Hitachi Rail Italy
Hitachi Rail Italy S.p. A. is a rail transport engineering company based in Italy whose main products are the design and manufacturing of railway and mass transit vehicles. AnsaldoBreda S.p. A. A subsidiary of Finmeccanica, the company was sold in 2015 to Hitachi Rail along with the 40% share of Ansaldo STS that Finmeccanica owned. After the deal was finalized, the current name was adapted in November 2015 to reflect the new ownership. In 1853, the company Gio. Ansaldo & C. was registered in Genoa as a manufacturer of steam locomotives, rail rolling stock and steam engines. The company was supported by the Minister of Finance, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, who aimed to reduce the State of Savoy's dependence on imported trains and rolling stock. Ansaldo entered the age of the steam locomotive in 1854 with its model FS113 known as Sampierdarena. In 1886, Ernesto Breda founded Ing. Ernesto Breda and C. the company which became Società Italiana Ernesto Breda in 1899. In 1908 SIEB's thousandth locomotive was built, a model FS 685 with serial number 600 now preserved in the Leonardo da Vinci Museum of Science and Technology in Milan.
It used. Breda entered the electric locomotive era in 1936 with the production of the FS Class ETR 200 series electric multiple unit. In 1939 this type set the land speed record for rail vehicles at 203 km/h. Although only 18 trains of this type were constructed they remained in service for a long time until they were withdrawn from service in 1993. In 1976 the FS ETR 400 entered service. Fiat Ferroviaria manufactured the body and bogies, whilst Ansaldo produced the power unit, it was the first train in the world featuring active body tilting to enter commercial service and was capable of speeds of up to 250 km/h. AnsaldoBreda was formed in 2001 by the merger of Ansaldo Trasporti and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie, was part of the Finmeccanica group, it has production sites at four locations in Italy: Naples, Reggio Calabria and Pistoia. The TREVI Consortium, of which Ansaldo and Breda Costruzioni Ferroviarie were members, introduced the high speed FS ETR 500 series in 1989. AnsaldoBreda won the contract for 82 new IC4 trains for the Danish national operator DSB.
However, the introduction of the units was plagued by problems, whilst the trains were scheduled to come into service in 2003, the final unit was delivered in 2013. Following more train failures, DSB announced the fleet would be phased out from 2024; the first high-speed trains to run on Turkish rails were two ETR 500 train sets leased from Trenitalia of Italy and were used for testing the completed part of the high-speed railway network between Eskişehir and Ankara on April 23, 2007. During the tests, ETR 500 Y2 achieved the current rail speed record in Turkey; the train was capable of exceeding 300 km/h. It reached 362 km/h in the Monte Bibele tunnel between Florence and Bologna in 2009, setting a speed record for trains in a tunnel. Another high speed train Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train was developed in a consortium with Bombardier Transportation; the first ETR1000 was christened Mennea in honour of the Italian athlete Pietro Mennea who had died five days earlier. Besides the construction of locomotives, AnsaldoBreda manufactures railway cars and trains for commuter rail, high-speed rail, main lines.
Finmeccanica and Hitachi announced on 2 November 2015 the'closing of transactions' covering the acquisition by Hitachi of AnsaldoBreda and Finmeccanica’s 40% stake in Ansaldo STS. Under the agreements signed on 24 February 2015, following a dividend distribution announced on 6 March, the purchase price for Finmeccanica’s stake in Ansaldo STS has been set at €9.50 per share, amounting to a total of €761m. The total net consideration to be paid for AnsaldoBreda as a going concern, including property assets, amounts to around €30m; as a part of the deal Finmeccanica would keep the responsibility for some residual contracts. On 2 November 2015 AnsaldoBreda was changed its name to Hitachi Rail Italy. Since acquired by Hitachi, production of some British Rail Class 802 has been shifted to Hitachi Rail Italy's Pistoia plant due to Hitachi Rail's Newton Aycliffe, England plant being at capacity. Elettrotreno ETR 200 for Fortaleza Metro running in the Linha Sul AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Copenhagen Metro.
Diesel multiple unit IC4 for DSB AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Athens Tram. high-speed ETR 500 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. High-speed Frecciarossa 1000 for Trenitalia of Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane. Locomotive E.402 locomotive E.403 multiple unit Treno Servizio Regionale for LeNORD. Multiple unit Treno ad alta frequentazione for Ferrovie Nord Milano. Multiple unit Caravaggio for Trenitalia and FNM. three-car articulated units ETR 211 Metrostar for Circumvesuviana. The Circumvesuviana operate a fleet of twenty-six "Metrostar". Meneghino for Milan Metro. Leonardo for Milan Metro. AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro for Milan Metro and Brescia Metro. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Tramvie Elettriche Bergamasche of Bergamo. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Rete tranviaria di Firenze of Florence. AnsaldoBreda Sirio for Naples tramway network of Naples and for Sassari metro-tramway. Multiple unit TAF Z2M for ONCF; the ONCF operates a fleet of 24 trains. Electric multiple unit NSB Class 72 for Norwegian State Railways.
The NSB operates a fleet of 36 trains. Multiple unit SL95 for Oslo Tramway. Sporveien Trikken operates a fleet of articulated trams. Over the years, AnsaldoBreda has updated the equipment to meet the requirements and demands of the operator in Norway. Multiple unit AnsaldoBreda series S7000 operates on the Line 10 Madrid Metro; the Madrid Metro operates a fleet of 37 trains
In a computer's central processing unit, the accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored. Without a register like an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation to main memory only to be read right back again for use in the next operation. Access to main memory is slower than access to a register like the accumulator because the technology used for the large main memory is slower than that used for a register. Early electronic computer systems were split into two groups, those with accumulators and those without. Modern computer systems have multiple general purpose registers that operate as accumulators, the term is no longer as common as it once was. However, a number of special-purpose processors still use a single accumulator for their work to simplify their design. Mathematical operations take place in a stepwise fashion, using the results from one operation as the input to the next. For instance, a manual calculation of a worker's weekly payroll might look something like: look up the number of hours worked from the employee's time card look up the pay rate for that employee from a table multiply the hours by the pay rate to get their basic weekly pay multiply their basic pay by a fixed percentage to account for income tax subtract that number from their basic pay to get their weekly pay after tax multiply that result by another fixed percentage to account for retirement plans subtract that number from their basic pay to get their weekly pay after all deductionsA computer program carrying out the same task would follow the same basic sequence of operations, although the values being looked up would all be stored in computer memory.
In early computers the number of hours would be held on a punch card and the pay rate in some other form of memory a magnetic drum. Once the multiplication is complete, the result needs to be placed somewhere. On a "drum machine" this would be back to the drum, an operation that takes considerable time, and the next operation has to read that value back in, which introduces another considerable delay. Accumulators improve performance in systems like these by providing a scratchpad area where the results of one operation can be fed to the next one for little or no performance penalty. In the example above, the basic weekly pay would be calculated and placed in the accumulator, which could immediately be used by the income tax calculation; this removes one save and one read operation from the sequence, operations that took tens to hundreds of times as long as the multiplication itself. An accumulator machine called a 1-operand machine, or a CPU with accumulator-based architecture, is a kind of CPU where, although it may have several registers, the CPU stores the results of calculations in one special register called "the accumulator".
All early computers were accumulator machines with only the high-performance "supercomputers" having multiple registers. As mainframe systems gave way to microcomputers, accumulator architectures were again popular with the MOS 6502 being a notable example. Many 8-bit microcontrollers that are still popular as of 2014, such as the PICmicro and 8051, are accumulator-based machines. Modern CPUs are 2-operand or 3-operand machines; the additional operands specify which one of many general purpose registers are used as the source and destination for calculations. These CPUs are not considered "accumulator machines"; the characteristic which distinguishes one register as being the accumulator of a computer architecture is that the accumulator would be used as an implicit operand for arithmetic instructions. For instance, a CPU might have an instruction like: ADD memaddress that adds the value read from memory location memaddress to the value in the accumulator, placing the result back in the accumulator.
The accumulator is not identified in the instruction by a register number. Some architectures use a particular register as an accumulator in some instructions, but other instructions use register numbers for explicit operand specification. Any system that uses a single "memory" to store the result of multiple operations can be considered an accumulator. J. Presper Eckert refers to the earliest adding machines of Gottfried Leibniz and Blaise Pascal as accumulator-based systems. Historical convention dedicates a register to "the accumulator", an "arithmetic organ" that accumulates its number during a sequence of arithmetic operations: "The first part of our arithmetic organ... should be a parallel storage organ which can receive a number and add it to the one in it, able to clear its contents and which can store what it contains. We will call such an organ an Accumulator, it is quite conventional in principle in past and present computing machines of the most varied types, e.g. desk multipliers, standard IBM counters, more modern relay machines, the ENIAC".
Just a few of the instructions are, for example: Clear accumulator and add number from memory location X Clear accumulator and subtract number from memory location X Add number copied from memory location X to the contents of the accumulator Subtract number copied from memory location X from the contents of the accumulator Clear accumulator and shift contents of register into accumulatorNo convention exists regarding the names for operations from registers to accumulator and from accumulator to registers
The Motorola 6809 is an 8-bit microprocessor CPU with some 16-bit features from Motorola. It was designed by Terry Ritter and Joel Boney and introduced in 1978, it was a major advance over both its predecessor, the Motorola 6800, the related MOS Technology 6502. Among the systems to use the 6809 are the Dragon home computers, TRS-80 Color Computer, the Vectrex home console, early 1980s arcade machines including Defender, Robotron: 2084, Gyruss. Unlike the 6800 and 6502, the 6809 allowed position-independent code and reentrant code in a simple and straightforward way, without using difficult programming tricks. Along with the 8086, it was one of the first microprocessors to implement a hardware multiplication instruction, it features full 16-bit arithmetic and an fast interrupt system. Among the significant enhancements introduced in the 6809 were the use of two 8-bit accumulators, two 16-bit index registers and two 16-bit stack pointers; the index and stack registers allowed advanced addressing modes.
Program counter relative addressing allowed for the easy creation of position-independent code, while a user stack pointer facilitated the creation of reentrant code. The 6809 was assembler source-compatible with the 6800, though the 6800 had 78 instructions to the 6809's 59; some instructions were replaced by more general ones which the assembler translated into equivalent operations and some were replaced by addressing modes. The instruction set and register complement were orthogonal, making the 6809 easier to program than the 6800 or 6502. Like the 6800, the 6809 included an undocumented address bus test instruction which came to be nicknamed Halt and Catch Fire. Unlike contemporary processors that used a microcoded architecture, the 6809's internal design was more similar to early simple CPU designs. Like most 8-bit microprocessors, the 6809 implementation could in large parts be viewed as a register-transfer level machine, using a central PLA to implement much of the instruction decoding as well as parts of the sequencing.
Just like the 6800 and 6502, the 6809 uses a two-phase clock to gate the latches. This two phase clock cycle is used as a full machine cycle in these processors. Simple instructions could therefore execute in as little as two or three such cycles, although this means that these cycles must be pretty slow; as a comparison, the higher resolution state machine of a CPU like the Z80 allowed clock frequencies 3-5 times as high with the same speed memory chips, the limiting factor. This is because the Z80 combines two full clock cycles into a long memory access period compared to the clock, while the more asynchronous 6809 instead has short memory access times: depending on version and speed grade 40-60% of a single clock cycle was available for memory access in a 6800, 6502 or 6809; the 6809 had an internal two-phase clock generator whereas the 6809E needed an external clock generator. There were variants such as the 68A09 and 68B09; the Motorola 6809 was produced in 1 MHz, 1.5 MHz and 2 MHz speed ratings.
Faster versions were produced by Hitachi. With little to improve, the 6809 marks the end of the evolution of Motorola's 8-bit processors. A micro-controller version with a modified instruction set, the 6811, was discontinued as late as the second decade of the 21st century; the 6809 is sometimes considered to be the conceptual precursor of the Motorola 68000 family of processors, though this is a misunderstanding: the 6809 and 68000 design projects ran in parallel, the two CPUs have quite differing architectures as well as radically different implementation principles. However, there is a certain amount of design philosophy similarity and some assembly language syntax resemblance as well as opcode mnemonic similarity. Notwithstanding the common elements, the 6809 is a derivative of the 6800, whereas the 68000 was a new design; the 6809 design team believed that future system integrators would look to off-the-shelf code in ROMs to handle common tasks. In order to speed time to market, common code modules would be purchased, rather than developed in-house, integrated into systems with code from other manufacturers.
An example of standard ROM code might be binary floating point arithmetic, a common requirement in many systems. Drawing routines for graphics primitives, Lempel-Ziv data compression and decompression, string searching are other potential content for standard ROM modules. For yet another example, Motorola's official programming manual contains the full listing of assist09, a so-called monitor, a miniature operating system intended to be burned in ROM. Since the programmer of a common code module could hardly guarantee where this code would be located in a future system, the 6809 design focused on support of position-independent code that can be located anywhere in the memory map without modification; the 6809 design focused on supporting reentrant code, code that can be called from various different programs concurrently without concern for coordination between them, or that can recursively call
Maxell Holdings, Ltd. known as Maxell, is a Japanese company that manufactures consumer electronics. The company's name is a contraction of "maximum capacity dry cell", its notable products are batteries, wireless charging solutions, storage devices, computer tapes, professional broadcast tapes and functional materials. In the past, the company manufactured recording media, including audio cassettes and blank VHS tapes, recordable optical discs including CD-R/RW and DVD±RW. On March 4, 2008, Maxell announced that they would outsource the manufacturing of their optical media. Maxell was formed in 1960, when a dry cell manufacturing plant was created at the company's headquarters in Ibaraki, Osaka. In 1961, Maxell Electric Industrial Company, Limited was created out of the dry battery and magnetic tape divisions of Nitto Electric Industrial Company, Limited. On March 18, 2014, the company was listed on the First Section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Hitachi Maxell, along with Nagasaki University, NIAIST, Fuji Heavy Industries, has developed a new chemistry for lithium-ion batteries.
Part of the change is dropping the expensive cobalt element and using "nano infused lithium" with manganese, with twenty times more power storage, the ability to mass produce it inexpensively. During the height of the Compact Audio Cassette's popularity, Maxell's audio cassettes were held in high regard, producing some of the finest examples of the standard available; the performance of the XLII-S and MX cassettes was regarded by many audiophiles to be the ultimate achievement in the pre digital domestic recording medium. Maxell audio cassettes are available in 60, 90, 100, 120 and 150 minute lengths. Maxell produced floppy disks in the unusual 3" format, which came to be used in computers such as the Amstrad CPC line. Compared to 3.5" floppies, they are thicker and the metal cover protecting the disk is inside the plastic casing, not outside. Typical data carrying capacity was about 180 kB on each side. Apart from Amstrad's other 3" machines, the few other computer systems to use these disks included the Sega SF-7000 and CP/M systems such as the Tatung Einstein and Osborne machines.
They found use on embedded systems. The 3" disks themselves were known as "discs" on the CPC, following the spelling on the machine's plastic casing and conventional non American spelling: "disks". Maxell AirStash is a Wi-Fi storage device that operates via an SD card inserted into the device's interior and determines storage capacity. In the 1980s, Maxell became an icon of pop culture when it produced advertisements popularly known as "Blown Away Guy" for its line of audio cassettes; the original campaign conceived by Art Director Lars Anderson began as a two page spread in Rolling Stone Magazine ad in 1980, was made into television spots in 1981 which ran throughout the 1980s. Steve Steigman was the photographer and Richard Wagner's "Ride of the Valkyries" was used for music. In the United Kingdom, the music used was "Night on Bald Mountain" by Modest Mussorgsky; the adverts depict a man sitting low in a high armed chair in front of, facing, a JBL L100 speaker. His hair and necktie, along with the lampshade to the man's right and the martini glass on the low table to the man's left, are being blown back by the tremendous sound from speakers in front of him — due to the audio accuracy of Maxell's product.
He is shown clinging to the armrests but defiantly looking ahead at the source of the music through sunglasses, though calmly catching his drink before it slides off the end table. Television commercials showed the chair, a drink and nearby lamp, being pushed away from the stereo by the strong force of the sound waves; the image became the de facto standard of those who believed their stereo equipment had sufficient power or accuracy to move the mind and the soul. The model for the United Kingdom advert campaign was musician Peter Murphy of the group Bauhaus; the model for the campaign for the United States, was the makeup artist Jac Colello, hired for the shoot by photographer Steve Steigman. The impact of the advertising campaign on popular culture still resonates today: "Blown Away Guy" was parodied on the popular animated television show Family Guy in the episode "Model Misbehavior"; this is only the most recent in countless parodies over the years, which includes a parody in the John Ritter film Stay Tuned.
In the movie Jackass 3D, the commercial is parodied with Ryan Dunn sitting in the chair, while the blast from a jet engine sends the set blowing away. The original soundtrack of the first television advert read, "After 500 plays, Maxell still delivers high fidelity"; this durability and quality message did not have the staying power of the "blown away" image, which still lives today. On December 12, 2005, Maxell decided to bring "Blown Away Guy" back due to its popularity; as Maxell now makes blank DVDs and CDs, headphones and blank audio and video tape, the ads have been updated with photos of iPods and accessories underneath the image. "Get blown away" is the headline while copy urges consumers to use Maxell accessories to "make your small iPod sound like a huge audio system". The music video for P. Diddy's song "Tell Me", is somewhat reminiscent of the "Blown Away Guy" advertisement. List of digital camera brands Cassette demagnetizer Official website Company profile from Hoov
HGST Travelstar is a brand of 2.5-inch hard disk drives manufactured by HGST, a subsidiary of Western Digital. These drives are used with laptop computers and small form factor desktop computers. Models are manufactured with capacities ranging from 250 GB to 1 TB, with rotational speeds of 5400 RPM or 7200 RPM and in 7mm or 9.5mm z-heights. All Travelstar drives use the SATA interface. Older models were offered with some in a 1.8" form factor. HGST hard drive product list
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy is a provider of advanced reactors and nuclear services. It is located in Wilmington, N. C. Established in June 2007, GEH is a global nuclear alliance created by General Hitachi. In Japan, the alliance is Ltd.. In November 2015, Jay Wileman was appointed CEO. 1955: Atomic Power Equipment Department established by GE 1957: GE's first financed nuclear power reactor provides electricity for commercial use in Vallecitos, California 1960s: BWR 1 and 2 constructed and begin operation 1970s: BWR 2 through 4 constructed and begin operation 1980s: BWR 5 and 6 constructed and begin operation 1997: ABWR design certified by the NRC 2005: ESBWR design certification filed by NRC 2014: ESBWR design certified by NRC 2017: ABWR design certified by the Office for Nuclear Regulation The Advanced Boiling Water Reactor is the world's first operational Generation III Class advanced light water reactor design. The NRC has docketed GEH's petition for renewal of ABWR certification; the Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor, the Generation III+ Class design reactor, received a positive final safety evaluation report and final design approval in March 2011, is expected to receive a license from the NRC by September 2011.
GEH's Power Reactor Innovative Small Modular is a Generation IV reactor that uses liquid sodium as a coolant. In 2018 GEH agreed to collaborate with Holtec International on the commercialization of the Holtec SMR-160, a 160 MWe pressurized water reactor small modular reactor; as nuclear plants get older and worldwide demand for energy increases, GEH offers services for adapting plant performance and power output as well as maintenance for extending plant life. GEH's fuel cycle business supplies fuel services to customers around the world. GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy owns the Morris Operation—the only de facto high-level radioactive waste storage site in the United States. Horizon Nuclear Power