The Book of Lost Tales
The Book of Lost Tales is a collection of early stories by English writer J. R. R. Tolkien, published as the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkien's 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth, in which he presents and analyzes the manuscripts of those stories, which were the earliest form of the complex fictional myths that would comprise The Silmarillion; each of the Tales is followed by a detailed commentary by Christopher Tolkien. For publication the book was split into two volumes: The Book of Lost Tales 1 and The Book of Lost Tales 2, but this is an editorial division. Both volumes are separated into several "Lost Tales". Though they cover a broadly similar history, the Tales are different from The Silmarillion. Firstly the Tales are more complex and detailed than The Silmarillion: they are written in a less formal but more archaic style and include many obsolete words and phrases. Secondly the interaction between the different elf-races is profoundly different: the exiled Noldoli suffer decisive defeat much earlier and become slaves of the enemy they had sought to punish.
Thus when Thingol feels disdain for Beren it is because the latter is a gnome and therefore a thrall of Melko. While many of the names in the book are identical or close to those in the versions, some of them bear no resemblance to their final forms. Tolkien changed names rather sometimes with several new variants written in a single manuscript. Confusingly, sometimes the name applied to one thing is used to refer to something quite different, the original use abandoned. For example, the house of Elves called "Teleri" in The Book of Lost Tales is not the same as that of The Silmarillion; the original usage of "Teleri" would change until the name became "Vanyar", while the house of Elves called "Solosimpi" would inherit the name "Teleri". In the frame story of the book, a mortal Man visits the Elvish Isle of Tol Eressëa where he learns the history of its inhabitants. In the earlier versions this man is of some vague north European origin. In versions he becomes Ælfwine, an Englishman of the Middle-ages.
There are more changes visible within the book, it is not internally consistent because while still writing it Tolkien began rewriting earlier parts as his ideas about the world changed. The Tales were abandoned, but they were resurrected in part as the "Sketch of the Mythology" which would become the Silmarillion. "The Cottage of Lost Play" —the "framework" story "The Music of the Ainur" —the first version of what would become the Ainulindalë "The Coming of the Valar and the Building of Valinor" —later Valaquenta and first chapters of Quenta Silmarillion "The Chaining of Melko"—Melko is an earlier name of Melkor "The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kôr" —Kôr is the Tirion and its hill Túna "The Theft of Melko and the Darkening of Valinor" "The Flight of the Noldoli" —"Noldoli" are the Elves called Noldor "The Tale of the Sun and Moon" "The Hiding of Valinor" "Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind" "The Tale of Tinúviel" —first version of the tale of Beren and Lúthien "Turambar and the Foalókë" —first version of the Túrin saga "The Fall of Gondolin" —the only full narrative of the Fall of Gondolin "The Nauglafring" — tale of the Dwarven necklace known as the Nauglamír "The Tale of Eärendel" —the only full narrative of Eärendil's travels "The History of Eriol or Ælfwine and the End of the Tales"—an essay about the changes in the framework, the "unwritten" tales.
There is an inscription in the Fëanorian characters in the first pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Book I reads: This is the first part of the Book of the Lost Tales of Elfinesse which Eriol the Mariner learned from the Elves of Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle in the western ocean, afterwards wrote in the Golden Book of Tavrobel. Herein are told the Tales of Valinor, from the Music of the Ainur to the Exile of the Noldoli and the Hiding of Valinor; the inscription in Book II reads: This is the second part of the Book of the Lost Tales of Elfinesse which Eriol the Mariner learned from the Elves of Tol Eressëa, the Lonely Isle in the western ocean, afterwards wrote in the Golden Book of Tavrobel. Herein are told the Tales of Beren and Tinúviel, of the Fall of Gondolin and the Necklace of the Dwarves; the Fall of Gondolin Beren and Lúthien The Children of Húrin Unfinished Tales The Silmarillion
Frodo Baggins is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, the main protagonist of The Lord of the Rings. Frodo is a hobbit of the Shire who inherits the One Ring from his cousin Bilbo Baggins and undertakes the quest to destroy it in the fires of Mount Doom, he is mentioned in Tolkien's posthumously published works, The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Frodo did not appear until the third draft of A Long-Expected Party, when he was named Bingo, son of Bilbo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck. In the fourth draft, he was renamed Bingo Bolger-Baggins, son of Rollo Bolger and Primula Brandybuck. Tolkien did not change the name to Frodo until the third phase of writing, when much of the narrative, as far as the hobbits' arrival in Rivendell, had taken shape. Prior to this, the name "Frodo" had been used for the character who became Peregrin Took. Frodo is introduced in The Fellowship of the Ring as the adoptive heir of Bilbo Baggins; the chapter "A Long-expected Party" relates that Frodo's parents Drogo Baggins and Primula Brandybuck had been killed in a boating accident when Frodo was 12.
At the age of 21 he was adopted by his cousin, who brought him to live at Bag End. He and Bilbo shared the same birthday, the 22nd of'September', it was Bilbo who introduced the Elvish languages to Frodo, they shared long walking trips together. Frodo and Meriadoc Brandybuck are first cousins once removed, since Frodo is first cousin to Meriadoc's father, Saradoc Brandybuck, their common ancestors are Mirabella Took Brandybuck. Frodo is moreover third cousin to Meriadoc's mother, Esmeralda Took. Frodo is related to Peregrin Took, being his second and third cousin once removed. Fredegar Bolger is second cousin once removed to Frodo. Frodo shares a close relationship with his gardener Samwise Gamgee although they have no family tie; the Fellowship of the Ring opens as Frodo comes of age and Bilbo leaves the Shire for good on his one hundred and eleventh birthday. Frodo inherited Bag Bilbo's ring, which were both introduced in The Hobbit. Gandalf, at this time, was not certain about the origin of the Ring, so he warned Frodo to avoid using it and to keep it secret.
Frodo kept the Ring hidden for the next 17 years, resulting in it giving him the same longevity of Bilbo, until Gandalf returned to tell him that it was the One Ring of the Dark Lord Sauron, who desired to use it to conquer Middle-earth. Realizing that he was a danger to the Shire as long as he remained there with the Ring, Frodo decided to leave home, at the age of 50, take the Ring to Rivendell, home of Elrond, a mighty Elf lord, he left the Shire with three companions: his gardener Samwise Gamgee and his cousins Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took. They escaped just in time, for Sauron's most powerful servants, the Nine Nazgûl, had entered the Shire as Black Riders, looking for Bilbo and the Ring, they nearly intercepted him. Frodo and his companions escaped the Black Riders by travelling through the Old Forest, but they were misled by the magic of Old Man Willow until they were rescued by Tom Bombadil, who gave them shelter and guided them on their way. After leaving Bombadil, they were caught in fog on the Barrow Downs by Barrow-wights and were entranced under a spell.
Frodo broke loose from the spell, attacked the barrow-wight and summoned Tom Bombadil, who again rescued the hobbits and set them on their way. At the Prancing Pony, an inn in the village of Bree, Frodo received a delayed letter from Gandalf, met Aragorn called Strider, a Ranger of the North; the One Ring slipped onto Frodo's finger inadvertently in the Prancing Pony's common room, turning Frodo invisible. This attracted the attention of Sauron's agents; the group, under Aragorn's guidance fled through the Midgewater Marshes and again escaped the Nazgûl. While encamped at Amon Sûl, they were attacked by five Nazgûl; the chief of the Nazgûl, known as the Witch-king of Angmar, stabbed Frodo with a Morgul-blade, before Aragorn routed all five of them with fire. A piece of this blade remained in Frodo's shoulder and, working its way towards his heart, threatened to turn him into a wraith under the control of the Witch-king. With the help of his companions and Glorfindel, Frodo was able to evade the remaining Ringwraiths and reach Rivendell.
Although overcome by his wound, once there he was healed over time by Elrond. In Rivendell, the Council of Elrond met and resolved to destroy the Ring by casting it into Mount Doom in Mordor, the realm of Sauron. Frodo, stepped forward to be the Ring-bearer. A Fellowship of nine companions was formed to guide and protect him: the hobbits, Aragorn, the dwarf Gimli, the elf Legolas of Mirkwood, Boromir, a man of Gondor. Together they set out from Rivendell. Frodo was armed with Sting, Bilbo's Elvish knife, wore Bilbo's coat of Dwarven mail made of mithril; the company, seeking a way over the Misty Mountains, first tried the Pass of Caradhras, but abandoned it in favour of the mines of Moria. In Moria Frodo was stabbed by an Orc-spear
Middle-earth is the fictional setting of much of British writer J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium; the term is equivalent to the term Midgard of Norse mythology, describing the human-inhabited world, that is, the central continent of the Earth in Tolkien's imagined mythological past. Tolkien's most read works, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, take place in Middle-earth, Middle-earth has become a short-hand to refer to the legendarium and Tolkien's fictional take on the world. Within his stories, Tolkien translated the name "Middle-earth" as Endor and Ennor in the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin sometimes referring only to the continent that the stories take place on, with another southern continent called the Dark Land. Middle-earth is the north continent of Earth in an imaginary period of the Earth's past, in the sense of a "secondary or sub-creational reality", its general position is reminiscent of Europe, with the environs of the Shire intended to be reminiscent of England. Tolkien's stories chronicle the struggle to control the world and the continent of Middle-earth: on one side, the angelic Valar, the Elves and their allies among Men.
In ages, after Morgoth's defeat and expulsion from Arda, his place was taken by his lieutenant Sauron. The Valar withdrew from direct involvement in the affairs of Middle-earth after the defeat of Morgoth, but in years they sent the wizards or Istari to help in the struggle against Sauron; the most important wizards were Gandalf the Saruman the White. Gandalf proved crucial in the fight against Sauron. Saruman, became corrupted and sought to establish himself as a rival to Sauron for absolute power in Middle-earth. Other races involved in the struggle against evil were Dwarves and most famously Hobbits; the early stages of the conflict are chronicled in The Silmarillion, while the final stages of the struggle to defeat Sauron are told in The Hobbit and in The Lord of the Rings. Conflict over the possession and control of precious or magical objects is a recurring theme in the stories; the First Age is dominated by the doomed quest of the elf Fëanor and most of his Noldorin clan to recover three precious jewels called the Silmarils that Morgoth stole from them.
The Second and Third Age are dominated by the forging of the Rings of Power, the fate of the One Ring forged by Sauron, which gives its wearer the power to control or influence those wearing the other Rings of Power. In ancient Germanic mythology, the world of Men is known by several names, such as Midgard, Middenheim and Middengeard; the Old English middangeard descends from an earlier Germanic word and so has cognates in languages related to Old English such as the Old Norse word Miðgarðr from Norse mythology, transliterated to modern English as Midgard. The term "Middle-earth", it is found throughout the Modern English period as a development of the Middle English word middel-erde, which developed in turn, through a process of folk etymology, from middanġeard. By the time of the Middle English period, middangeard was being written as middellærd, midden-erde, or middel-erde, indicating that the second element had been reinterpreted, based on its similarity to the word for "earth"; the shift in meaning was not great, however: middangeard properly meant "middle enclosure" instead of "middle-earth".
Tolkien first encountered the term middangeard in an Old English fragment he studied in 1914: Éala éarendel engla beorhtast / ofer middangeard monnum sended. Hail Earendel, brightest of angels / above the middle-earth sent unto men; this quote is from the second of the fragmentary remnants of the Crist poems by Cynewulf. The name Éarendel was the inspiration for Tolkien's mariner Eärendil, who set sail from the lands of Middle-earth to ask for aid from the angelic powers, the Valar. Tolkien's earliest poem about Eärendil, from 1914, the same year he read the Crist poems, refers to "the mid-world's rim"; the concept of middangeard was considered by Tolkien to be the same as a particular usage of the Greek word οἰκουμένη - oikoumenē. In this usage Tolkien says that the oikoumenē is "the abiding place of men". Tolkien wrote: Middle-earth is... not my own invention. It is a modernization or alteration... of an old word for the inhabited world of Men, the oikoumene: middle because thought of vaguely as set amidst the encircling Seas and between ice of the North and the fire of the South.
O. English middan-geard, mediaeval E. midden-erd, middle-erd. Many reviewers seem to assume. However, the term "Middle-earth" is not found in Tolkien's earliest writings about Middle-earth, dating from the early 1920s and published in The Book of Lost Tales. Nor is the term used in The Hobbit. Tolkien began to use the term "Middle-earth" in the late 1930s, in place of the earlier terms "Great Lands", "Outer Lands", "Hither Lands"
The History of The Lord of the Rings
The History of The Lord of the Rings is a four-volume work by Christopher Tolkien published between 1988 and 1992 that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkien's writing of The Lord of the Rings; the History is numbered as volumes six to nine of The History of Middle-earth. Some information concerning the appendices and a soon-abandoned sequel to the novel can be found in volume twelve, The Peoples of Middle-earth; the volumes include: The Return of the Shadow The Treason of Isengard The War of the Ring Sauron Defeated The first volume of The History encompasses three initial stages of composition or, as Christopher Tolkien calls them, "phases", finishes with the Fellowship of the Ring entering the Mines of Moria. The second volume continues to the meeting with Théoden king of Rohan, includes discussions of the original map of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, of the evolution of Cirth; the third volume, The War of the Ring continues to the opening of the Black Gate. The last volume finishes the story and features the rejected Epilogue, in which Sam answers his children's questions.
It includes The Notion Club Papers, a draft of the Drowning of Anadûnê, the only extant account of Tolkien's fictional language Adûnaic. Some paperback editions of the fourth volume, retitled The End of the Third Age, include only the materials for The Lord of the Rings; the original idea was to release The History of The Lord of the Rings in not four. When The Treason of Isengard was first published in paperback Volume 8 was to be called Sauron Defeated and was to be the last volume; the titles of the volumes derive from discarded titles for the separate books of The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien conceived the latter as a single volume comprising six "books" plus extensive appendices, but the original publisher split the work into three, publishing two books per volume with the appendices included in the third; the titles proposed by Tolkien for the six books were: Book I, The First Journey or The Ring Sets Out. The title The Return of the Shadow was a discarded title for Volume I. Three of the titles of the volumes of The History of The Lord of the Rings were used as book titles for the seven-volume edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Treason of Isengard for Book III, The War of the Ring for Book V, The End of the Third Age for Book VI.
There is an inscription in Fëanorian characters on the title pages of every History of Middle-earth volume, written by Christopher Tolkien and describing the contents of the book. The inscription in Volume VI reads: In the Return of the Shadow are traced the first forms of the story of the Lord of the Rings; the inscription in Volume VII reads: In the Treason of Isengard the story of the Fellowship of the Ring is traced from Rivendell through Moria and the Land of Lothlorien to the time of its ending at Salembel beside Anduin the Great river is told of the return of Gandalf Mithrandir, of the meeting of the hobbits with Fangorn and of the war upon the Riders of Rohan by the traitor Saruman. The inscription in Volume VIII reads: In the War of the Ring is traced the story of the history at Helm's Deep and the drowning of Isengard by the Ents is told of the journey of Frodo with Samwise and Gollum to the Morannon, of the meeting with Faramir and the stairs of Cirith Ungol, of the Battle of the Pelennor Fields and of the coming of Aragorn in the fleet of Umbar.
The inscription in Volume IX reads: In this book is traced first the story of the destruction of the One Ring and the Downfall of Sauron at the End of the Third Age. Follows an account of the intrusion of the Cataclysm of the West into the deliberations of certain scholars of Oxford and the Fall of Sauron named Zigûr in the Drowning of Anadûne; the History of The Lord of the Rings reveals much of the slow, aggregative nature of Tolkien’s creativity. As Christopher Tolkien noted of the first two volumes, Tolkien had brought the story up to Rivendell, but still “without any clear conception of what lay before him”, he noted how, on the way, his father could get caught up in a “spider’s web of argumentation” - what Tom Shippey described as getting “bogged down in sometimes strikingly unnecessary webs of minor causation”. Thus the character known as Peregrin Took was, in a series of rewriting and of deleted adventures, variously known as Odo, Folco, Peregrin, Hamilcar and Olo – the figures being Boffins and Bolgers, as well as Tooks.
Only with the Breaking of the Fellowship did fluency arrive for Tolkien, his son recording how chapters were “achieved with far greater facility than any previous part of the story”. Thereafter Tolkien’s problem was rather one of selecting between alternative accounts, so as to produce the best effect – two episodes in Sauron Defeated that were deleted being the pardoning of Saruman, an awards ceremony at the book’s close. More in-depth information on the individual books in The History of The Lord of the Rings by JRR Tolkien
Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion; the concept of Tolkien fandom as a specific type of fan subculture sprang up in the United States in the 1960s, in the context of the hippie movement, to the dismay of the author, who talked of "my deplorable cultus". A Tolkienist is someone who studies the work of J. R. R. Tolkien: this involves the study of the Elvish languages and "Tolkienology". A Ringer is a fan of The Lord of the Rings in general, of Peter Jackson's live-action film trilogy in particular. Other terms for Tolkien fans include Tolkiendil. Tolkien's The Hobbit, a children's book, was first published in 1937, it proved popular. However, The Lord of the Rings, first published in 1954 through 1955, would give rise to the fandom as a cultural phenomenon from the early to mid-1960s. Serious admirers and fans of Tolkien came into existence within science fiction fandom soon after the publication of The Fellowship of the Ring.
Tolkien was soon being discussed in various science fiction fanzines and apazines, both as continuing threads of comment and as single pieces such as "No Monroe In Lothlorien!" in Eric Bentcliffe’s Triode. Tolkien-inspired costumes were worn at Worldcons as early as 1958; some enthusiastic Los Angeles fans had been discussing creating a Tolkien-specific society as early as 1959. An organized Tolkien fandom organization called "The Fellowship of the Ring" came together at a 49-minute meeting during Pittcon, the 18th World Science Fiction Convention in Pittsburgh on September 4, 1960; those people who provided accepted research papers to the group’s fanzine, I Palantir, would become "members." Non-members could purchase the magazine, of which Ted Johnstone was elected editor and Bruce Pelz publisher. Ken Cheslin, British agent of The Fellowship, wrote, "I would say that the Tolkien society wasn’t an offshoot… it consisted of fans who regarded JRR as, I think, a little something extra, a little area of interest in addition to the fandom, not an alternative or a replacement, etc."
England’s first Tolkien fanzine was Nazgul’s Bane, produced by Cheslin. It was a "newszine" for those British members of The Fellowship; as Worldcon art shows started, The Fellowship Ring provided prizes for Tolkien-inspired artwork. Since most of the contributors to fanzines at the time came out of science fiction fandom, speculative articles and articles of fiction took off in the direction of science fact; the drowning of Beleriand, the creation of the orcs, the evolution of the elves, the chemical composition of hithlain rope, or the make-up of the morgul-blade was all open to some scientific explanation. Attempts to add a flavor of lofty writing style in many pieces resulted in stilted phrasing. Major articles on Tolkien’s literary sources appeared through multiple issues of Xero. Lin Carter used this as a basis for his 1969 book, Tolkien: A Look Behind The Lord of the Rings; the Lord of the Rings had its detractors in fandom, including both those who found the books unreadable or the character development inferior to the worldbuilding, those who argued that Tolkien fans were taking things too far, with attempts to complete glossaries of Middle-earth underway.
A major defender and advocate of Tolkien in this era was Marion Zimmer Bradley, with such articles as her 1962 “Men and Hero Worship” in Astra’s Tower. She wrote two Tolkien pastiches and one crossover story with Aragorn entering her own created world of Darkover, she published what would be a single issue of Andúril. During this time, science fiction fandom produced many fanzines with little or no Tolkien content but Tolkien-inspired names: Ancalagon, Lefnui, Perian, Shadowfax, Silmé, undoubtedly others. Others had more meaningful Tolkien content. Ed Meskys’ apazine Niekas turned into a full-fledged fanzine during this era, with heavy Tolkien content as well as discussion of Gilbert & Sullivan, science fiction conventions and other topics. Pete Mansfield’s Sword & Sorcery fanzine, Eldritch Dream Quest, included many Tolkien items. Science fiction fandom produced many high quality examples of Tolkien writing in their fanzines during these years. Foster attributes the surge of Tolkien fandom in the United States of the mid-1960s to a combination of the hippie subculture and anti-war movement pursuing "mellow freedom like that of the Shire" and "America's cultural Anglophilia" of the time, fuelled by a bootleg paperback version of The Lord of the Rings published by Ace Books followed up by an authorised edition by Ballantine Books.
The "hippie" following latched onto the book, giving its own spin to the work's interpretation, such as the Dark Lord Sauron representing the United States military draft during the Vietnam War, to the chagrin of the author who talked of a "deplorable cultus" and stated that ""Many young Americans are involved in the stories in a way that I'm not" but who admitted that... the nose of a modest idol cannot remain untickled by the sweet smell of incense! Fan attention became so intense that Tolkien had to take his phone number out of the public directory and moved to Bournemouth on the south coast of England; this embracing of the work by American 1960s counter-culture made it an easy target for mockery, resulted in The Lord of the Rings acquiring a reputation of a dubious work of popular culture rather than "real literature", postponing the emer
Beren and Lúthien
The tale of Beren and Lúthien, told in several works by J. R. R. Tolkien, is the story of the love and adventures of the mortal Man Beren and the immortal Elf-maiden Lúthien. Tolkien wrote several versions of their story, the latest in The Silmarillion, the tale is mentioned in The Lord of the Rings; the story takes place during the First Age of Middle-earth, about 6,500 years before the events of The Lord of the Rings. Beren, son of Barahir, cut a Silmaril from Morgoth's crown as the bride price for Lúthien, daughter of the elf-king Thingol and Melian the Maia, he was slain by Carcharoth, the wolf of Angband. He lived with Lúthien on Tol Galen in Ossiriand, fought the Dwarves at Sarn Athard, he was the great-grandfather of Elrond and Elros, thus the ancestor of the Númenórean kings. After the fulfilment of the quest of the Silmaril and Beren's death, Lúthien chose to become mortal and to share Beren's fate; the first version of the story is the Tale of Tinúviel, written in 1917 and published in The Book of Lost Tales.
During the 1920s Tolkien started to reshape the tale and to transform it into an epic poem which he called The Lay of Leithian. He never finished it. After his death The Lay of Leithian was published in The Lays of Beleriand, together with The Lay of the Children of Húrin and several other unfinished poems; the latest version of the tale is told in prose form in one chapter of The Silmarillion and is recounted by Aragorn in The Fellowship of the Ring. The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen, told in the appendices of The Lord of the Rings, served as a sequel to this story. Indeed, both Aragorn and Arwen were descendants of Lúthien; as told in The Silmarillion, the version of the tale: Beren was the last survivor of a group of Men in Dorthonion led by his father Barahir that had still resisted Morgoth, the Dark Enemy, after the Battle of Sudden Flame, in which Morgoth had conquered much of northern Middle-earth. After the defeat of his companions he fled from peril into the elvish realm Doriath. There he met Lúthien, the only daughter of King Thingol and Melian the Maia, as she was dancing and singing in a glade.
Upon seeing her Beren fell in love. She fell in love with him as well, when he, moved by her beauty and enchanting voice, gave her the nickname "Tinúviel" As Thingol disliked Beren and regarded him as being unworthy of his daughter, he set a impossible task on Beren that he had to achieve before he could marry Lúthien. Thingol asked Beren to bring him one of the Silmarils, the three hallowed jewels made by Fëanor, which Morgoth had stolen from the elves. Beren set out on his quest to Angband, the enemy's fortress. Although Thingol tried to prevent it, Lúthien followed him. On his journey to the enemy's land Beren reached Nargothrond, an Elvish stronghold, was joined by ten warriors under the lead of King Finrod, who had sworn an oath of friendship to Beren's father. Although Fëanor's sons and Curufin, warned them not to take the Silmaril that they considered their own, the company was determined to accompany Beren. On their way to Angband they were seized by the servants of Sauron, despite the best efforts of Finrod to maintain their guise as Orcs, imprisoned in Tol-in-Gaurhoth.
One by one they were killed by a werewolf until only Beren and Finrod remained. When the wolf went for Beren, Finrod broke his chains and wrestled it with such fierceness that they both died; when she was following Beren, Lúthien was captured and brought to Nargothrond by Celegorm and Curufin. Aided by Huan, Celegorm's hound, she was able to flee. With his aid she came to Sauron's fortress where Huan defeated the werewolves of the Enemy, Draugluin the sire of werewolves, Sauron himself in wolf-form. Lúthien forced Sauron to give ownership of the tower to her, she freed the prisoners, among them Beren. Meanwhile, Sauron fled to Taur-nu-Fuin. Beren wanted to try his task once more alone; however they were attacked by Celegorm and Curufin, exiled from Nargothrond. Beren was wounded by Curufin. Through magic they took the shapes of the bat Thuringwethil and the wolf Draugluin that Huan had killed. Thereby they were able to enter the enemy's land and at last came to Angband and before Morgoth's throne.
There Lúthien sang a magical song which made his court fall asleep. As he tried to cut out the others, his knife broke and a shard glanced off Morgoth's face, awakening him; as they attempted to leave, the gate was barred by Carcharoth, a giant werewolf, bred as an opponent to Huan. He swallowed Beren's hand, in which Beren was holding the Silmaril. Carcharoth ran off madly. Eagles helped Beren and Lúthien escape. Beren and Lúthien returned to Doriath, where they told of their deeds and thereby softened Thingol's heart, he accepted the marriage of his daughter and the mortal Man, although Beren's task had not been fulfilled. Beren and Huan participated in the hunt for Carcharoth, who in his madness had come into Doriath and caused much destruction there. Both of them were killed by the wolf, but Carcharoth was slain. Before he d
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry written by J. R. R. Tolkien and published in 1962; the book contains 16 poems, two of which feature Tom Bombadil, a character encountered by Frodo Baggins in The Fellowship of the Ring. The rest of the poems are an assortment of bestiary fairy tale rhyme. Three of the poems appear in The Lord of the Rings as well; the book is part of Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium. The volume includes The Sea-Bell, subtitled Frodos Dreme, which W. H. Auden considered Tolkien's best poem, it is a piece of metrical and rhythmical complexity that recounts a journey to a strange land beyond the sea. Drawing on medieval'dream vision' poetry and Irish'immram' poems the piece is markedly melancholic and the final note is one of alienation and disillusion; the book was illustrated by Pauline Baynes and by Roger Garland. The book, like the first edition of The Fellowship of the Ring, is presented as if it is an actual translation from the Red Book of Westmarch, contains some background information on the world of Middle-earth, not found elsewhere: e.g. the name of the tower at Dol Amroth and the names of the Seven Rivers of Gondor.
There is some fictional background information of those poems, linking them to Hobbit folklore and literature and to their actual writers. The book uses the letter "K" instead of "C" for the /k/ sound in Sindarin, a spelling variant Tolkien used many times in his writings; the Adventures of Tom Bombadil Bombadil Goes Boating Errantry Princess Mee The Man in the Moon Stayed Up Too Late* The Man in the Moon Came Down Too Soon The Stone Troll* Perry-the-Winkle The Mewlips Oliphaunt* Fastitocalon Cat Shadow-bride The Hoard The Sea-Bell The Last Ship*Poems featured in The Lord of the Rings The Adventures of Tom Bombadil was first published as a stand-alone book in 1962. Some editions, such as the Unwin Paperbacks edition and Poems and Stories, erroneously state that it was first published in'1961'. Tolkien's letters confirm. Beginning with The Tolkien Reader in 1966, it was included in a number of anthologies of Tolkien's shorter works; this trend continued after his death with Tales from the Perilous Realm.
In 2014 Christina Scull and Wayne G. Hammond edited a new stand-alone edition, which includes for each poem detailed commentary, original versions and their sources. Barrow-wight Farmer Maggot Goldberry Old Forest Old Man Willow The Adventures of Tom Bombadil