Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht was a German economist, centre-right politician, co-founder in 1918 of the German Democratic Party. He served as President of the Reichsbank under the Weimar Republic, he was a fierce critic of his country's post-World War I reparation obligations. He was never a member of the National Socialist German Worker's Party, but served in Adolf Hitler's government as President of the National Bank 1933–1939 and became Minister of Economics. While Schacht was for a time feted for his role in the German "economic miracle", he opposed Hitler's policy of German re-armament insofar as it violated the Treaty of Versailles and disrupted the German economy, his views in this regard led Schacht to clash with Hitler and most notably with Hermann Göring. He was dismissed as President of the Reichsbank in January 1939, he remained as a minister without portfolio, received the same salary, until he was dismissed from the government in January 1943. In 1944 Schacht was arrested by the Gestapo after the assassination attempt on Hitler on 20 July 1944, because he had had contact with the assassins.
Subsequently, he was interned until the end of the Third Reich in the concentration camps Ravensbrück and at Flossenbürg. In the last days of the war, he was one of the 134 special and clan prisoners who were transported by the SS from Dachau into the "Alpine Fortress" to Niederdorf in South Tyrol, where they were freed on 30 April 1945. Despite this, he was tried at Nuremberg, but was acquitted. In 1955, he founded a private banking house in Düsseldorf, he advised developing countries on economic development. Schacht was born in Tingleff, Schleswig-Holstein, German Empire to William Leonhard Ludwig Maximillian Schacht and baroness Constanze Justine Sophie von Eggers, a native of Denmark, his parents, who had spent years in the United States decided on the name Horace Greeley Schacht, in honor of the American journalist Horace Greeley. However, they yielded to the insistence of the Schacht family grandmother, who believed the child's given name should be Danish. After completing his abitur at the Gelehrtenschule des Johanneums, Schacht studied medicine and political science at the Universities of Munich, Berlin and Kiel before earning a doctorate at Kiel in 1899 – his thesis was on mercantilism.
He joined the Dresdner Bank in 1903. In 1905, while on a business trip to the United States with board members of the Dresdner Bank, Schacht met the famous American banker J. P. Morgan, as well as U. S. president Theodore Roosevelt. He became deputy director of the Dresdner Bank from 1908 to 1915, he was a board member of the German National Bank for the next seven years, until 1922, after its merger with the Darmstädter und Nationalbank, a board member of the Danatbank. Schacht was a freemason, having joined the lodge Urania zur Unsterblichkeit in 1908. During the First World War, Schacht was assigned to the staff of General Karl von Lumm, the Banking Commissioner for Occupied Belgium, to organize the financing of Germany's purchases in Belgium, he was summarily dismissed by General von Lumm when it was discovered that he had used his previous employer, the Dresdner Bank, to channel the note remittances for nearly 500 million francs of Belgian national bonds destined to pay for the requisitions.
After Schacht's dismissal from public service, he had another brief stint at the Dresdner Bank, various positions at other banks. In 1923, Schacht applied and was rejected for the position of head of the Reichsbank as a result of his dismissal from Lumm's service. Despite the blemish on his record, in November 1923, Schacht became currency commissioner for the Weimar Republic and participated in the introduction of the Rentenmark, a new currency the value of, based on a mortgage on all of the properties in Germany. Germany entered into a brief period where it had two separate currencies: the Reichsmark managed by Rudolf Havenstein, President of the Reichsbank, the newly created Rentenmark managed by Schacht. After his economic policies helped battle German hyperinflation and stabilize the German mark, Schacht was appointed president of the Reichsbank at the requests of president Friedrich Ebert and Chancellor Gustav Stresemann. In 1926, Schacht provided funds for the formation of IG Farben.
He collaborated with other prominent economists to form the 1929 Young Plan to modify the way that war reparations were paid after Germany's economy was destabilizing under the Dawes Plan. In December 1929, he caused the fall of the Finance Minister Rudolf Hilferding by imposing upon the government his conditions for obtaining a loan. After modifications by Hermann Müller's government to the Young Plan during the Second Conference of The Hague, he resigned as Reichsbank president on 7 March 1930. During 1930, Schacht campaigned against the war reparations requirement in the United States. Schacht became a friend of the Governor of the Bank of England, Montagu Norman, both men belonging to the Anglo-German Fellowship and the Bank for International Settlements. Norman was so close to the Schacht family. By 1926, Schacht had left the small German Democratic Party, which he had helped found, began lending his support to the Nazi Party, to which he became closer between 1930 and 1932. Though never a member of the NSDAP, Schacht helped to raise funds for the party after meeting with Adolf Hitler.
Close for a short time to Heinrich Brüning's government, Schacht shifted to the right by entering the Harzburg Front in Octo
Karl Hjalmar Branting was a Swedish politician. He was the leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Prime Minister during three separate periods; when Branting came to power in 1920, he was the first Social Democratic Prime Minister of Sweden. When he took office for a second term after the general election of 1921, he became the first socialist politician in Europe to do so following elections with universal suffrage. In 1921, Sweden's Prime Minister Hjalmar Branting shared the Nobel Peace Prize with the Norwegian secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union Christian Lous Lange, he was born to the noblewoman and pianist Emma af Georgii. Branting was educated at Uppsala University, he developed a scientific background in mathematical astronomy and was an assistant at the Stockholm Observatory, but gave up his devotion to scientific work to become a journalist in 1884 and began editing the newspapers Tiden and Social-Demokraten. His decision to publish an article by the more radical socialist Axel Danielsson - a piece denounced by opponents as insulting to religious sensitivities - resulted in political convictions for blasphemy and imprisonment for both men.
Branting was imprisoned for three months in 1888. Together with August Palm, Branting was in 1889 one of the main organizers of the Swedish Social Democratic Party, he was its first Member of Parliament from 1896, for six years the only one. In the early years of the 20th century, Branting led the Social Democrats in opposing a war to keep Norway united with Sweden; when the crisis came in 1905, he coined the slogan "Hands off Norway, King!" The Social Democrats organized resistance to a call-up of reserves and a general strike against a war, are credited with a substantial share in preventing one. Hjalmar Branting accepted Eduard Bernstein's revision of Marxism and became a reformist socialist, advocating a peaceful transition from capitalism towards socialism, he believed. Branting supported the February Revolution in Russia in 1917, he was pro-Menshevik and defended the government of Alexander Kerensky, whom he personally visited in Petrograd. When the October Revolution broke out the same year, Branting condemned the Bolshevik seizure of power.
1917 saw a split in the Swedish Social Democratic Party on this question, the youth league and the revolutionary sections of the party broke away and formed the Social Democratic Left Party of Sweden, headed by Zeth Höglund. This group soon became the Swedish Communist Party. Zeth Höglund returned to the Social Democratic Party, wrote a two-volume biography about Hjalmar Branting; as Prime Minister he brought Sweden into the League of Nations and was active as a delegate within it. When the question of whether Åland should be handed over to Sweden after the independence of Finland from Russia was brought up, he let the League of Nation decide upon the issue, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1921 for his work in the League of Nations, sharing the prize with the Norwegian Christian Lous Lange. Branting is commemorated by the Branting Monument in Stockholm. Additionally in Gothenburg, there is a tram and bus interchange named after Branting, in Swedish it is Hjalmar Brantingsplatsen. Stockholms Plads in Copenhagen was renamed Hjalmar Brantings Plads in 1925.
Swedish general election, 1921 Works by or about Hjalmar Branting at Internet Archive Nobel Committee information on 1921 Laureates. Hjalmar Branting at Find a Grave Newspaper clippings about Hjalmar Branting in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Fredrik Hjalmar Johansen was a Norwegian polar explorer. He participated on the third Fram expeditions, he shipped out with the Fridtjof Nansen expedition in 1893–1896, accompanied Nansen to notch a new Farthest North record near the North Pole. Johansen participated in the expedition of Roald Amundsen to the South Pole in 1910–1912. Born at Skien in Telemark county, Norway, he was the son of Maren Pedersdatter. He was the second eldest son in a family of five children, he attended Royal Frederick University to study law in Christiania. However, he performed poorly at law school, due to a low attendance of lectures. At the age of 21, Johansen's father died. After dropping out of school, Hjalmar worked in an office job at Bratsberg. However, by that time he had made his mark as an athlete. In gymnastics he became Norwegian champion in 1885 in Fredrikshald and world champion in 1889 in Paris. Johansen joined Nansen's polar expedition with Fram in 1893. After Fram froze fast, he became an assistant to Sigurd Scott-Hansen with his meteorologic studies.
Johansen was an expert dog driver. Using skis and sled dogs, Johansen accompanied Nansen on their joint closest approach to the North Pole, 86 degrees 14 minutes north, in 1895. On their way home and Nansen were forced to spend the winter on Franz Josef Land because of severe damage to their kayaks when crossing open channels in the ice. During the expedition, Johansen once fell through the ice and was saved by Nansen, received a blow on his head by a polar bear. On the return of the Nansen parties to Norway and other members of the crew of the Fram were celebrated as heroes. Johansen was promoted to captain in the Norwegian infantry at the garrison in Tromsø; however he drank and in 1907 he was asked to resign his position in the army. Between the years 1907 to 1909, Johansen participated in four expeditions to Svalbard. In 1910 he was one of Amundsen's men in Antarctica. Amundsen and his men, racing for the South Pole with Robert Falcon Scott, started out for the South Pole too early in the season and had to return to base camp at the Bay of Whales.
Johansen had disagreed with the early start and had to rescue a less experienced member of the party, Kristian Prestrud, from freezing to death on the return journey. Amundsen had taken the best dogsled and sped off towards the camp without regard for his men as a storm approached; as a result and Johansen had no tent or cooking equipment to melt snow and had no choice but to press on for the camp in a blizzard with extreme windchill and a dangerous descent towards the base camp. Johansen carried him to the base camp. However, the mishap enraged Amundsen. Upon their return to the Bay of Whales, Johansen quarrelled with Amundsen in front of the other men, he further disciplined Johansen by ordering him to subordinate himself to Prestrud, ordering the two men to embark on a minor expedition towards King Edward VII Land while the other members of the main expedition resumed their trek towards the Pole. The Amundsen party reached the South Pole and reunited with the subsidiary party. On the expedition's landfall in Tasmania Amundsen dismissed Johansen from the Fram, paid him off, ordered him to return separately to Norway.
Once Johansen had left Amundsen's party, the triumphant leader made the entire remaining crew sign a paper that stated that they were to keep quiet about the whole expedition. Amundsen was to have the sole right of writing about it in his soon-to-be-published book. After returning separately to Norway, Johansen found that he was never to be credited by Amundsen for any contribution to the expedition, including his heroic rescue of Prestrud. Johansen was awarded the South Pole Medal, the Royal Norwegian award instituted by King Haakon VII in 1912 to reward participants in Roald Amundsen's South Pole expedition. However, Johansen had resumed drinking alcohol, became clinically depressed and in 1913 committed suicide, his wife Hilda Øvrum and their four children survived him. After his death, Johansen's reputation drifted into obscurity. In 1997, biographer Ragnar Kvam, Jr. published a biography of the forgotten explorer, Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen. As a result of this and other work, Johansen's place in the story of Norwegian polar exploration is being rehabilitated.
In 2005, the International Hydrographic Organization approved the proposal by an American arctic scientist to name Hjalmar Johansen Seamount, a newly discovered volcanic edifice on the floor of the Arctic Ocean northwest of Spitzbergen. The location is 82 degrees, 57 minutes N, 3 degrees, 40 minutes W; the top of the undersea mountain lies at a water depth of 4800 meters. Hjalmar Johansen With Nansen in the North Ragnar Kvam Den tredje mann: Beretningen om Hjalmar Johansen ISBN 978-8205248847
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Hjalmar Leo Mehr was a Swedish Social Democratic politician, mayor of Stockholm and governor of Stockholm County. He promoted many radical socialist welfare state policies but is remembered and criticized for the redevelopment of Norrmalm, where a significant part of the old Stockholm was demolished. Hjalmar Mehr's parents Sara and Bernhard Meyerowitch were Russian-Jewish revolutionaries who after the failed 1905 Russian Revolution fled to Sweden, where Hjalmar was born and named after Hjalmar Branting
Hjalmar Petersen was an American politician who served as the 23rd Governor of Minnesota. Hjalmar Petersen was born in Eskildstrup, Denmark to Lauritz and Anna Petersen, who moved with Hjalmar to Chicago, Illinois shortly after his birth, they moved to the Danebod in Tyler, Minnesota. Petersen attended school until the seventh grade, his career in journalism, which had begun in 1904, culminated in his purchase in 1914 of the Askov American in Askov, Minnesota, a weekly newspaper he owned for the rest of his life. After serving as Askov's village clerk and mayor, Petersen won two terms in the Minnesota House of Representatives, where he sponsored the state income-tax law and urged that tax revenues be spent on public education. Before he ran for the Minnesota Legislature he had been a member of the Republican Party. By the time he ran, he served in the legislature from 1931 to 1934, representing the old House District 56. Petersen was elected the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota in 1934 and served with Governor Floyd B.
Olson. He was sworn in as governor two days after Olson died of cancer on August 22, 1936, he served the remainder of Olson's term but declined to run for governor himself in the November general election, opting instead to launch a successful bid for Railroad and Warehouse Commissioner, a position he assumed after leaving the governship on January 4, 1937. He ran for governor in 1940 and 1942, losing both times to Harold Stassen. After his term as governor, he served as the president of the American Publishing Company, he was married twice, first to Rigmor C. Wosgaard in 1914 and to Medora Grandprey in 1934, he died in 1968 in Ohio. List of U. S. state governors born outside the United States The Hjalmar Petersen Papers are available for research use at the Minnesota Historical Society. Keillor, Steven J. Hjalmar Petersen of Minnesota: The Politics of Provincial Independence