South Vietnamese Regional Force
During the Vietnam War, the South Vietnamese Regional Forces were Army of the Republic of Vietnam militia. Recruited locally, they fell into two broad groups - Regional Forces and the more local-level Popular Forces. In 1964, the Regional Forces were integrated into the Army of the Republic of Vietnam and placed under the command of the Joint General Staff. Fielded as village-level or province-level defence forces, these units were militia-men while working part or full-time. Given the worse equipment available, they served as a front-line force against armed attacks but were marginalised and demoralised during the American-intervention, as ARVN Regular Forces were relegated to guarding duty. Following Vietnamization these units once again came back to prominence as they became better trained and tasked with carrying out wider area operations despite lacking artillery and air support, they would serve as front-line provincial defence units while Regular Forces were deployed against conventional People's Army of Vietnam forces, grew to number 250,000 by 1974.
The concept of Regional and Popular Forces is in-line with countering the Local Force and Main Force structure of the Viet Cong as they lacked firepower support, while the ARVN Regular Forces fought the PAVN. Local militia came to play a effective role in the war, as the style of small-unit warfare was better suited for guerrilla conflicts with most more familiar with the region and terrain. Despite being poorly paid, these forces were much more capable at detecting infiltration and holding civilian areas. Accounting for an estimated 2-5% of war budget, they were thought to have accounted for 30% of casualties inflicted upon VC/NVA throughout the entire war. Part of this derives in these units being more capable of engaging in small-unit, highly-mobile tactics which proved difficult for slow-moving equipment-heavy units. During the early 1960s the Regional Forces manned the country-wide outpost system and defended critical points, such as bridges and ferries. There were half of them in the Mekong Delta region.
Regional Forces played a key role in regional security in the early phase of the war, while RF/PF members were marginalised and side-lined during the American-intervention as Regular Force Army of the Republic of Vietnam Units were relegated to guarding bases and areas, badly affecting morale and purpose. When U. S. forces began to withdraw from South Vietnam during 1969 and the ARVN began the task of fighting the communist main force units, Regional Forces took on a new importance. For the first time, they were deployed outside their home areas and were sometimes attached to ARVN units. By 1973 the Regional Forces had grown to 1,810 companies, some of which were consolidated into battalions. Charged with local defense under provincial government control, they were too armed and equipped, marginally trained, lacked the unit cohesion to withstand attack by regular People's Army of Vietnam units supported by tanks and artillery. Most forces were subdued, retreated or were destroyed during the Easter Offensive
State of Vietnam
The State of Vietnam was a state that claimed authority over all of Vietnam during the First Indochina War although part of its territory was controlled by the communist Việt Minh. The state was created in 1949 and was internationally recognised in 1950. Former Emperor Bảo Đại was chief of state. After the 1954 Geneva Agreements, the State of Vietnam had to abandon the northern part of the country to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Ngô Đình Diệm was appointed prime minister that same year and—after having ousted Bảo Đại in 1955—became president of the Republic of Vietnam. Since the August Revolution, the Việt Minh had seized all of the territories of Vietnam; the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was established by the Việt Minh on September 2, 1945. By February 1947, following the pacification of Tonkin, the Tonkinese capital and the main traffic axis returned to French control; the Việt Minh partisans were forced to retreat into the jungle and prepared to pursue the war using guerrilla warfare.
In order to reduce Việt Minh leader Hồ Chí Minh’s influence over the Vietnamese population, the French authorities in Indochina supported the return to power of the Bảo Đại, the last emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty), by establishing puppet states, including the State of Vietnam. Bao Dai had voluntarily abdicated on August 25, 1945, after the fall of the short-lived Empire of Vietnam, a puppet state of the Empire of Japan. On June 5, 1948, the Halong Bay Agreements allowed the creation of a unified Vietnamese government replacing the governments of Tonkin and Annam associated to France within the French Union and the Indochinese Federation including the neighboring Kingdom of Laos and Kingdom of Cambodia. Cochinchina, had a different status, both as a colony and as an autonomous republic, its reunification with the rest of Vietnam had to be approved by its local assembly, by the French National Assembly. During the transitional period, a Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was proclaimed: Nguyễn Văn Xuân, until head of the Provisional Government of South Vietnam became its president, while Bảo Đại waited for a complete reunification to take office.
However, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had declared the independence of Vietnam and had control of all of Vietnam's territory since September 2, 1945. Besides that, the DRV had hosted the 1946 Vietnamese National Assembly election with the participation of 89% of Vietnamese voters; the Democratic Republic of Vietnam had become the constitutional representatives of Vietnam in 1946. Since the Halong Bay Agreements resulted in many aspects—excluding the referendum—in the enforcement of the March 6, 1946, Indochinese Independence Convention signed by Communist Hồ Chí Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam and High Commissioner of France in Indochina Admiral Thierry d'Argenlieu, representative of Félix Gouin's Provisional French Republic led by the French Section of the Workers' International, some regarded the State of Vietnam as a puppet state of the French Fourth Republic. On May 20, 1949, the French National Assembly approved the reunification of Cochinchina with the rest of Vietnam; the decision took effect on June 14 and the State of Vietnam was proclaimed on July 2.
From 1949 to 1954, after reunification with Cochinchina, the State of Vietnam had partial autonomy from France as an associated state within the French Union. Bảo Đại fought against communist leader Hồ Chí Minh for legitimacy as the legitimate government of Vietnam through the struggle between the Vietnamese National Army and the Việt Minh during the First Indochina War; the State of Vietnam found support in the French Fourth Republic and the United States while Hồ Chí Minh was backed by the People's Republic of China, to a lesser extent by the Soviet Union. Despite French support 60% of Vietnamese territory was under Việt Minh control in 1952. After the Geneva Conference of 1954, as well as becoming independent with its departure from the French Union, the State of Vietnam became territorially confined to those lands of Vietnam south of the 17th parallel, as such became known as Republic of Vietnam; the massive voluntary migration of anti-communist north Vietnamese Roman Catholic people, proceeded during the French-American Operation Passage to Freedom in summer 1954.
On May 27, 1948, Nguyễn Văn Xuân President of the Republic of Cochin China, became President of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam following the merging of the government of Cochin China and Vietnam in what is sometimes referred as "Pre-Vietnam". On June 14, 1949, Bảo Đại was appointed Chief of State of the State of Vietnam. On October 26, 1955, the Republic of Vietnam was established and Ngô Đình Diệm became the first President of the Republic; the State of Vietnam referendum of 1955 determined the future regime of the country. Following the referendum's results the State of Vietnam ceased to exist on October 26, 1955, was replaced by the Republic of Vietnam—widely known as South Vietnam—whose reformed army, under American "protection", pursued the struggle against communism. Following the signing of the 1949 Élysée Accords in Paris, Bảo Đại was able to create a National Army for defense purposes, it fought under the State of Vietnam's banner and leadership and was com
Military Assistance Command, Vietnam
U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam was a joint-service command of the United States Department of Defense. MACV was created on 8 February 1962, in response to the increase in United States military assistance to South Vietnam. MACV was first implemented to assist the Military Assistance Advisory Group Vietnam, controlling every advisory and assistance effort in Vietnam, but was reorganized on 15 May 1964 and absorbed MAAG Vietnam to its command when combat unit deployment became too large for advisory group control. MACV was disestablished on 29 March 1973 and replaced by the Defense Attaché Office Saigon which performed many of the same roles of MACV within the restrictions imposed by the Paris Peace Accords until the Fall of Saigon; the first commanding general of MACV, General Paul D. Harkins, was the commander of MAAG Vietnam, after reorganization was succeeded by General William C. Westmoreland in June 1964, followed by General Creighton W. Abrams and General Frederick C. Weyand. Major component commands of MACV were: United States Army Vietnam I Field Force, Vietnam II Field Force, Vietnam XXIV Corps III Marine Amphibious Force Naval Forces Vietnam Seventh Air Force 5th Special Forces Group Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support Studies and Observations Group Field Advisory Element, MACV In contrast to the carrier and naval gunfire support forces and, at least during early 1965, the coastal patrol force, which Commander Seventh Fleet directed, the Navy's forces within South Vietnam were operationally controlled by COMUSMACV.
General William C. Westmoreland exercised this command through the Chief, Naval Advisory Group. However, the increasing demands of the war required a distinct operational rather than an advisory headquarters for naval units; as a result, on 1 April 1966, Naval Forces, was established to control the Navy's units in the II, III, IV Corps Tactical Zones. This included the major combat formations: Coastal Surveillance Force, River Patrol Force, Riverine Assault Force; the latter unit formed the naval component of the joint Army-Navy Mobile Riverine Force. Commander Naval Forces, Vietnam controlled the Naval Support Activity, which supplied naval forces in the II, III, IV Corps areas. Naval Support Activity Danang, provided logistic support to all American forces in the I Corps area of responsibility, where the predominant Marine presence demanded a naval supply establishment. NSA Danang was under the operational control of Commander III Marine Amphibious Force; the "Commander, U. S. Military Assistance Command, Vietnam" was known by the abbreviation COMUSMACV.
COMUSMACV was in one sense the top person in charge of the U. S. military on the Indochinese peninsula. S. ambassadors to Vietnam and Cambodia had "top person in charge" status with regard to various aspects of the war's strategy. With the signing of the Paris Peace Accords all American and third country forces were to be withdrawn within 60 days of the cease-fire. MACV was therefore inactivated on 29 March 1973; the Defense Attaché Office Saigon was organized according to requirements established by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, CINCPAC, MACV, was activated on 28 January 1973. DAO Saigon was a unique organization, it performed the traditional functions of a defense attaché, managed American military affairs in Vietnam after the cease-fire including the programs for the support of South Vietnam's armed forces, administered procurement contracts in support of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, furnished housekeeping support to Americans remaining in Vietnam after the ceasefire. Aside from the support of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force, it reported on operational matters, such as violations of the cease-fire, produced intelligence information on which subsequent decisions concerning the Military Assistance Program and American interests in Southeast Asia could be based.
The DAO occupied the offices turned over to it by the MACV adjacent to Tan Son Nhut Airport and most of its employees and officials conducted their work from those offices. Small field offices were located in Da Nang, Qui Nhon, Nha Trang, Bien Hoa, Long Binh, Nha Be, Đồng Tâm, Binh Thuy, Can Tho. To perform the traditional representational and information-collecting functions of military attaches, five professional attaches – two Army, two Air Force, one Navy – were assigned to the DAO with offices in the United States Embassy, Saigon; the senior member of this group was the assistant defense attaché, an Army colonel who reported to the Defense Intelligence Agency in Washington through attache channels. The attaches made frequent visits to the field where they observed Republic of Vietnam Air Force units and activities and reported those observations to the defense attaché and to Washington; the largest element in the Operations and Plans Division was the Intelligence Branch. The Chief of the Intelligence Branch was responsible for American military intelligence activities in the Republic of Vietnam.
He reported directly to the Ambassador and the Defense Attache, coordinated with Republic of Vietnam Air Force intelligence agencies and other U. S. intelligence activities in South Vietnam, and, in intelligence channels, reported on most matters to USSAG, CINCPAC, the Defense Intelligence Agency. The Communications and Electronics Division had functions which, like those of the Operations and Plans Division, included support of U. S. military activities as well as continued military assistance to Republic of Vietnam Air Force. The Comm
Donn J. Robertson
Donn John Robertson was a decorated officer of the United States Marine Corps with the rank of lieutenant general. He is most noted for his service as commanding general of III Marine Amphibious Force and 1st Marine Division during Vietnam War. Donn J. Robertson was born on September 9, 1916, in Willow City, North Dakota, but his family moved to Minot, North Dakota, where young Donn graduated local high school in 1934, he subsequently attended University of North Dakota, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in summer 1938. During his university years, Robertson captained the basketball team in his senior year and was commissioned in the Army Reserve, he met his future wife, Elaine Sophia, they married on July 29, 1940. Robertson resigned his reserve commission in order to accept appointment of second lieutenant in the Marine Corps on June 1, 1938; as an newly commissioned officer, Robertson was sent to the Basic School at Philadelphia Navy Yard for officers training, which he completed in June 1939.
Many of his classmates became general officers or had distinguished career later: Gregory Boyington, Hugh M. Elwood, Lowell E. English, Carl J. Fleps, Edward H. Hurst, Charles J. Quilter or Alvin S. Sanders, he was subsequently assigned to the Marine detachment aboard the battleship USS West Virginia and spent most of his time there with patrol cruises in Pacific and Hawaii took part in Fleet Problem XXI during 1940. Robertson was transferred San Diego, where he was appointed company commander within 2nd Marine Division under Major General Clayton B. Vogel, he was promoted to the rank of first lieutenant in August 1941 and served as Division adjutant under new division's commander, Major General Charles F. B. Price. Following the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor and United States' entry into World War II, General Price was ordered to the Pacific Area at the end of March 1942, to be appointed commanding general of the newly established Samoan Defense Force and aware of Robertson's administration skills, he requested him as his adjutant.
Meanwhile, Robertson was promoted to the rank of captain in February 1942. During his assignment in Samoa, he was promoted to the rank of major in March 1943 and subsequently returned to the United States in March 1944 in order to attend Command and Staff Course at Marine Corps Schools Quantico, Virginia. Robertson graduated in June 1944 and subsequently was transferred to the 5th Marine Division under Major General Keller E. Rockey, he sailed back to the Pacific theater in September 1944 and was appointed commanding officer of 3rd Battalion, 27th Marine Regiment under Colonel Thomas A. Wornham. Robertson was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel in October 1944. During the Battle of Iwo Jima in February 1945, Robertson led his battalion up to the fortified Hill 362, but his unit was pinned down by intense hostile mortar and machine-gun fire, he left his command post and moved to the forward observation post to observe the situation. Robertson moved along the front line units, inspired his men to heroic effort in resuming the attack until they had advanced up the southern slopes and seized the crest of this vitally strategic hill.
His battalion took heavy casualties, but he refused to withdrawal of his unit and repulsed several night attacks and prevent the Japanese to penetrate the regimental line. For his gallantry in action and excellent leadership, Robertson was decorated with the Navy Cross, the United States military's second-highest decoration awarded for valor in combat, he received the Navy Presidential Unit Citation. Following the Surrender of Japan in August 1945, Robertson was appointed executive officer of 27th Marine Regiment under Colonel Thomas A. Wornham and took part in occupation duties in Japan, he was stationed in Ōmura until December 1945, when he was attached to the 8th Service Regiment at Sasebo as a Regimental executive officer. Robertson returned stateside in May 1946 and assumed command of Marine Barracks at Marine Corps Air Station at San Diego; this service lasted until November of that year, when he was transferred to the staff of 3rd Marine Brigade at Camp Pendleton under Brigadier General John T. Walker.
This unit was used as administrative command for combat veterans returning from occupation duties in Japan and Robertson was responsible for Personnel matters as Assistant Chief of Staff for Manpower and Personnel. When the 3rd Brigade was absorbed by 1st Marine Division in July 1947, Robertson was appointed to the same capacity under Major General Graves B. Erskine, he remained in that assignment until March 1948, when he was transferred to the Headquarters Marine Corps in Washington, D. C. and appointed Officer in Charge of Enlisted Detail Branch. During June 1951, Robertson was ordered to Cuba and assigned to the Marine barracks within Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, he served first as an executive officer and following his promotion to the rank of colonel in January 1954, he was appointed Barracks commanding officer. After two years in the Caribbean, Robertson returned stateside for Senior Course at the Marine Corps Schools Quantico in June 1953, he graduated during the following June and remained at Quantico Base until October 1954.
Robertson subsequently left for Korea, but too late to see combat. He was assigned to the staff of 1st Marine Division under Major General Robert E. Hogaboom as senior advisor to the Korean Marine Corps. For his service in this capacity, Colonel Robertson received the Korean Order of National Security Merit, 2nd Class with Silver Star. Following his return to the United States in September 1955, Robertson was appointed officer in charge of the Plans Branch within Division of Operations at Headquarters Marine Corps; this assignment lasted until June 1958, when he was transferre
Annam (French protectorate)
Annam was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam. Before the protectorate's establishment, the name Annam was used in the West to refer to Vietnam as a whole. Vietnamese people were referred to as Annamites; the protectorate of Annam became in 1887 a part of French Indochina. Two other Vietnamese regions, Cochinchina in the South and Tonkin in the North, were units of French Indochina; the region had a dual system of Vietnamese administration. The Nguyễn Dynasty still nominally ruled Annam, with a puppet emperor residing in Huế. In 1948, the protectorate was merged in the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, replaced the next year by the newly established State of Vietnam; the region was divided between communist North Vietnam and anti-communist South Vietnam under the terms of the Geneva Accord of 1954. Annam means "Pacified South" in the toponym being derived from the Chinese An Nan. In the history of Vietnam, the designation is one of several given by the Chinese to the Tonkin, the core territory of modern-day Vietnam surrounding the city of Hanoi, which included land from the Gulf of Tonkin to the mountains which surround the plains of the Red River.
The name has been applied to the Annamite Range, a 1,100 km mountain range with a height ranging up to 2,958 metres that divides Vietnam and Laos. The Vietnamese language or its central dialects were called "Annamese", as in the seminal dictionary Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum. An Nam is considered offensively demeaning to Vietnamese people, used in sarcastic manners. Trung Kỳ is used instead in formal contexts. Meanwhile, Annamiticum in the dictionary's name is translated as Việt. Towards the end of the 18th century a rebellion overthrew the Nguyễn lords, but one of its members, Gia Long, by the aid of a French force, in 1801 acquired sway over the whole of present-day Vietnam; this force was procured for him by Pigneau de Béhaine, titular bishop of Adran, who saw in the political condition of Annam a means of establishing French influence in Indochina and counterbalancing the English power in India. Before this, in 1787, Gia Long had concluded a treaty with Louis XVI, whereby in return for a promise of aid he ceded Tourane and Pulo-Condore to the French.
That treaty marks the beginning of French influence in Indochina. After conquering Cochinchina in 1858–1862, the French resumed in 1883 their expansion in Southern Asia; the first protectorate treaty was signed in 1883, although it was replaced the next year by a milder treaty. With the treaty of Tientsin, China recognised the French protectorate over Annam and Tonkin and implicitly abandoned her own claims to suzerainty over Vietnam. Annam and Tonkin became part of French Indochina in 1887. On 9 May 1889, they were split in two Résidences supérieures, each subordinated to the Governor-General of French Indochina; the Nguyễn dynasty still nominally ruled over both protectorates. Tonkin was de facto ruled directly by the French, while the imperial government maintained some degree of authority over Annam. On 27 September 1897, the Vietnamese imperial council in Annam was replaced by a council of ministers, presided de jure by the French representative. Annam comprised a sinuous strip of territory measuring between 750 and 800 miles in length, with an approximate area of 52,000 square miles.
It had a rich, well-watered soil which yields tropical crops, was rich in occurring minerals. The country consisted chiefly of a range of plateaus and wooded mountains, running north and south and declining on the coast to a narrow band of plains varying between 12 and 50 miles in breadth; the mountains are cut transversely by short narrow valleys, through which run rivers, most of which are dry in summer and torrential in winter. The Song Ma and the Song Ca in the north, the Song Ba, Don Nai and Se Bang Khan in the south, are the only rivers of any size in the region; the chief harbour is. South of this point, the coast curves is broken by peninsulas and indentations. In Annam, the rainy season begins during September and lasts for three or four months, corresponding with the northeastern monsoon and with a period of typhoons. During the rains the temperature varies from 59 degrees Fahrenheit to 75 °F. June and August are the hottest months, the thermometer reaching 85 °F or 90 °F, though the heat of the day is to some extent compensated by the freshness of the nights.
The southwest monsoon which brings rain in Cochin China coincides with the dry season in Annam, the reason being that the mountains and lofty plateaus separating the two countries retain the precipitation. During the French period there was little industry; the economy was an agricultural one based on: the cultivation of rice, which grows in the small deltas along the coast and in some districts gives two crops a year. Fishing, fish salting and the preparation of fish sauceSilk spinning and weaving were carried on in what the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition called "antiquated lines...silkworms reared in a desultory fashion". Other crops were tea, cotton, precious woods and rubber. Coffee, pepper and jute were cultivated to a minor extent; the exports comprised tea, raw silk and small quantities of cotton, rice and su
Vietnamese National Army
On March 8, 1949, after the Élysée Accords, the State of Vietnam was recognized by France as an independent country ruled by Vietnamese Emperor Bảo Đại. The Vietnamese National Army or Vietnam National Army was the State of Vietnam's military force created shortly after that, it was loyal to Bảo Đại. The VNA fought in joint operations with the French Union's French Far East Expeditionary Corps against the communist Việt Minh forces led by Xantares Nguyen. Different units within the VNA fought in a wide range of campaigns including the Battle of Nà Sản, Operation Hautes Alpes, Operation Atlas and the Battle of Dien Bien Phu. With the departure of the French Far East Expeditionary Corps from Indochina in 1956, the VNA was reorganized under American tutelage as the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. While loyalist to the Chief of State of Vietnam Emperor Bảo Đại, the VNA fought along the French Union forces against the communist Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh during the First Indochina War until 1954 and the partition of Vietnam.
In 1955, the State of Vietnam was dissolved and replaced by Ho Chi Minh's Democratic Republic of Vietnam in the north and Ngô Đình Diệm's Republic of Vietnam in the south. In early May, civil war ensued in the capital of South Vietnam when the VNA fought General Lê Văn Viễn's Bình Xuyên forces in the latter's controlled areas of Saigon. By 1956 all French Union troops withdrew from Vietnam and most of the VNA officers remained in service in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. After the fall of Saigon breaking in 1975, some joined the French Foreign Legion and others exiled to France or the United States. Benefiting with French cadres assistance and United States material support the VNA became a modern army modeled after the CEFEO Expeditionary Corps. Officers and Non-commissioned officers were trained in local schools of cadres known in French as Ecoles des Cadres, or at the elite National Military Academy, Dalat; the Preparatory Military School of Dalat was directed by Lieutenant Savani, a metropolitan French, educated in the Autun EMP.
It was created in 1936 after the Autun EMP as the Dalat School of the Eurasian Children of Troops. Once dissolved during the Japanese occupation in 1944, General de Lattre reformed the EETED as the EETD Dalat School of the Children of Troops in 1950. In 1953, the cadres formation raised with 54 new battalion created and hundreds of new officers formed by early March. By November the Vietnamese National Army was enlisted of Vietnamese recruits from the Privates to Generals. On the other hand, until 1954 some Vietnamese were trained four months in an Infantry Instruction Centers based in southern Vietnam. Once licensed these recruits would not be part of the VNA but the French CEFEO. Other officer and NCO alumni were coming from all French Union including Cambodia, metropolitan French and "French citizens" of French West Africa and India. On April 20, 1952, the Dalat academy celebrated its first promotion with a "baptism", the Saint Cyr -French West Point- fashion. Celebrating officials included Chief of State, H.
M. Emperor Bảo Đại, Prime Minister Trần Văn Hữu, General Governor of French Indochina Gautier and French General Salan, commander of the CEFEO, his Majesty Emperor Bảo Đại awarded the Hoàng Diệu promotion's senior and junior classes with a Saint-Cyr offered saber. As a symbol of the handover of self-defense responsibility of the whole Vietnam to the VNA, the senior class fired 4 traditional arrows in each direction. Alumni of the Vatchay Light Infantry Commando school located in the Halong Bay, were trained to anti-guerrilla warfare including bayonet fighting, close quarters combat, jujutsu art, river crossing, basic rope bridge crossing, enhanced camouflage, minefield crossing, barbed wire field crossing and trench warfare. Military ranks were organized after the French army's hierarchy. Shoulder patch insignia would star. Generals would have three stars while NCO officers with a straight bar were called Ong Mot and those with two straight bars were unofficially named Ong Hai. Since anyone working for the government was called Quan the rank Lieutenant soon replaced it, Quan Mot became Sous-Lieutenant, Quan Hai became Lieutenant and so forth.
After the founding of the Republic of Vietnam in 1955, the VNA was renamed the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. Its military ranks and hierarchy were reformed. Organized as a modern army the Ground Force included artillery, signal communications and armored cavalry units. Airborne regiments including paratrooper "TDND", the so-called 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th BAWOUAN, were created; these elite units were referred as the "BPVN" by their French allies. Some of these paratroopers were attached to the GCMA special forces; the VNA air force first took part in the First Indochina War during the joint Operation Atlas in April 1953. The aviation consisted of Morane Saulnier MS-500 reconnaissance planes and Douglas DC-3 and DC-4 transport aircraft useful in airborne operations; the navy included amphibious vehicles such as Landing Craft Infantry, Landing Craft Mechanized, small craft and materiel. The Marine Troops corps w
Republic of Vietnam Military Forces
The Republic of Vietnam Military Forces, were the official armed defense forces of South Vietnam, a state that existed from 1955 to 1975 in the southern half of what is now Vietnam. The RVNMF was responsible for the defense of South Vietnam since the state's independence from France in October 1955 to its demise in April 1975; the QLVNCH was formally established on December 30, 1955 by the strongman and republican first South Vietnamese president Ngo Dinh Diem, which he declared on October 26 that year after winning a rigged referendum for either making South Vietnam a constitutional monarchy, or a presidential republic. Created out from ex-French Union Army colonial Indochinese auxiliary units, gathered earlier on July 1951 into the French-led Vietnamese National Army – VNA, Armée Nationale Vietnamiènne in French, the armed forces of the new state consisted in the mid-1950s of ground and naval branches of service, respectively: Army of the Republic of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Air Force Republic of Vietnam Navy Republic of Vietnam Marine Division Their roles were defined as follows: to protect the sovereignty of the free Vietnamese nation and that of the Republic.
Cambodian Civil War First Indochina War Khmer National Armed Forces Laotian Civil War Royal Lao Armed Forces Republic of Vietnam Air Force Republic of Vietnam Navy Republic of Vietnam National Police Republic of Vietnam Marine Division South Vietnamese military ranks and insignia Vietnam People's Army Vietnamese National Army Vietnam War Weapons of the Vietnam War Gordon L. Rottman and Ron Volstad, US Army Special Forces 1952-84, Elite series 4, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London 1985. ISBN 9780850456103 Gordon L. Rottman and Ron Volstad, Vietnam Airborne, Elite Series 29, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London 1990. ISBN 0-85045-941-9 Gordon L. Rottman and Ramiro Bujeiro, Army of the Republic of Vietnam 1955-75, Men-at-arms series 458, Osprey Publishing Ltd, Oxford 2010. ISBN 978-1-84908-182-5 Kenneth Conboy and Simon McCouaig, South-East Asian Special Forces, Elite series 33, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London 1991. ISBN 9781855321069 Lee E. Russell and Mike Chappell, Armies of the Vietnam War 2, Men-at-arms series 143, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London 1983.
ISBN 0-85045-514-6. Leroy Thompson, Michael Chappell, Malcolm McGregor and Ken MacSwan, Uniforms of the Indo-China and Vietnam Wars, Blandford Press, London 1984. ASIN: B001VO7QSI Martin Windrow and Mike Chappell, The French Indochina War 1946-54, Men-at-arms series 322, Osprey Publishing Ltd, Oxford 1998. ISBN 978-1-85532-789-4 Phillip Katcher and Mike Chappell, Armies of the Vietnam War 1962-1975, Men-at-arms series 104, Osprey Publishing Ltd, London 1980. ISBN 978-0-85045-360-7 Jade Ngoc Quang Huynh, South Wind Changing, Graywolf Press, Minnesota 1994. ASIN: B01FIW8BJG Mark Moyar, Triumph Forsaken: The Vietnam War, 1954-1965, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U. K. 2009. ISBN 978-0521757638, 0521757630 Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam, The Regents of the University of California press and Los Angeles, California 1995. ASIN: B00749ZBRC Nguyen Cao Ky, How we lost the Vietnam War, Stein & Day Pub 1979. ISBN 978-0812860160, 0812860160 Tran Van Don, Our Endless War: Inside Vietnam, Presidio Press, California 1978.
ISBN 978-0891410195, 0891410198