The Hitler Youth was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany. Its origins dated back to 1922, with the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the organisation de facto ceased to exist. On 10 October 1945, it was outlawed by the Allied Control Council along with other Nazi Party organisations, in 1922 the Munich-based Nazi Party established its official youth organisation called Jugendbund der NSDAP. It was announced on 8 March 1922 in the Völkischer Beobachter, another youth group was established in 1922 as the Jungsturm Adolf Hitler. Based in Munich, Bavaria, it served to train and recruit members of the Sturmabteilung. Following the abortive Beer Hall Putsch the Nazi youth groups ostensibly disbanded, in April 1924 the Jugendbund der NSDAP was renamed Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung. On 4 July 1926 the Grossdeutsche Jugendbewegung was officially renamed Hitler Jugend Bund der deutschen Arbeiterjugend and this event took place a year after the Nazi Party itself had been reorganised. The architect of the re-organisation was Kurt Gruber, a law student from Plauen in Saxony, after a short power-struggle with a rival organisation—Gerhard Roßbachs Schilljugend—Gruber prevailed and his Greater German Youth Movement became the Nazi Partys official youth organisation. In July 1926 it was renamed Hitler-Jugend, Bund deutscher Arbeiterjugend and, for the first time, the name Hitler-Jugend was taken up on the suggestion of Hans Severus Ziegler. By 1930 the Hitlerjugend had enlisted over 25,000 boys aged 14 and it also set up a junior branch, the Deutsches Jungvolk, for boys aged 10 to 14. Girls from 10 to 18 were given their own parallel organisation, in April 1932 Chancellor Heinrich Brüning banned the Hitler Youth movement in an attempt to stop widespread political violence. But in June Brünings successor as Chancellor, Franz von Papen, lifted the ban as a way of appeasing Hitler, a further significant expansion drive started in 1933, after Baldur von Schirach was appointed by Hitler as the first Reichsjugendführer. All youth organizations were brought under Schirachs control, the members of the Hitler Youth were viewed as insuring the future of Nazi Germany and were indoctrinated in Nazi ideology, including racism. The Hitler Youth appropriated many of its activities of the Boy Scout movement, although over time it changed in content and intention. For example, many activities closely resembled military training, with training, assault course circuits. The aim was to instill the motivation that would enable its members as soldiers, there was great emphasis on physical fitness and hardness and military training than on academic study. The Hitler Youth were used to break up Church youth groups, and in anti-Church indoctrination, used to spy on religious classes and Bible studies, and interfere with church attendance. Members summer uniform consisted of a black shorts and tan shirt with pockets, worn with a black neckerchief secured with a woggle
Hitler Youth members performing the Nazi salute at a rally at the Lustgarten in Berlin, 1933
"Leistungsbuch" (Performance booklet) of a Hitler Youth / Deutsches Jungvolk member. The symbol in the upper right, based on the Sowilo rune, reads "For accomplishments in the DJ (Deutsches Jungvolk)". The symbol in the lower left, based on the Tiwaz rune, reads "For accomplishments in the HJ (Hitler Jugend)".