Hertsa is a city located in Chernivtsi Oblast in western Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Hertsa Raion. Population: 2,119 The city is the smallest raion administrative center in Ukraine and is located close to the Romanian border; until 1992 Hertsa was part of Hlyboka Raion. Hertsa and the Hertza region were part of the Moldavia historical region. In 1940, following the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, it was occupied by the Soviet Union and attached to the Ukrainian SSR. Since the fall of the Soviet Union, it has been part of independent Ukraine; the town has a large Romanian - Moldavian community, as well as important Ukrainian and Russian minorities. Gheorghe Asachi Herman Finer Hertza region Dorohoi County
Chernivtsi is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut. Chernivtsi is the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast – the northern, Ukrainian part of the historical region of Bukovina. Administratively, Chernivtsi is a city of regional significance. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600. Current population: 295,366 Chernivtsi is viewed as one of Western Ukraine's main cultural centers; the city is considered one of Ukraine's important educational and architectural sites. A cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed "Little Vienna" and "Jerusalem upon the Prut". Chernivtsi is twinned with seven other cities around the world; the city is a major regional rail and road transportation hub housing an international airport. Aside from its Ukrainian name of Chernivtsi, the city is known by several different names in various languages, which still are used by the respective population groups much as they used to be throughout the city's history, either in connection with the rule by one country or another or independently from it: Romanian: Cernăuți.
Chernovtsy. In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the city's name was Chern. Archeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture. A fortified settlement located on the left shore of the Prut dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl. Legendary accounts refer to Black city; this early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in 1259. However, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes. Following the destruction of the fortress settlements in the area centered on the right shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous, elevated location. In 1325, when Kingdom of Poland seized control of Galicia, came into contact with the early Vlach feudal formations, a fort was mentioned under the name Țețina.
It was part of a group of three fortifications, the other two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, a fort on the Kolachin River, an upriver tributary of Prut. Between 1359 and 1775, the city and its surroundings were part of the Principality of Moldavia, one of the historic provinces of Romania; the name Cernăuți/Chernivtsi is first attested in a document by Alexandru cel Bun on 8 October 1408. In Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as "Çernovi", a phonetic transliteration of a Latin cognomen meaning new castle see French Castelnau or Welsh Carno. In 1775, the northwestern part of the territory of Moldavia was annexed by the Habsburg Empire; the city became the region's capital, which in 1849 was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city received Magdeburg rights; the city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration. He invited many merchants and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses.
Saint Peter's Fairs had given a new vibrant impulse to the market development from 1786. In the late 19th century the German language—due to the Habsburg and the important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca and more and more newspapers were edited in German a remarkable literary production in German began in this period, featuring most prominently Karl Emil Franzos. During the 19th and early 20th century, Chernivtsi became a center of both Romanian and Ukrainian national movements. In 1908, it was the site of the first Yiddish language conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinated by Nathan Birnbaum; when Austria-Hungary dissolved in 1918, the city and its surrounding area became part of the Kingdom of Romania. In 1930, the city reached a population of 112,400: 26.8% Jews, 23.2% Romanians, 20.8% Germans, 18.6% Ukrainians, the remainder Poles and others. It was one of the five university centers of interwar Romania. In 1940, the Red Army occupied the area; the city's large Romanian intelligentsia found refuge in Romania.
Under the regime of military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania had switched from an ally of France and Britain to one of Nazi Germany. In August 1941, Antonescu ordered the creation of a ghetto in the lowland part of the city, where 50,000 Bukovina Jews were crammed, two-thirds of whom would be deported in October 1941 and early 1942 to Transnistria, where the majority perished; the Romanian mayor of the city Traian Popovici managed to persuade Antonescu t
Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine. A region of Moldavia during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania established its control over Bukovina. In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, is part of Ukraine; the name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire in 1804, Austria-Hungary in 1867. The official German name of the province under Austrian rule, die Bukowina, was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn was derived from the common Slavic form of buk, meaning beech tree.
Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is used in poetry, means "beech land", or "the land of beech trees". In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor is sometimes used. In English, an alternative form is The Bukovina an archaism, however, is found in older literature. In modern Ukraine, the name "Bukovina" is unofficial, but is common when referring to the Chernivtsi Oblast, as over two thirds of the oblast is the northern part of Bukovina. In Romania the term Northern Bukovina is sometimes synonymous with the entire Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine, while Bukovina refers to the Suceava County of Romania; the territory of Bukovina had been part of Moldavia since the 14th century. It was first delineated as a separate district in 1775, was made a nominal duchy within the Austrian Empire in 1849; the Moldavian state had appeared by the mid-14th century expanding its territory all the way to the Black Sea. Bukovina and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava as its capital from 1388.
The name of Moldavia is derived from a river flowing in Bukovina. In the 15th century, the region to the north, became the subject of disputes between the Principality of Moldavia and the Polish Kingdom. Pokuttya was inhabited by Hutsuls. In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest, at which Stephen III of Moldavia, managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland; the battle is known in Polish popular culture as "the battle when the Knights have perished". In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna and others. With their renowned exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania. Stephen settled the first Ruthenians in Bukovina with the hope of having a loyal and more numerous population that would contribute with taxes. In Suceava, in the 16th century, two percent of the population was Ruthenian.
In 1513, Moldavia started to pay annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire, but remained autonomous and was governed as before by a native Voivod / Prince. In May, 1600 Mihai Viteazul, united the two Romanian principalities and Transylvania under his leadership. For short periods of time, the Polish Kingdom occupied parts of northern Moldavia. However, the old border was re-established each time, as for example on 14 October 1703 the Polish delegate Martin Chometowski acknowledged "Between us and Wallachia God himself set Dniester as the border". In the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman armies were defeated by the Russian Empire, which occupied the region during 15 December 1769 – September 1774, during 14 September–October 1769. Bukovina was the reward. Prince Grigore III Ghica of Moldavia protested and was prepared to take action to recover the territory, but was assassinated, a Greek-Phanariot foreigner was put on the throne of Moldavia by the Ottomans; the Austrian Empire occupied Bukovina in October 1774.
Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Austrians claimed that they needed it for a road between Galicia and Transylvania. Bukovina was formally annexed in January 1775. On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka and Ottomans signed a border convention, Austria giving back 59 of the occupied villages, retaining 278 villages. Bukovina was a closed military district the largest district, Kreis Czernowitz of the Austrian constituent Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On 4 March 1849, Bukovina became a separate Austrian Kronland'crown land' under a Landespräsident and was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina (a
Administrative divisions of Ukraine
Ukraine is divided into several levels of territorial entities. On the first level there are 27 regions: 24 oblasts, one autonomous republic, two "cities with special status". Following the 2014 Crimean crisis and Sevastopol became de facto administrated by the Russian Federation, which claims them as the Republic of Crimea and the federal city of Sevastopol; the international community recognises them as being Ukrainian territory. The administrative division in Ukraine was directly inherited from the local republican administration of the Soviet Union, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, has not changed since the middle of the 20th century, it is somewhat complex as beside having several levels of a territorial subdivision, it has a classification for various populated places cities. According to the Article 133 of Constitution of Ukraine, "the system of the administrative and territorial structure of Ukraine is composed of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, districts, districts in city and villages."
Note, that although certain types of subdivision are not mentioned in Constitution of Ukraine, they are mentioned for regional composition. For disambiguation regular raions are sometimes denoted as rural to distinguish them from raions in city. Ukraine's administrative divisions are divided as follows: By geographical characteristics the units are divided on regions and places of settlement. By their status they can be administrative-territorial units, self-governed territorial units; the autonomous republic has a unique status of territorial autonomy, while districts in cities combine both characteristics of administrative territorial as well as self-governed territorial units. By position in the system of administrative division of Ukraine, the units divided into territorial units of prime level, of middle level, of higher level. Administrative division has changed because some territories are not under the control of the government. For example, Sievierodonetsk has become the new central regional center.
Regions, districts are governed by a state administration, a chief of, appointed by the president after a nomination by the cabinet of ministers. Crimea has its own cabinet of ministers, however the state administration is represented by the office of the Presidential Representative of Ukraine. A basic and the lowest level of administrative division is a settlement, governed by a local council. Cities as a settlement always carry a special status within a region and have their own form of self-administration and some may consist of their own city's districts. City municipalities are governed by a city council; some smaller cities and rural localities may be under control of city municipalities based on larger cities. Towns as well as villages are not controlled by state administration and are self-governed by either a town council or a village council within the limits of the Constitution and the laws of Ukraine. Village councils may carry a combined jurisdiction which may include several hamlets.
Unlike villages, each town council always has a separate jurisdiction which may be part of bigger city's council. Hamlet is governed by a village council of nearby village. Ukraine is divided into 3 main administrative divisions: oblast and council. Note, settlements such as cities do not necessary constitute the basic level of the Ukrainian administrative territorial system. For that purpose cities are categorized into own three categories that correspond to each level of subdivisions. Cities with special status and regional significance beside being divided into special districts in city may include smaller cities, and/or villages. Please, note that the settlement's population size is not the only factor for its status; the final decision on status change is carried out by the Ukrainian parliament. The following table is based on the 2001 Ukrainian Census; the following numbers are based on the 2001 Ukrainian Census. Top level:Autonomous Republic of Crimea Oblasts of Ukraine Cities with special status: Kiev and Sevastopol Middle level: Raions Cities of oblast significance City districts Primary level: Cities of raion significance Urban-type settlements Villages Rural-type settlements Total cities: 454, an increase of 20 compared with the 1989 census.
Before the introduction of oblasts in 1932, Ukraine comprised 40 okruhas, which had replaced the former Russian Imperial guberniya subdivisions. In 1932 the territory of the Ukrainian SSR was re-established based on oblasts. Excluded in the administrative changes was Western Ukraine, which at that time formed part of the Second Polish Republic and shared in the Polish form of administrative division based on voivodeships. In the post-World War II period, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic consisted of 25 oblasts and two cities with special status. After the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, Crimea obtained the status of an autonomous republic wit
Zastavna is a town in Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Zastavna Raion. Zastavna is located in 26 km to the north of the city of Chernivtsi, in the historical region of Bukovina. Population: 7,898 The first mention in chronicles is dated to 1589; the name of Zastavna most origins from its location surrounded by ponds. There is a version that the name goes from the turnpike on the road to Chernivtsi existed in old times. Zastavna has status of town since 1940. Zastavna on the web-site of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine
Chernivtsi Oblast is an oblast in western Ukraine, consisting of the northern parts of the regions of Bukovina and Bessarabia. It has an international border with Moldova; the oblast is the smallest in Ukraine. The oblast has a large variety of landforms: the Carpathian Mountains and picturesque hills at the foot of the mountains change to a broad forested plain situated between the Dniester and Prut rivers, its capital is the city Chernivtsi. The region spans 8,100 km². Population: 909,893 Chernivtsi Oblast covers an area of 8,097 km², it is the smallest oblast in Ukraine, representing 1.3% of Ukrainian territory. In the oblast there are 75 rivers longer than 10 kilometers; the largest rivers are the Dnister and Siret. The oblast covers three geographic zones: a forest steppe region between Prut and Dnister rivers, a foothill region between the Carpathian Mountains and Prut river, a mountain region known as the Bukovinian part of the Carpathian Mountains. Chernivtsi Oblast is bordered by Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, Khmelnytskyi Oblast, Vinnytsia Oblast and Moldova.
Within the oblast the national border of Ukraine with Romania extends 226 km, with Moldova 198 km. Chernivtsi oblast was created on August 7, 1940 in the wake of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina; the oblast was organized out of the northeast part of Ţinutul Suceava of Kingdom of Romania, joining parts of three historical regions: northern half of Bukovina, northern half of the Hotin County county of Bessarabia, Hertza region, part of the Dorohoi county of proper Moldavia. Archaeological sites in the region date back to 43,000-45,000 BC, with finds including a mammoth bone dwelling from the Middle Paleolithic; the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture flourished in the area. In the Middle Ages, the region was part of the Principality of Moldavia, which in the late middle age became a vassal of the Ottoman Empire. In 1775, two counties of Moldavia, since known as Bukovina, were annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy's Holy Roman Empire, which became the Austrian Empire. In 1812, one half of Moldavia, since known as Bessarabia, was annexed by the Russian Empire.
Hertza region remained in Moldavia until its union with Wallachia in 1859, a union which in 1881 became the Kingdom of Romania. In 1918 both provinces of Bukovina and Bessarabia united with the Kingdom of Romania; the Soviet occupation began on June 28, 1940. In addition to Bessarabia, the USSR demanded northern Bukovina as compensation for the occupation of Bessarabia by Romania from 1918 to 1940. Hertza region was not included in the demands that the Soviet Union addressed to Romania, but was occupied at the same time. Most of the occupied territories were organized on August 2, 1940 as the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, while the remainder, including the Chenivtsi Oblast, formed on August 7, 1940, were included in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. Throughout 1940-1941 several tens of thousands of Bukovinians were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan, some 13,000 of them on June 13, 1941 alone; this and deportations were based on social class difference, it targeted intellectuals, people employed by the state, clergymen, railworkers.
The majority of those targeted were ethnic Romanians, but there were many representatives of other ethnicities, as well. The protests of the Romanian population of Bukovina that found themselves under the Soviet rule brought about serious Soviet reprisals, including of ethnic character. In the winter and spring of 1941, the Soviet troops opened fire on many groups of locals trying to cross the border into Romania. Between September 17 and November 17, 1940, by a mutual agreement between USSR and Germany, 43,641 "ethnic Germans" from the Chernivtsi region were moved to Germany, although the total ethnic German population was only 34,500, of these some 3,500 did not go to Germany. Upon their arrival in Germany, the Nazi government sent most of non-ethnic Germans to concentration camps. Only some of them were freed after the protests of the Romanian government. During World War II, when the region returned under the control of the Romanian administration, the Jewish community of the area was destroyed by the deportations to ghettos and Nazi concentration camps, where about 60% died.
Despite the anti-Semitic policies of the Ion Antonescu's government of Romania, the mayor of Cernăuți, Traian Popovici, now honored by Israel's Yad Vashem memorial as one of the Righteous Among the Nations, saved ca. 20,000 Jews. In 1944, when the Soviet troops returned to Bukovina, many inhabitants fled to Romania, Soviet persecutions resumed, with the result that the region was depopulated. In demographic terms, these war-time and post-war-time factors changed the region's ethnic composition. Today the number of Jews and Poles is statistically insignificant, while the number of Romanians has decreased substantially. Ruthenian communities in Bukovina date back to at least 16th century. In 1775, Ukrainians represented some 8,000 out of a 75,000 population of Bukovina. By 1918, as a result of immigration of Ukrainian peasants from nearby villages in Galicia and Podolia, there were over 200,000 Ukrainians, out of a total of 730,000. Most of Ukrainians settled in the northern parts of Bukovina, their number was large in the area between the Dniester and Prut rivers, where they became a majority.
A similar process occurred in northern Bessarabia. Throughout the history of the region, there
Vashkivtsi is a city in Vyzhnytsia Raion of Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine. It is located in the historical region of Bukovina. John Hnatyshyn, Canadian lawyer and father of Ray Hnatyshyn, the twenty-fourth Governor General of Canada. Www.vashkivtsi.com/en/