Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally. Since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of Western and post-modern architecture into construction and design, is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology; the earliest Japanese architecture was seen in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses and stores adapted to the needs of a hunter-gatherer population. Influence from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores and ceremonial burial chambers; the introduction of Buddhism in Japan during the sixth century was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. Influence from the Chinese Tang and Sui Dynasties led to the foundation of the first permanent capital in Nara.
Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang'an as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the size of buildings led to standard units of measurement as well as refinements in layout and garden design; the introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to the excesses of the aristocracy. During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important events; the first was the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism from Shinto and Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, breaking an association between the two which had lasted well over a thousand years. Second, it was that Japan underwent a period of intense Westernization in order to compete with other developed countries. Architects and styles from abroad were imported to Japan but the country taught its own architects and began to express its own style. Architects returning from study with western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Japan.
However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzo Tange and with theoretical movements like Metabolism. Much in the traditional architecture of Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries. Japanese traditional architecture and its history are as a consequence dominated by Chinese and Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: posts and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and never load-bearing. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō, in the case of temples and shrines. Simpler solutions are adopted in domestic structures; the oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the building's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which depart any other less important spaces. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be divided according to the need.
For example, some walls can be removed and different rooms joined temporarily to make space for some more guests. The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening a residence or temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the building. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment. Care is taken to blend the edifice into the surrounding natural environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony.. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize, rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple or vice versa; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building.
The prehistoric period includes the Jōmon and Kofun periods stretching from 5000 BCE to the beginning of the eighth century CE. During the three phases of the Jōmon
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
Hiyoshi Taisha is a Shinto shrine located in Ōtsu, Japan. This shrine is one of the Twenty-Two Shrines. Hiyoshi Shrine known as Hiyoshi jinja or Hie jinja; the West Hall of Worship and the East Hall of Worship have been designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs as National Treasures in the category shrines. This shrine heads the seventh largest shrine network in Japan, at about 4,000 shrines. Ōnamuchi Ōyamakui Hiyoshi Taisha was first recorded in Kojiki, written in the 8th century. In the Middle Ages, the Enryaku-ji temple influenced the shrine to include some Buddhist essence; the buildings of the shrine were burnt when Oda Nobunaga destroyed Enryaku-ji in 1571. The existing buildings were constructed in the last quarter of the 16th century; the shrine became the object of Imperial patronage during the early Heian period. In 965, Emperor Murakami ordered that Imperial messengers were sent to report important events to the guardian kami of Japan; these heihaku were presented to 16 shrines. Three years in 994, Ichijō refined the scope of that composite list by adding Umenomiya Shrine and Gion Shrine, now known as Yasaka Jinja.
In 1039, Emperor Go-Suzaku ordered that one more shrine be added to the grouping created by Murakami and Ichijō—the Hie jinja. This unique number of Imperial-designated shrines has not been altered since that time. From 1871 through 1946, the Hie jinja was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines. Twenty-Two Shrines Modern system of ranked Shinto Shrines List of Shinto shrines 山王総本宮 日吉大社 - Hiyoshi Taisha's official website
Minka are vernacular houses constructed in any one of several traditional Japanese building styles. In the context of the four divisions of society, minka were the dwellings of farmers and merchants; this connotation no longer exists in the modern Japanese language, any traditional Japanese-style residence of an appropriate age could be referred to as minka. Minka are characterised by their roof structure and their roof shape. Minka developed through history with distinctive styles emerging in the Edo period; the term minka means "houses of the people". It covers houses that accommodated a wide variety of people from farmers to village headmen and low level samurai. Minka come in a wide range of styles and sizes as a result of differing geographic and climatic conditions as well as the lifestyle of the inhabitants, they fall into one of four classifications: farmhouses nōka town houses machiya, fishermen's dwellings gyoka and mountain dwellings sanka. Unlike other forms of Japanese architecture, it is the structure rather than the plan, of primary importance to the minka.
Minka are divided up with primary posts that form the basic framework and bear the structural load of the building. Despite the wide variety of minka, there are eight basic forms. The'inverted U' consists of two vertical posts fixed at the top with a horizontal beam; the beam can be fixed to the top of the post either by resting upon it or via a mortise and tenon joint. This latter method is found in minka on the island of Shikoku. The'ladder' has post and beam units connected with larger beams including beams that are closer to the foundation level; this form of structure originated in townhouses of the Edo period. The system allows the irregular placement of posts and, allows flexibility in the plan. With the'umbrella' style, four beams radiate out from a central post; these posts sit at the centre of the square rather than the corners. Minka of this type are found in Shiga Prefecture. The'cross' has two beams at right angles to one another with the posts in the centre of the sides, it is used for small minka that have no other posts erected in the space or for large minka in the earth-floored area.
The style is most found in Shiga and Fukui prefectures.'Parallel crosses' are found in Shizuoka Prefecture and cover an area 5 metres by 10 metres. This system doubles up the ` cross' structure with eight posts; the ` box' structure connects four or more beam units to create a box-like structure. It can be found in Toyama and Ishikawa prefectures. The'interconnected box' can be found in Kyoto and Osaka.'Rising beams' is a form that enables better use of the second storey. It uses beams that rise from the posts to a secondary ridge, below the one formed by the rafters. Thatched roof farmhouses based upon the'rising beam' structure can be further classified into four major types; the yojiro-gumi and the wagoya are rare. The latter of these, the wagoya, is popular for machiya houses. Far more common are the odachi types; the odachi style has rafters and short vertical posts to support the ridge. These posts would have extended to the ground resulting in a row of posts extending down the centre of the house and dividing it.
Although these could be accommodated in the layout of the main house, they were impractical in the earth-floored entrance area—so they were omitted and a special beam structure used instead. This style was in wide use until the Edo period; the sasu style is a simpler triangular shape with a pair of rafters joined at the top to support the ridge pole. The ends of these rafters were sharpened to fit into mortice holes at either end of crossbeam; as this system does not rely on central posts it leaves a more unobstructed plan than the odachi style. There were two main methods for setting out the floor plan of the minka; the kyoma method uses a standard size of tatami mat, whereas the inakama method is based upon column spacing. The kyoma method works well for minka without central columns as the mats and the sliding partitions can be based on a standard size, it was used in minka in eastern Japan. The method has its disadvantages if used with posts because variations in post width can make the prefabrication of the sliding partitions difficult.
The inakama method is based upon the distance between centre of one post and centre of the post adjacent to it and it was used on the eastern side of Japan. The size and decoration of a minka was dependent upon its location and social status of its owner. Minka were influenced by local building techniques and were built with materials that were abundant in the immediate locality. For example, minka in Shizuoka used abundant bamboo for roofs, eaves and floors; when miscanthus reeds were difficult to obtain for thatched roofs, shingles were used instead. Climate had a bearing on construction: In Kyoto in the late Heian and Muromachi periods, roofs were clad in thin wooden shingles so owners would put stones on top to prevent the shingles from flying away in the wind; the social status of the minka owner was indicated by the complexity of the building. For thatched roof minka the nu
Kura are traditional Japanese storehouses. They are durable buildings built from timber, stone or clay used to safely store valuable commodities. Kura in rural communities are of simpler construction and used for storing grain or rice; those in towns are more elaborate, with a structural timber frame covered in a fireproof, clay outer coating. Early religious kura were built in a "log cabin" style, whilst those used to store gunpowder were constructed from stone. Earthen kura, dozō have evolved a particular set of construction techniques in order to make them fireproof; the kura storehouse was used to store precious items. Other sorts of storehouses such as outbuildings and sheds were used to store more mundane items; the first kura appear during the Yayoi period and they evolved into takakura that were built on columns raised from the ground and reached via a ladder from underneath. They were prevalent on the Ryukyu Islands and Amami Ōshima. During the Nara period the government taxed the country in rice and kura were used to store it.
After the introduction of Buddhism to Japan kura were used to religious items such as sutra. In a domestic situation, traditional Japanese houses had limited storage space; the sliding fusuma used to divide up rooms were used for the same purpose to create storage space, otherwise there was limited storage under the kitchen and sometimes an attic space was formed in the roof. Although a few important possessions may have been displayed, available storage was taken up by things like futons that were folded away each morning. In addition, many families possessed a wide array of accoutrements required for Japan's cultural festivals and these needed to be stored somewhere safe when not in use; the traditional houses were built of timber and prone to destruction by fire, so a more durable solution was required to store precious items. Earthen kura became a status symbol, with the greater number of kura indicating the greater wealth of the owner; this led some merchants to build three storey kura. Due to Kitakata's historic prominence of being the nation's "city of kura" and storeplace of preservable goods, it has been said by locals that "one who doesn't own a kura by the time they are 40 is not yet a man".
Azekura have descended in style from the Yayoi period when triangular section logs were used for building. Historic examples have been preserved within the compounds of Shintō shrines; the most famous examples are the Shōsōin at Tōdai-ji in Nara, storehouses at the Tōshōdai-ji in Nara and the Itsukushima Shrine in Hiroshima. These kura have all been dedicated to storing cultural treasures; the timbers used in these kura were thicker than other types of wooden storehouses so they were more durable, they were vulnerable to fire and relied upon separation from adjoining buildings to provide the best fire protection. As such they were unsuitable for urban situations. Roofs were either covered in cypress bark; when the Buddhists arrived in Japan they brought the knowledge of using plaster walls with them. However the azekura style continued to be used; the owner had to firstly have enough possessions to merit building one, the timber used was expensive and they had to own enough land to suitably situate them from other buildings.
This raised log structure gained a religious significance and the style of domestic kura moved elsewhere. Board-wall kura were traditionally built in farming communities. Like the azekura above they were vulnerable to fire and were built some distance from other farm buildings. Examples can still be found in the village of Shirakawa in Gifu, they are constructed from a grid of heavy timbers laid to form a foundation, with posts and braces forming bracing for the walls. The interior walls are lined with heavy boards fixed on the inner side. In the case of the kura in Shirakawa, the roofs are thatched in a similar manner to gasshō-zukuri. Traditionally grain was stored on the ground floor with household items stored on the upper floor. There are two types of stone kura; the first has a roof made up by piling up stone blocks. The former were built in the Edo period and used for storing firearms and ammunition, such as the one in Osaka Castle which has walls 1.9m thick. Remains of houses on the island of Dejima in Nagasaki that were built by Dutch traders in the Edo Period were built using the latter method, with wooden structure faced with stone.
Kura in the vicinity of the Ōya quarry near Utsunomiya, Tochigi had roofs made from Ōya Stone. This is an inexpensive tufa, soft and carved but is waterproof, it was used by Frank Lloyd Wright on the Imperial Hotel, Tokyo. Nikkō stone obtained from the same quarry as Ōya stone has a finer grain and was used for ornamentation on the exterior of kura. Earthen dozō kura are a common sight in Japan and the basic form is seen with only minor variations; the basic wood-framed, plaster-walled, tiled-roof design maintains a stable temperature and humidity throughout the year. Personal belongings kept in this type of kura tended to be kept in beautifully crafted wooden chests called tansu that would be located on a raised floor or balcony within. Although they became more popular in the Edo period, references to them are found in Heian period where statutes were written to govern the distances between kura in towns in order to prevent the spread of fire. Most tradit
A hip roof, hip-roof or hipped roof, is a type of roof where all sides slope downwards to the walls with a gentle slope. Thus a hipped roof house has other vertical sides to the roof. A square hip roof is shaped like a pyramid. Hip roofs on houses could have two trapezoidal ones. A hip roof on a rectangular plan has four faces, they are always at the same pitch or slope, which makes them symmetrical about the centerlines. Hip roofs have a consistent level fascia, meaning that a gutter can be fitted all around. Hip roofs have dormer slanted sides. Hip roofs are more difficult to construct than a gabled roof, requiring more complex systems of rafters or trusses. Hip roofs can be constructed on a wide variety of plan shapes; each ridge is central over the rectangle of the building below it. The triangular faces of the roof are called the hip ends, they are bounded by the hips themselves; the "hips" and hip rafters sit on an external corner of the rise to the ridge. Where the building has an internal corner, a valley makes the join between the sloping surfaces.
They have the advantage of giving a solid appearance to a structure. The roof pitch may vary. In modern domestic architecture, hip roofs are seen in bungalows and cottages, have been integral to styles such as the American Foursquare. However, the hip roof has been used in many different styles of architecture and in a wide array of structures. A hip roof is self-bracing. Hip roofs are thus much better suited for hurricane regions than gable roofs. Hip roofs have no large, flat, or slab-sided ends to catch wind and are inherently much more stable than gable roofs. However, for a hurricane region, the roof has to be steep-sloped; when wind flows over a shallow sloped hip roof, the roof can behave like an airplane wing. Lift is created on the leeward side; the flatter the roof, the more this will happen. A steeper pitched hip roof tends to cause the wind to stall as it goes over the roof, breaking up the effect. If the roof slopes are less than 35 degrees from horizontal, the roof will be subject to uplift.
Greater than 35 degrees, not only does wind blowing over it encounter a stalling effect, but the roof is held down on the wall plate by the wind pressure. A possible disadvantage of a hip roof, compared with a gable roof on the same plan, is that there is less room inside the roof space. A mansard roof is a variation on a hip roof, with two different roof angles, the lower one much steeper than the upper. A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak or intersection. Another variation is the gablet or Dutch gable roof; this type simplifies the construction of the roof. A half-hip, clipped-gable or jerkin head roof has a gable, but the upper point of the gable is replaced by a small hip, squaring off the top of the gable; the lower edge of the half-hip may have a gutter which leads back on to the remainder of the roof on one or both sides. Both the gablet roof and the half-hipped roof are intermediate between the gabled and hipped types: the gablet roof has a gable above a hip, while a half-hipped roof has a hip above a gable.
Half-hipped roofs are common in Denmark, Germany and in Austria and Slovenia. They are typical of traditional timber frame buildings in the Wealden area of South East England. Half hip roofs are sometimes referred to as "Dutch hip", but this term is confused with "Dutch gable". A hip roof on a square structure found topping gazebos and other pavilion structures known as a pyramid roof. A pointed roof seen on a tower, oriented so that it has four gable ends. See Church of St Mary the Blessed Virgin, Speyer Cathedral, or Limburg Cathedral. Domestic roof construction Finial, or hip-knob Hip Roof - Encyclopædia Britannica Hip Roof layout Roofs and roofing Hip roof geometry. Google SketchUp 3D model where each roof member and bevel can be interrogated
Sessha and massha called eda-miya are small or miniature shrines entrusted to the care of a larger shrine due to some deep connection with the enshrined kami. The two terms used to have different meanings, but are today synonyms. Setsumatsusha can lie either inside or outside the main shrine's premises. Setsumatsusha are 1x1 ken in size, they can however be as small as beehives or large and have 1x2, 1x3 or in one case, 1x7 bays. The practice of building sessha and massha shrines within a jinja predates written history; the earliest setsumatsusha had some strong connection to the history of the area or the family of the enshrined kami. During the Heian period, Ise Shrine used to make a distinction between the two types based on whether a shrine belonged to the Engishiki Jinmyōchō list or to the Enryaku gishikichō list. From the Japanese Middle Ages onwards, at other shrines popular kami like Hachiman, Inari or Gozu Tennō were enshrined in setsumatsusha, but no clear distinction between the two terms was made.
From the Meiji period to the Second World War, a shrine dedicated to family members of a kami, to the violent side of a kami, or the kami of the region where the main shrine was, were to be considered sessha with a higher rank than the rest, which were called massha. When the shakaku shrine ranking system was abolished in 1946 the distinction disappeared, but both terms remained in use out of habit. Being true shrines, setsumatsusha have most features other types of shrines have, including doors and stairs. However, the Misedana-zukuri is a style used only in sessha and massha, it owes its name to the fact that, unlike other shrine styles, it doesn't feature a stairway at its entrance, the veranda is flat. Miniature stairways can however be present, they can be either tsumairi, have the entrance under the gable, or, more hirairi, that is, have the entrance on the side parallel to the roof's ridge. Apart from the lack of a staircase, such shrines belong to the nagare-zukuri or kasuga-zukuri styles