New York State Assembly
The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York State Legislature, the New York State Senate being the upper house. There are 150 seats in the Assembly, with each of the 150 Assembly districts having an average population of 128,652. Assembly members serve two-year terms without term limits; the Assembly convenes at the State Capitol in Albany. The Speaker of the Assembly presides over the Assembly; the Speaker is elected by the Majority Conference followed by confirmation of the full Assembly through the passage of an Assembly Resolution. In addition to presiding over the body, the Speaker has the chief leadership position, controls the flow of legislation and committee assignments; the minority leader is elected by party caucus. The majority leader of the Assembly is selected by, serves at the pleasure of, the Speaker; the current Speaker is Democrat Carl Heastie of the 83rd Assembly District. The Majority Leader is Crystal Peoples-Stokes of the 141st Assembly District The Minority Leader is Republican Brian Kolb of the 131st Assembly District.
As of July 23, 2018, the following is a list of Assembly committees and committee chairs. +Elected in a special election New York State Capitol New York Legislature New York State Senate Political party strength in New York New York Provincial Congress Official website
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
A rollover is a type of vehicle crash in which a vehicle tips over onto its side or roof. Rollovers have a higher fatality rate than other types of vehicle collisions. Vehicle rollovers are divided into two categories: tripped and untripped. Tripped rollovers are caused by forces from an external object, such as a curb or a collision with another vehicle. Untripped crashes are the result of steering input and friction with the ground. Untripped rollovers occur; as a vehicle rounds a corner, three forces act on it: tire forces, inertial effects, gravity. The cornering forces from the tire push the vehicle towards the center of the curve; this force acts below the center of mass. The force of inertia acts horizontally through the vehicle's center of mass away from the center of the turn; these two forces make the vehicle roll towards the outside of the curve. The force of the vehicle's weight acts downward through the center of mass in the opposite direction; when the tire and inertial forces are enough to overcome the force of gravity, the vehicle starts to turn over.
The most common type of tripped rollover occurs when a vehicle is sliding sideways, the tires strike a curb, dig into soft ground, or a similar event occurs that results in a sudden increase in lateral force. The physics are similar to cornering rollovers. In a 2003 report, this was the most common mechanism, accounting for 71% of single-vehicle rollovers. Another type of tripped rollover occurs due to a collision with another object; these occur when the collision causes the vehicle to become unstable, such as when a narrow object causes one side of the vehicle to accelerate upwards, but not the other. Turned down guard. A side impact can accelerate a vehicle sideways; the tires resist the change, the coupled forces rotate the vehicle. In 1983, crash tests showed that light trucks were prone to rolling over after colliding with certain early designs of guide rail. A rollover can occur as a vehicle crosses a ditch or slope. Slopes steeper than 33% are called "critical slopes" because they can cause most vehicles to overturn.
A vehicle may roll over for other reasons, such as when hitting a large obstacle with one of its wheels or when maneuvering over uneven terrain. All vehicles are susceptible to rollovers to various extents. Rollover tendency increases with the height of the center of mass, narrowness of the axle track, steering sensitivity, increased speed; the rollover threshold for passenger cars is over 1 g of lateral acceleration. The Tesla Model S has an unusually low rollover risk of 5.7% due to its low center of mass. Light trucks will roll over at lateral accelerations of 0.8 to 1.2 g. Large commercial trucks will roll at lateral accelerations as low as 0.2 g Trucks are more to roll over than passenger cars because they have taller bodies and higher ground clearance. This raises the center of mass. SUVs are prone to rollover those outfitted with long travel off-road suspensions; the increased suspension height for increased clearance off-road raises the center of mass. Full-size vans don't have off-road suspensions, but their increased body height makes them more prone to tip.
Fifteen passenger vans such as the Ford E-Series, are notorious for rolling over because their height is increased by the heavy-duty suspensions necessary to carry large numbers of people. The rollover tendency is increased when the vehicles are loaded, it is recommended to not load anything on the roof of such vans, to use drivers experienced or trained in safe operation of the vehicle. In such cases, familiarity with the vehicle's behavior loaded and unloaded, avoiding sudden swerving maneuvers, reducing speed through tight turns can decrease the rollover risk associated with these vehicles. Manufacturers of SUVs post warnings on the driver's sun-visor. Among the vehicles which have received publicity for tendencies to roll over are the Ford Bronco II, Suzuki Samurai, Jeep CJ, Mitsubishi Pajero/Montero, Isuzu Trooper. Military vehicles have a much wider wheel track than civilian SUVs, making them more difficult to roll over. However, IEDs in Iraq and Afghanistan cause roll overs not seen by civilian vehicles.
The top turret gunner is vulnerable. A tall passenger coach made US headlines when 14 passengers were killed in New York in 2011; the bus flipped on its side and hit a pole which split off the top of the vehicle. Vehicles sold in the United States, sorted by risk as evaluated by the U. S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Click <> to sort by other parameters. After a rollover, the vehicle may end up lying on its side or roof blocking the doors and complicating the escape for the passengers. Large passenger vehicles such as buses and trolley buses that have doors on one side only have one or more methods of using windows for escape in case of a rollover; some have special windows with handles to pull. Some have tools for making an improvised exit; some have emergency exit door or hatches in their roofs or on the opposite side of the bus to the usual entry door. Some combine two or more of these escape methods. Rollover crashes are deadly for the occupants of a vehicle when compared to frontal, side, or rear crashes, because in normal passenger vehicles, the roof is to collapse in towards the occupants and cause severe head injuries.
The use of roll cages in vehicles would make them much safer, but in most passenger vehicles t
A head-on collision is a traffic collision where the front ends of two vehicles such as cars, ships or planes hit each other in opposite directions, as opposed to a side collision or rear-end collision. With railways, a head-on collision occurs most on a single line railway; this means that at least one of the trains has passed a signal at danger, or that a signalman has made a major error. Head-on collisions may occur at junctions, for similar reasons. In the early days of railroading in the United States, such collisions were quite common and gave to the rise of the term "Cornfield Meet." As time progressed and signalling became more standardized, such accidents became less frequent. So, the term still sees some usage in the industry; the origins of the term are not well known, but it is attributed to accidents happening in rural America where farming and cornfields were common. The first known usage of the term was in the mid-19th century; the distance required for a train to stop is greater than the distance that can be seen before the next blind curve, why signals and safeworking systems are so important.
Note: if the collision occurs at a station or junction, or trains are traveling in the same direction the collision is not a pure head-on collision. September 10, 1874 — Thorpe rail accident, England — telegraph clerk's error. January 26, 1921 — Abermule train collision, Montgomeryshire — failure to observe proper procedures. October 20, 1957 — Yarımburgaz train disaster, near Istanbul, Turkey: 95 killed. November 16, 1960 — Stéblová train disaster, Czechoslovakia: 118 killed. 1969 — Violet Town railway disaster, Australia — dead driver drives through crossing loop. May 27, 1971 — Radevormwald, West Germany — Dahlerau train disaster — A freight train and a passenger train crashed into each other. May 4, 1976 - Schiedam train disaster, The Netherlands: An international train coming from Hook of Holland collided with a commuter train coming from Rotterdam resulting in 24 deaths. August 28, 1979 - Nijmegen train disaster, The Netherlands: Two passenger trains—of which one did not contain passengers—collided head-on near the Kolpingbuurt neighbourhood in Nijmegen resulting in 8 deaths.
July 25, 1980 — Winsum train disaster, The Netherlands: Two trains collide on a single track between Groningen and Roodeschool resulting in 9 deaths. February 8, 1986 — Hinton train collision, Alberta — freight train passed red light due to sleeping crew. February 17, 1986 — Queronque rail accident, Valparaíso Region — Two passenger trains collied due lack of communication between the two stations. October 19, 1987 — Bintaro train crash — two passenger train collided due to signal misunderstanding. 1989/1991 — Glasgow Bellgrove rail crash and Newton rail accident, Scotland — both SPAD’s with track layout at single lead junctions a major contributory factor October 15, 1994 — Cowden rail crash, England. January 14, 1996 — Hines Hill train collision, Australia — Signal passed at danger at a crossing loop causes a head-on collision August 12, 1998 – 1998 Suonenjoki rail collision, Finland – A southbound InterCity train leaves Suonenjoki through a red signal and collides with a northbound freight train.
August 2, 1999 — Gauhati rail disaster — Two express trains collide head-on in. Over 285 people are killed. October 5, 1999 — Paddington train crash - head-on collision at Ladbroke Grove. January 4, 2000 — Åsta accident, Åsta in Åmot, Norway — Two diesel passenger trains collide on the Rørosbanen killing 19; the fire after the collision lasts nearly six hours. January 7, 2005 - Crevalcore train crash - head-on collision in Emilia-Romagna, Italy - 17 killed, 80 injured October 11, 2006 — 2006 Zoufftgen rail crash - head-on collision at Zoufftgen, on the border between France and Luxembourg September 12, 2008 - 2008 Chatsworth train collision- head-on collision in Los Angeles - 25 killed, 135 injured February 15, 2010 - Halle train collision - head-on collision between two trains near Brussels, Belgium - 18 killed, 125 injured January 29, 2011 — Hordorf, Germany — 2011 Saxony-Anhalt train collision - a freight train and a passenger train collided - ten people were killed and 43 people were injured April 21, 2012 - 2012 Sloterdijk train collision - head-on collision between two trains in Sloterdijk, Netherlands - 1 killed, 117 injured February 9, 2016 - Bad Aibling rail accident - 11 dead, 85 injured.
July 12, 2016 - Andria-Corato train collision - head-on collision in Apulia, Italy - 27 dead, 50 injured. With shipping, there are two main factors influencing the chance of a head-on collision. Firstly with radar and radio, it is difficult to tell what course the opposing ships are following. Secondly, big ships have so much momentum that it is hard to change course at the last moment. Head-on collisions are an fatal type of road traffic collision. U. S. statistics show that in 2005, head-on crashes were only 2.0% of all crashes, yet accounted for 10.1% of U. S. fatal crashes. A common misconception is that this over-representation is because the relative velocity of vehicles traveling in opposite directions is high. While it is true that a head-on crash between two vehicles traveling at 50 mph is equivalent to a moving vehicle running into a stationary one at 100 mph, it is clear from basic Newtonian Physics that if the stationary vehicle is replaced with a solid
Goggles, or safety glasses, are forms of protective eyewear that enclose or protect the area surrounding the eye in order to prevent particulates, water or chemicals from striking the eyes. They are used in woodworking, they are used in snow sports as well, in swimming. Goggles are worn when using power tools such as drills or chainsaws to prevent flying particles from damaging the eyes. Many types of goggles are available as prescription goggles for those with vision problems; the Inuit and Yupik people carved Inuit snow goggles from caribou antler and shell to help prevent snow blindness. The goggles were curved to fit the user's face and had a large groove cut in the back to allow for the nose. A long thin slit was cut through the goggles to allow in a small amount of light, diminishing subsequent ultraviolet rays; the goggles were held to the head by a cord made of caribou sinew. In the early 20th century, goggles were worn by drivers of uncovered cars to prevent irritation of the eyes by dust or wind.
In the first ten years after the invention of the airplane in 1903 goggles became a necessity as wind blow became more severe as aircraft speeds increased and as protection against bugstrikes at high altitudes. The first pilot to wear goggles was Charles Manly in his failed attempt to fly Samuel Langley's aerodrome in 1903; the requirements for goggles varies depending on the use. Some examples: Cold weather: Most modern cold-weather goggles have two layers of lens to prevent the interior from becoming "foggy". With only a single lens, the interior water vapor condenses onto the lens because the lens is colder than the vapor, although anti-fog agents can be used; the reasoning behind the dual layer lens is that the inner lens will be warm while the outer lens will be cold. As long as the temperature of the inner lens is close to that of the interior water vapor, the vapor should not condense. However, if water vapor gets between the layers of the lens, condensation can occur between the lenses and is impossible to get rid of.
Swimming: Must be watertight to prevent water, such as salt water when swimming in the ocean, or chlorinated water when swimming in a pool, from irritating the eyes or blurring vision. Allow swimmers to see underwater, they will not be usable more than a few feet underwater, because the water pressure will press them against the face. Examples of these include Swedish goggles. Power tools: Must be made of an unbreakable material that prevents chunks of metal, plastic, so on from hitting or piercing the eye polycarbonate. Has some sort of ventilation to prevent sweat from building up inside the goggles and fogging the surface. Blowtorch goggles: These protect the eyes from glare and flying sparks and hot metal splashes while using or near a blowtorch, they are not the correct filters for arc welding. Welding goggles: Includes all goggles for eye protection during cutting, they provide protection against debris, the heat from welding, with the proper filters, the optical radiation resulting from the welding, which can otherwise cause arc eye.
Motorcycle riding and other open-air activities: Prevents insects, so on from hitting the eyes. Laboratory and research: Combines impact resistance with side shields to prevent chemical splashes reaching the eyes. May include laser protection which would be covered by EN 207 and ANSI Z 136. Examples of these include red adaptation goggles. Racquetball: Protect the eyes from racquets swinging in an enclosed area and from impact from hard rubber ball. Winter sports: Protect the eyes from glare and from icy particles flying up from the ground. Double lens anti-fog ski goggles were patented by Robert Earl "Bob" Smith. Astronomy and meteorology: dark adaptor goggles are used before going outside at night, in order to help the eyes adapt to the dark. Basketball: Several NBA players have worn goggles during play, including Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, James Worthy, Horace Grant, Kurt Rambis and Amar'e Stoudemire. In most circumstances, a player starts wearing protective goggles to prevent further injury to the eyes.
Aviation: In open cockpit aircraft, such as old biplanes, such as Amelia Earhart and Charles Kingsford Smith, would wear goggles to help protect from the wind and are still in use today. Examples of these include the AN-6530 goggles. Virtual reality: A virtual reality headset, sometimes called "goggles", is a wrap-around visual interface to display computer output; the computer display information is presented as a three-dimensional representation of real-world environments. Drunkenness: Goggles designed to simulate the vision altering effects of psychoactive drugs, in particular alcohol. Examples include. Goggles are worn as a fashion statement in certain subcultures, most as part of the cybergoth subculture, they are worn over the eyes or up on the forehead to secure'falls': a type of long brightly coloured, synthetic hairpiece. Fans of the steampunk genre or subculture frequently wear steampunk-styled goggles when performing in a live action role-playing game. Goggles are frequently used by anime and manga characters as a fashion statement.
For example, it is an idiosyncrasy of team leader characters in the Digimon anime to wear goggles. Other notable characters who wear gogg
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse; the size of a mule and work to which it is put depend on the breeding of the mule's female parent. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys; the mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size. Mules tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. Compared to horses, mules emit less of the greenhouse gas methane as a product of their digestive system The median weight range for a mule is between about 370 and 460 kg.
While a few mules can carry live weight up to 160 kg, the superiority of the mule becomes apparent in their additional endurance. In general, a mule can be packed with dead weight of up to 20% of its body weight, or 90 kg. Although it depends on the individual animal, it has been reported that mules trained by the Army of Pakistan can carry up to 72 kilograms and walk 26 kilometres without resting; the average equine in general can carry up to 30% of its body weight in live weight, such as a rider. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a "molly" or "Molly mule", though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occur as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule, though called a john mule, the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt, a young female is called a mule filly. With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, short mane, the mule shares characteristics of a donkey.
In height and body, shape of neck and rump, uniformity of coat, teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more; the mule is an example of hybrid vigor. Charles Darwin wrote: "The mule always appears to me a most surprising animal; that a hybrid should possess more reason, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature."The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, endurance and natural cautiousness. From its dam it inherits speed and agility. Mules are reputed to exhibit a higher cognitive intelligence than their parent species; that said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects.
Mules are taller at the shoulder than donkeys and have better endurance than horses, although a lower top speed. Handlers of working animals find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain, their hooves are harder than horses', they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound, similar to a donkey's but has the whinnying characteristics of a horse. Mules sometimes whimper. Mules come in a variety of shapes and colors, from minis under 50 lb to maxis over 1,000 lb, in many different colors; the coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel, bay and grey. Less common are white, palomino and buckskin. Least common are paint tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with wilder skewed colors.
The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule. Mules were used by armies to transport supplies as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that China was the top market for mules in 2003 followed by Mexico and many Central and South American nations. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes, a mixture of the horse's 64 and the donkey's 62; the different structure and number prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile. There are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. A few mare mules have produced offspring when mated with donkey. Herodotus gives an account of such an event as an ill omen of Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC: "There happe