4.27, asva may sometimes symbolize the sun. Remains of the Equus namadicus have been found from Pleistocene levels in India; the Equus namadicus is related to the Equus sivalensis. The Equus sivalensis lived in the Himalayan foothills in prehistoric times and it is assumed it was extinct during the last Ice Age. Remains of horses have been claimed to have been found in deposits at Mahagara near Allahabad, Hallur in Karnataka, Mohenjo-Daro, Lothal and Kuntasi. Horse remains from the Harappan site Surkotada have been identified by A. K. Sharma as Equus ferus caballus; the horse specialist Sandor Bökönyi confirmed these conclusions and stated the excavated tooth specimens could "in all probability be considered remnants of true horses ".

Bökönyi stated that "The occurrence of true horse was evidenced by the enamel pattern of the upper and lower cheek and teeth and by the size and form of incisors and phalanges.". However, archaeologists like Meadow disagree, on the grounds that the remains of the Equus ferus caballus horse are difficult to distinguish from other equid species such as Equus asinus or Equus hemionus. An alleged clay model of a horse has been found in Mohenjo-Daro and an alleged horse figurine in Periano Ghundai in the Indus Valley. Trautmann thus remarked the supply and import of horses has "always" been a preoccupation of the Indians and "it is a structure of its history that India has always been dependent upon western and central Asia for horses." The paucity of horse remains could be explained by India's climatic factors which lead to decay of horse bones. Horse bones may be rare because horses were not eaten or used in burials by the Harappans. Other sites, such as the BMAC complex, are at least; the horse only appears in Mesopotamia from around 1800 BC as a ridden animal and acquires military significance with the invention of the chariot.

Domestication of the horse before the second millennium appears to be confined to its native habitat. Colin Renfrew remarked, "the significance of the horse... has been much exaggerated", Bryant holds, "using such negative evidence, by the same logic used to eliminate India as a candidate any potential homeland can be disqualified due to lacking some fundamental Proto-Indo-European item or another". Renfrew's statement refers to his own Anatolian hypothesis, which i

James Feddeck

James Feddeck is an orchestral conductor. From 2009-2013 he served as Assistant Conductor of the Cleveland Orchestra and Music Director of the Cleveland Orchestra Youth Orchestra, his performances with the Cleveland Orchestra received regular critical acclaim, he is regarded as having elevated the profile of the youth orchestra to that of an international level, having led the orchestra’s first major concert tour in the European cities of Vienna and Prague. He is a guest conductor with orchestras around the world including the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra, Deutsche Oper Berlin, Halle Orchestra, Residentie Orchestra at the Concertgebouw, in North America, the Atlanta Symphony Orchestra, Houston Symphony, Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, Milwaukee Symphony Orchestra, Seattle Symphony, Vancouver Symphony Orchestra, Ottawa National Arts Centre Orchestra, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, he is a graduate of the Oberlin Conservatory of Music where he holds the distinction of having been awarded the first Outstanding Young Alumni Award for professional achievement and contributions to society.

In 2013, the Solti Foundation U. S. awarded Feddeck the Sir Georg Solti Conducting Award, the Solti Fellow. He had been recognized in 2009 by the Solti Foundation U. S

Augustus Romaldus Wright

Augustus Romaldus Wright was an American politician and lawyer, as well as a colonel in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. Augustus Wright was born in Wrightsboro and attended public school in Appling. Wright attended the Franklin College of Arts and Sciences, the founding college of the University of Georgia in Athens where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society. Wright studied law at the Litchfield Law School in Connecticut and was admitted to the State Bar of Georgia in 1835—becoming a practicing attorney in Crawfordville, the same year. From 1842 until 1849, Wright served as judge of the superior court of the Cherokee circuit and from 1855-57 as a judge of the superior court of Georgia. In 1856, Augustus Wright was elected to the U. S. House of Representatives and served one term from 1857–59, he served as a delegate to the Georgia Secession Convention and the Confederate Secession Convention. President Abraham Lincoln offered Wright the position of provisional governor of Georgia but Wright declined.

Wright subsequently served in the First Confederate Congress. Augustus Wright organized "Wright’s Legion" of Georgia volunteers and served as a colonel in the Georgia 38th Infantry Regiment for the Confederate States Army in the Army of Northern Virginia. After the war, Wright served as a member of the Georgia constitutional convention in 1877, he died in 1891 at his home near Rome and was buried in Rome's Myrtle Hill Cemetery. Confederate States of America, causes of secession, "Died of states' rights" List of signers of the Georgia Ordinance of Secession

Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia

The Prime Minister of Saudi Arabia is the chair of the Council of Ministers and formal head of government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Since the reign of King Faisal, the prime minister post has been held by the king; the office was created along with the Council of Ministers on 9 October 1953, by decree of King Saud. Due to unrest within the royal family over his rule, Saud was forced to appoint his half-brother, Crown Prince Faisal, as prime minister. An ongoing power struggle between the two led to Faisal's resignation in 1960, allowing Saud to reclaim the reins of government, but continued discontent saw Faisal return as prime minister in 1962. After the deposition of Saud in 1964, Faisal succeeded him while remaining prime minister. Since the two offices have been merged. However, since the reign of King Khalid, others have done much of the "heavy lifting" as the king was either unwilling or unable to carry the workload as the kingdom became a gerontocracy during the 1990s and 2000s. Royal Favorites achieved power to become de facto prime ministers.

The current one is the King's son Mohammad, his father's top aide. King Saud: 9 October 1953 – 16 August 1954 Crown Prince Faisal: 16 August 1954 – 21 December 1960 King Saud: 21 December 1960 – 31 October 1962 Crown Prince Faisal 31 October 1962 – 2 November 1964 Since the time of the coup, the Kingship and the prime ministership have been one and the same. King Faisal: 2 November 1964 – 25 March 1975 King Khalid: 29 March 1975 – 13 June 1982 King Fahd: 13 June 1982 – 1 August 2005 King Abdullah: 1 August 2005 – 23 January 2015 King Salman: 23 January 2015 – present Crown Prince Fahd: 1975–1982. Crown Prince Abdullah: 21 February 1996 – 1 August 2005. Mohammed bin Abdullah Al-Nuweisir, Chief of the Royal Court and Chief of staff To Regent/King Abdullah 1996–2005 Khaled al-Tuwaijri: Chief of Staff/private secretary and éminence grise to King Abdullah with the title of President of the Royal Court.

William Marvin

William Marvin was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida and the 7th Governor of Florida. Born on April 14, 1808, in Fairfield, New York, Marvin read law in 1834, he entered private practice in Phelps, New York in 1834. He was the United States Attorney for the Southern District of Florida Territory from 1835 to 1839, he was a member of the Florida Territorial Council in 1837. He was a delegate to the Florida Constitutional Convention from 1838 to 1839, he was a Judge of the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida Territory from 1839 to 1845. He resumed private practice in Key West, Florida Territory from 1845 to 1847. Marvin was nominated by President James K. Polk on March 2, 1847, to the United States District Court for the Southern District of Florida, to a new seat authorized by 9 Stat. 131. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on March 3, 1847, received his commission the same day, his service terminated on July 1863, due to his resignation.

Following his resignation from the federal bench, Marvin resumed private practice in New York City, New York from 1863 to 1865. He was appointed to serve as the provisional and 7th Governor of Florida by President Andrew Johnson, serving from July 13, 1865 to December 20, 1865, he was a United States Senator-elect from Florida in 1866, but the United States Senate refused to seat him. He continued private practice in Skaneateles, New York from 1867 to 1902, he died on July 1902, in Skaneateles. Marvin was the author of a nationally recognized textbook entitled A Treatise on the Law of Wreck and Salvage, on salvage law. Marvin's brother, Richard P. Marvin, was a member of the United States House of Representatives and a New York state judge. William Marvin at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. "Official Governor's portrait and biography from the State of Florida". "Southern District of Florida". Www.justice.gov. 13 November 2014.

"William Marvin". Web.archive.org. 14 September 2004

John Selden

John Selden was an English jurist, a scholar of England's ancient laws and constitution and scholar of Jewish law. He was known as a polymath, he was born at Salvington, in the parish of West Tarring, West Sussex, was baptised at St Andrew's, the parish church. The cottage in which he was born survived until 1959 when it was destroyed by a fire caused by an electrical fault, his father, another John Selden, had a small farm. It is said that his skill as a violin-player was what attracted his wife, from a better family, being the only child of Thomas Baker of Rustington and descended from a knightly family of Kent. Selden was educated at the free grammar school at Chichester, The Prebendal School, in 1600 he went on to Hart Hall, Oxford. In 1603 he was admitted to London, his earliest patron was Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, the antiquary, who seems to have employed him to copy and summarise some of the parliamentary records held at the Tower of London. For some reason, Selden rarely practised in court, but his practice in chambers as a conveyancer and consulting counsel was large and lucrative.

In 1618, his History of Tithes appeared. Although it had passed censorship and licensing, this dissertation on the historical basis of the tithe system caused anxiety among the bishops and provoked the intervention of the king, James I; the author was compelled to retract his opinions. His work was suppressed, he was forbidden to reply to anyone who might come forward to answer it; this all seems to have caused Selden's entry into politics. Although he was not in the Parliament of England, he was the instigator and the draughtsman of the Protestation of 1621 on the rights and privileges of the House, affirmed by the House of Commons on 18 December 1621, he and several others were imprisoned, at first in the Tower and under the charge of Sir Robert Ducie, sheriff of London. During his brief detention, he occupied himself in preparing an edition of medieval historian Eadmer's History from a manuscript lent to him by his host or jailor, which he published two years afterwards. In 1623 he was returned to the House of Commons for the borough of Lancaster, sat with John Coke, William Noy and John Pym on Sergeant Glanville's election committee.

He was nominated reader of Lyon's Inn, an office he declined to undertake. For this the benchers of the Inner Temple fined him £20 and disqualified him from being one of their number. After a few years, he became a master of the bench. In the first parliament of Charles I, it appears from the "returns of members" printed in 1878 that contrary to the assertion of all his biographers, he had no seat. In Charles's second parliament, he was elected for Great Bedwyn in Wiltshire, took a prominent part in the impeachment of George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham. In the following year, in Darnell's Case, he was counsel for Sir Edmund Hampden in the Court of King's Bench. In 1628 he was returned to the third parliament of Charles for Ludgershall and was involved in drawing up and carrying the Petition of Right. In the session of 1629 he was one of the members responsible for the tumultuous passage in the House of Commons of the resolution against the illegal levy of tonnage and poundage, along with Sir John Eliot, Denzil Holles, Valentine, William Strode, the rest, he was sent back to the Tower.

There he remained for eight months, deprived for a part of the time of the use of books and writing materials. He was removed, under less rigorous conditions, to the Marshalsea, until Archbishop Laud arranged for him to be freed; some years before, he had been appointed steward to the Earl of Kent, to whose seat, Wrest in Bedfordshire, he now retired. He was not elected to the Short Parliament of 1640, he opposed the resolution against episcopacy which led to the exclusion of the bishops from the House of Lords, printed an answer to the arguments used by Sir Harbottle Grimston on that occasion. He joined in the protestation of the Commons for the maintenance of the Protestant religion according to the doctrines of the Church of England, the authority of the crown, the liberty of the subject, he was opposed to the court on the question of the commissions of lieutenancy of array and to the parliament on the question of the militia ordinance. In the end, he supported Parliament against King Charles, according to him, Charles was acting illegally.

In 1643, he participated in the discussions of the Westminster Assembly, where his Erastian views were opposed by George Gillespie. Selden's allies included Thomas Coleman, John Lightfoot, Bulstrode Whitelocke. In October 1643, Selden was appointed by Commons to take control of the office of Clerk and Keeper of the Records in the Tower, which duty passed to the Master of the Rolls in 1651. In 1645 he was named one of the parliamentary commissioners of the admiralty and was elected master of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, an office that he declined to accept. In 1646, he subscribed to the Solemn League and Covenant and, in 1647, was voted £5000 by the parliament as compensation for his pains under the monarchy. After the death of the Earl of Kent in 1639, Selden lived permanently under the same roof with the earl's widow, the former Elizabeth Talbot, it is believed that he married her, althou