Counts of Vianden
The Counts of Vianden, ancestors of the House of Orange-Nassau, were associated with the castle of Vianden in Luxembourg. In the 12th to 15th centuries the counts of Vianden were the mightiest lords of the area between the rivers Rhine and Maas, their territory was in modern Vianden canton and Bitburg-Prüm, Germany. One recognition of their importance was that Henry I of Vianden in 1216 married Margaret, Marchioness of Namur of the Capetian House of Courtenay, daughter of Peter II of Courtenay, emperor of Constantinople, it was the peak of its power. Godefroid I participated in the Battle of Worringen in 1288 as a vassal to the Duchy of Brabant; the male line of the ruling house of Vianden became extinct in 1337. Bertolph count of Vianden from the counts of Hamm, Bitburg-Prüm or Vogts of Prüm. Numberings and names can vary and the year details have several uncertainties and should be taken as approximative due to some conjecture in lack of complete documentation. In this list the English name versions are used.
Gerhard from the house of Sponheim. Married Adelheid, he is told to have founded Höningen monastery in Altleiningen in 1096. Gerhard I, Count of Clervaux, son of Gerhard. Frederic I of Vianden, son of Gerhard. According to some accounts Frederic I was appointed as the "first count of Vianden", as a Vogt of Prüm and Undervogt of Electorate of Trier. Married to a daughter of Bertolph. Siegfried I of Vianden, son of Frederic I. Frederic II of Vianden, son of Frederic I. Married countess Elisabeth of Salm, became count of Niedersalm jure uxoris, while Elizabeth's brother Henry II got Obersalm, their son William I inherited the county of Niedersalm. Frederic III of Vianden, son of Frederic II, he married assumingly of Neuerburg, with a disputed and confusing ancestry. At least their son Frederic I inherited Neuerburg, married Cecilie of Isenburg Kovern, but that dynasty became extinct with the death of Frederick III in 1332. Henry I of Vianden, son of Frederic III, he married Marchioness of Namur, House of Courtenay.
One of their sons was Frederic, married to Mathilde of Salm, with issue Henry, Lord of Schönecken, starting a short-lived cadet line. Philip I of Vianden, son of Henry I, he married Marie of Brabant-Perwez, daughter of Godfrey of Louvain, Lord of Perwez a descendant of Godfrey III, Count of Louvain and Landgrave of Brabant. Godfrey or Godefroid I of Vianden, son of Philip I, he married Aleidis van Oudenaarde. Philip II of Vianden, son of Godefroid I, he married Lucia of Neuerburg and Adelheid of Arnsberg, daughter of Count Louis of Arnsberg and Petronella of Jülich Henry II of Vianden, son of Philip II. He married Maria of daughter of Jean of Namur. Henry had a Herrschaft under his uncle Gerhard V of Jülich. Louis, son of Philip II Maria, daughter of Henry II, she married Simon Count of Sponheim-Kreuznach. Maria and Simon jure uxoris, from 1380 Count of Sponheim-Kreuznach, joining Vianden and Sponheim-Kreuznach. Adelheid van Vianden, daughter of Philip II with Adelheid of Arnsberg. Born about 1309 and hade older relatives as co-rulers.
She married count Otto II of Nassau-Dillenburg, son of Count Henry I of Nassau-Siegen and Adelheid of Sponheim. John I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, son of Adelheid and Otto. Married Margaretha of the Marck, daughter of Adolph II of the Marck, count of Cleves, he reigned Nassau-Dillenburg from 1350 and Vianden 1376-1414 on behalf of or jointly with Elisabeth von Sponheim-Kreuznach. Elisabeth von Sponheim-Kreuznach, daughter of Maria and Simon, she was married to Count Engelbert III of the Mark, Prince elector Ruprecht Pipan von der Pfalz, eldest son of Rupert, King of Germany. She bore the Sporheim and Vianden dynasty became extinct. 1/5 of Sporheim-Kreuznach was testamented to the Electorate of the Palatinate with Louis III, the rest to John V Count of Sponheim-Starkenburg. She gave Vianden to Engelbert I of Nassau, son of Margaretha. Engelbert I of Nassau, son of John and Margaretha. At his death his whole territory was administered jointly by his four sons. Jan IV of Nassau, son of Engelbert, he married Maria of Loon-Heinsberg.
Engelbert II of Nassau, son of Jan. He had no legitimate issue. Continue under House of Nassau that owned Vianden until the French revolution Dominique du Fays La Maison de Vianden. University thesis, Liège John Zimmer Die Burgen des Luxemburger Landes. Band I, Luxemburg Family tree of the Counts of Vianden from Gerhard of Sponheim at fmg.ac Marek, Miroslav. "Stammbaum der Grafen von Vianden ab Gerhard von Sponheim". Genealogy.euweb.cz. German-language article on the Counts of Vianden from the Vianden Castle site
House of Orange-Nassau
The House of Orange-Nassau, a branch of the European House of Nassau, has played a central role in the politics and government of the Netherlands and Europe since William the Silent organized the Dutch revolt against Spanish rule, which after the Eighty Years' War led to an independent Dutch state. Several members of the house served during this war and after as stadtholder during the Dutch Republic. However, in 1815, after a long period as a republic, the Netherlands became a monarchy under the House of Orange-Nassau; the dynasty was established as a result of the marriage of Henry III of Nassau-Breda from Germany and Claudia of Châlon-Orange from French Burgundy in 1515. Their son René inherited in 1530 the independent and sovereign Principality of Orange from his mother's brother, Philibert of Châlon; as the first Nassau to be the Prince of Orange, René could have used "Orange-Nassau" as his new family name. However, his uncle, in his will, had stipulated that René should continue the use of the name Châlon-Orange.
History knows him therefore as René of Châlon. After the death of René in 1544, his cousin William of Nassau-Dillenburg inherited all of his lands; this "William I of Orange", in English better known as William the Silent, became the founder of the House of Orange-Nassau. Nassau Castle was founded around 1100 by Count Dudo of Laurenburg, the founder of the House of Nassau. In 1120, Dudo's sons and successors, Counts Rupert I and Arnold I, established themselves at Nassau Castle with its tower, they renovated and extended the castle complex in 1124. The first man to be called the count of Nassau was Henry I of Nassau, who lived in the first half of the 13th century; the Nassau family married into the family of the neighboring Counts of Arnstein. His sons and Otto, split the Nassau possessions; the descendants of Walram were known as the Walram Line, they became Dukes of Nassau and, in 1890, Grand Dukes of Luxembourg. This line included Adolph of Nassau, elected King of the Romans in 1292; the descendants of Otto became known as the Ottonian Line, they inherited parts of the County of Nassau, as well as properties in France and the Netherlands.
The House of Orange-Nassau stems from the younger Ottonian Line. The first of this line to establish himself in the Netherlands was John I, Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, who married Margareta of the Marck; the real founder of the Nassau fortunes in the Netherlands was John's son, Engelbert I. He became counsellor to the Burgundian Dukes of Brabant, first to Anton of Burgundy, to his son Jan IV of Brabant, he would serve Philip the Good. In 1403, he married the Dutch noblewoman Johanna van Polanen and so inherited lands in the Netherlands, with the Barony of Breda as the core of the Dutch possessions and the family fortune. A nobleman's power was based on his ownership of vast tracts of land and lucrative offices, it helped that much of the lands that the House of Orange-Nassau controlled sat under one of the commercial and mercantile centers of the world (see below under Lands and Titles. The importance of the family grew throughout the 15th and 16th centuries as they became councilors and stadholders of the Habsburgs.
Engelbert II of Nassau served Charles the Bold and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, who had married Charles's daughter Mary of Burgundy. In 1496, he was appointed stadtholder of Flanders and by 1498 he had been named President of the Grand Conseil. In 1501, Maximilian named him Lieutenant-General of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands. From that point forward, Engelbert was the principal representative of the Habsburg Empire to the region. Hendrik III of Nassau-Breda was appointed stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland by Charles of Ghent in the beginning of the 16th century. Hendrik was succeeded by his son René of Châlon-Orange in 1538, who had inherited the principality of Orange and the title Prince of Orange from his maternal uncle Philibert of Chalon. René died prematurely on the battlefield in 1544, his possessions, including the principality of Orange and the title Prince of Orange, passed by his will as sovereign prince to his paternal cousin, William I of Orange. From on, the family members called themselves "Orange-Nassau."
Although Charles V pretended to resist the Protestant Reformation, he ruled the Dutch territories wisely with moderation and regard for local customs, he did not persecute his Protestant subjects on a large scale. His son Philip II inherited his antipathy for the Protestants but not his moderation. Under the reign of Philip, a true persecution of Protestants was initiated and taxes were raised to an outrageous level. Discontent arose and William of Orange stood up for the Protestant inhabitants of the Netherlands. Things went badly after the Eighty Years' War started in 1568, but luck turned to his advantage when Protestant rebels attacking from the North Sea captured Brielle, a coastal town in present-day South Holland in 1572. Many cities in Holland began to support William. During the 1570s he had to defend his core territories in Holland several times, but in the 1580s the inland cities in Holland were secure. William of Orange was considered a threat to Spanish rule in the area and was assassinated in 1584 by a hired killer sent by Philip.
William was succeeded by his second son Maurits, a Protestant who proved an excellent military commander. His abilities
Antwerp Province is the northernmost province both of the Flemish Region called Flanders, of Belgium. It borders on North Brabant province of the Netherlands and the Belgian provinces of Limburg, Flemish Brabant and East Flanders, its capital is Antwerp. It has an area of 2,867 km2 and with 1.8 million inhabitants it is the country's most populous province. The province consists of 3 arrondissements: Antwerp and Turnhout; the eastern part of the province comprises the main part of the Campine region. During the early Middle Ages the region was part of the Frankish Empire, divided into several pagi; the territory of the present day province belonged to several pagi of which the region around Antwerp belonged to the Pagus Renesium. The Pagus Toxandria stretched from North Brabant into the Campine region. To the south there was the Pagus Hasbaniensis. In 843 the Carolingian Empire of Charlemagne was divided among his sons and the river Scheldt became the border between West Francia and East Francia.
In 974 Otto II established the Margraviate of Antwerp as a defence against the County of Flanders. In 1106, Henry V granted the Margraviate to Godfrey I of Leuven, his descendants would from 1235 onwards become the Dukes of Brabant and the region itself was the northern part of the Duchy of Brabant. In 1430 the Duchy became part of the Duchy of Burgundy until 1477 when it fell to the House of Habsburg. In 1713, at the end of the Spanish Succession War the region became part of the Austrian Netherlands until 1794, with in 1790 the short lived United States of Belgium. On 1 October 1795 the former Austrian Netherlands were annexed by France under the French Directory; the modern province was created as the Department of the two Netes during the First French Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, the territory became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as the province of Central Brabant, distinguishing it from North Brabant and South Brabant. In 1830, after Belgium's independence the province was renamed Antwerp.
Prefects of the Department of the two Netes during the First French Empire Marquis Charles Joseph Fortuné d'Herbouville Charles Cochon Marc René Marie de Voyer d'Argenson Baron Jacques Fortunat de Savoye-Rollin Governors of the province of Antwerp during the United Kingdom of the Netherlands Charles–Louis van Keverberg van Kessel Pierre Joseph Pycke Leonard Pierre Joseph du Bus de Gisignies André Charles Membrede Edmond Charles Giullaume Ghislain de la Coste Alexandre François Ghislain van der Fosse Governors of the Belgian province of Antwerp François de Robiano Jean-François Tielemans Charles Rogier Henri de Brouckère Jules Malou Jan Teichmann Edward Pycke d'Ideghem Charles du Bois de Vroylande Edward Osy de Zegwaart Fredegand Cogels Louis de Brouchoven de Bergeyck Ferdinand de Baillet-Latour Gaston van de Werve de Schilde Georges Holvoet Richard Declerck Andries Kinsbergen Camille Paulus Cathy Berx 1846: 406,354 1856: 434,485 1866: 456,607 1880: 577,232 1890: 700,019 1900: 819,159 1910: 968,677 1920: 1,016,963 1930: 1,173,363 1947: 1,281,333 2008: 1,715,707 2010: 1,744,862 As in all Flemish provinces, the official and standard language of the Antwerp province is Dutch.
Common with Flemish Brabant, North Brabant and Brussels, the local dialect is a Brabantian variety. According to the International Social Survey Programme 2008: Religion III by the Association of Religion Data Archives, 73.3% of Antwerp's population identify themselves as Catholics, 24.1% as non-religious, 2.6% identify themselves in other religions. The province of Antwerp has a provincial council, elected every six years, an executive deputation headed by a governor; the current governor is Cathy Berx, appointed in 2008 by the Flemish Government. The last elections were held on 14 October 2012; the following parties were elected to the 72-member council: New Flemish Alliance: 27 seats Christian Democratic and Flemish: 13 seats Socialist Party – Different: 10 seats Flemish Interest: 7 seats Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats: 7 seats Green: 6 seats Workers' Party of Belgium: 2 seatsFor the 2013-2018 legislative term, the deputation consists of a coalition of N-VA, CD&V and sp.a, that each have 2 deputies.
The three parties have a majority of 50 seats out of 72. Highest point: Beerzelberg located in the municipality Putte. Most important rivers: Scheldt, Grote Nete, Kleine Nete The province has a network of roads, railroads and rivers which provide a modern infrastructure; the traffic infrastructure was an important element of connecting the Port of Antwerp with the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Both the Iron Rhine railroad and the E313 and E34 highway connect Antwerp with the Ruhr Area; the river Schelde, an important waterway, connects the Port of Antwerp with the North Sea. The Albert Canal connects the Scheldt in Antwerp with the Liège. Other canals are the Canal Dessel – Kwaadmechelen, Schoten – Turnhout – Dessel, Herentals – Bocholt which flows into the Nete canal. Of the International E-road network, the E313, E19, E34 run through parts of the province; the Kennedy Tunnel and the Liefkenshoek Tunnel connect
Amsterdam is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 854,047 within the city proper, 1,357,675 in the urban area and 2,410,960 in the metropolitan area; the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country but is not its capital, Haarlem. The Amsterdam metropolitan area comprises much of the northern part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe, which has a population of 8.1 million. Amsterdam's name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the city's origin around a dam in the river Amstel. Originating as a small fishing village in the late 12th century, Amsterdam became one of the most important ports in the world during the Dutch Golden Age, as a result of its innovative developments in trade. During that time, the city was the leading centre for trade. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, many new neighbourhoods and suburbs were planned and built.
The 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. Since the annexation of the municipality of Sloten in 1921 by the municipality of Amsterdam, the oldest historic part of the city lies in Sloten, dating to the 9th century; as the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered an alpha- world city by the Globalization and World Cities study group. The city is the cultural capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, including Philips, AkzoNobel, TomTom and ING. Many of the world's largest companies are based in Amsterdam or established their European headquarters in the city, such as leading technology companies Uber and Tesla. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment and infrastructure by Mercer; the city was ranked 4th place globally as top tech hub in the Savills Tech Cities 2019 report, 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009.
The Port of Amsterdam to this day remains the second in the country, the fifth largest seaport in Europe. Famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, philosopher Baruch Spinoza; the Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city centre. Amsterdam's main attractions include its historic canals, the Rijksmuseum, the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum, Hermitage Amsterdam, the Anne Frank House, the Scheepvaartmuseum, the Amsterdam Museum, the Heineken Experience, the Royal Palace of Amsterdam, Natura Artis Magistra, Hortus Botanicus Amsterdam, NEMO, the red-light district and many cannabis coffee shops, they draw more than 5 million international visitors annually. The city is well known for its nightlife and festival activity, it is one of the world's most multicultural cities, with at least 177 nationalities represented. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river and a dam across it, giving its name to the village: "Aemstelredamme".
The earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated 27 October 1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V. This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges and dams; the certificate describes the inhabitants. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam. Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century; this does not mean that there was a settlement since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat, for use as fuel. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306. From the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished from trade with the Hanseatic League. In 1345, an alleged Eucharistic miracle in the Kalverstraat rendered the city an important place of pilgrimage until the adoption of the Protestant faith.
The Miracle devotion was kept alive. In the 19th century after the jubilee of 1845, the devotion was revitalized and became an important national point of reference for Dutch Catholics; the Stille Omgang—a silent walk or procession in civil attire—is the expression of the pilgrimage within the Protestant Netherlands since the late 19th century. In the heyday of the Silent Walk, up to 90,000 pilgrims came to Amsterdam. In the 21st century this has reduced to about 5000. In the 16th century, the Dutch rebelled against Philip II of his successors; the main reasons for the uprising were the imposition of new taxes, the tenth penny, the religious persecution of Protestants by the newly introduced Inquisition. The revolt escalated into the Eighty Years' War, which led to Dutch independence. Pushed by Dutch Revolt leader William the Silent, the Dutch Republic became known for its relative religious tolerance. Jews from the Iberian Peninsula, Huguenots from France, prosperous merchants and printers from Flanders, economic and religious refugees
William the Silent
William I, Prince of Orange known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn, or more known as William of Orange, was the main leader of the Dutch Revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg, he became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands. Within the Netherlands he is known as Father of the Fatherland. A wealthy nobleman, William served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters; the most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish.
Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard in Delft in 1584. William was born on 24 April 1533 at Dillenburg castle in the County of Nassau-Dillenburg, in the Holy Roman Empire, he was the eldest son of William, Count of Nassau by his second wife Juliana of Stolberg-Wernigerode. William's father had one surviving daughter by his previous marriage, his mother had four surviving children by her previous marriage, his parents had twelve children together, of. The family was religiously devout and William was raised a Lutheran. In 1544, William's agnatic first cousin, René of Châlon, Prince of Orange, died childless. In his testament, René of Chalon named William the heir to all his estates and titles, including that of Prince of Orange, on the condition that he receive a Roman Catholic education. William's father acquiesced to this condition on behalf of his 11-year-old son, this was the founding of the house of Orange-Nassau. Besides the principality of Orange and significant lands in Germany, William inherited vast estates in the Low Countries from his cousin.
Because of his young age, Emperor Charles V, the overlord of most of these estates, served as regent until William was old enough to rule them himself. William was sent to the Netherlands to receive the required Roman Catholic education, first at the family's estate in Breda and in Brussels, under the supervision of Mary of Hungary, governor of the Habsburg Netherlands. In Brussels, he was taught foreign languages and received a military and diplomatic education under the direction of Champagney, brother of Granvelle. On 6 July 1551, William married Anna van Egmond en Buren and heiress of Maximiliaan van Egmond, an important Dutch nobleman. Anna's father had died in 1548, therefore William became Lord of Egmond and Count of Buren upon his wedding day; the marriage was a happy one and produced three children. Anna died on 24 March 1558, aged 25. Being a ward of Charles V and having received his education under the tutelage of the Emperor's sister Mary, William came under the particular attention of the imperial family, became a favorite.
He was appointed captain in the cavalry in 1551 and received rapid promotion thereafter, becoming commander of one of the Emperor's armies at the age of 22. This was in 1555, when Charles V sent him to Bayonne with an army to take the city in a siege from the French. William was made a member of the Raad van State, the highest political advisory council in the Netherlands, it was in November of the same year that the gout-afflicted Emperor Charles V leaned on William's shoulder during the ceremony when he abdicated his Spanish possessions in favour of his son, Philip II of Spain. In 1559, Phillip appointed William stadtholder of the provinces of Holland and Utrecht, thereby increasing his political power. A stadtholdership over Franche-Comté followed in 1561. Although he never directly opposed the Spanish king, William soon became one of the most prominent members of the opposition in the Council of State, together with Philip de Montmorency, Count of Hoorn, Lamoral, Count of Egmont, they were seeking more political power for themselves against the de facto government of Count Berlaymont and Viglius of Aytta, but for the Dutch nobility and, for the Estates, complained that too many Spaniards were involved in governing the Netherlands.
William was dissatisfied with the increasing persecution of Protestants in the Netherlands. Brought up as a Lutheran and a Catholic, William was religious but was still a proponent of freedom of religion for all people; the activity of the Inquisition in the Netherlands, directed by Cardinal Granvelle, prime minister to the new governor Margaret of Parma, increased opposition to Spanish rule among the mostly Catholic population of the Netherlands. Lastly, the opposition wished to see an end to the presence of Spanish troops. According to the Apology, William's letter of justification, published and read to the States General in December 1580, his resolve to expel the Spaniards from the Netherlands had originated when, in the summer of 1559, he and the Duke of Alva had been sent to France as hostages for the proper fulfillment o
The Low Countries, the Low Lands, or also the Netherlands, is a coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe, forming the lower basin of the Rhine and Scheldt rivers, divided in the Middle Ages into numerous semi-independent principalities that consolidated in the countries of Belgium and the Netherlands, as well as today's French Flanders. The regions without access to the sea have linked themselves politically and economically to those with access to form various unions of ports and hinterland, stretching inland as far as parts of the German Rhineland; that is why nowadays some parts of the Low Countries are hilly, like Luxembourg and the south of Belgium. Within the European Union the region's political grouping is still referred to as the Benelux. During the Roman empire the region contained a militarised frontier and contact point between Rome and Germanic tribes. With the collapse of the empire, the Low Countries were the scene of the early independent trading centres that marked the reawakening of Europe in the 12th century.
In that period, they rivalled northern Italy as one of the most densely populated regions of Western Europe. Most of the cities were governed by councils along with a figurehead ruler. All of the regions depended on trade and the encouragement of the free flow of goods and craftsmen. Dutch and French dialects were the main languages used in secular city life; the term Low Countries arose at the Court of the Dukes of Burgundy, who used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, which were part of their realm but geographically disconnected from the Low Countries. Governor Mary of Hungary used both the expressions les pays de par deça and Pays d'Embas, which evolved to Pays-Bas or Low Countries. Today the term is fitted to modern political boundaries and used in the same way as the term Benelux; the name of the country of the Netherlands has the same etymology and origin as the name for the region Low Countries, due to "nether" meaning "low".
In the Dutch language itself De Lage Landen is the modern term for Low Countries, De Nederlanden is in use for the 16th century domains of Charles V, the historic Low Countries, while Nederland is in use for the country of the Netherlands. However, in official use, the name of the Dutch kingdom is still Kingdom of the Netherlands, Koninkrijk der Nederlanden; this name derives from the 19th-century origins of the kingdom which included present-day Belgium. In Dutch, to a lesser extent in English, the Low Countries colloquially means the Netherlands and Belgium, sometimes the Netherlands and Flanders—the Dutch-speaking north of Belgium. For example, a Low Countries derby, is a sports event between Belgium and the Netherlands. Belgium separated in 1830 from the Netherlands; the new country took its name from Belgica, the Latinised name for the Low Countries, as it was known during the Eighty Years' War. The Low Countries were in that war divided in two parts. On one hand, the northern Federated Netherlands or Belgica Foederata rebelled against the Spanish king.
This divide laid the early foundation for the modern states of Belgium and the Netherlands. The region politically had its origins in the Carolingian empire. After the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia, the Low Countries were brought under the rule of various lordships until they came to be in the hands of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy. Hence, a large part of the Low Countries came to be referred to as the Burgundian Netherlands. After the reign of the Valois Dukes ended, much of the Low Countries were controlled by the House of Habsburg; this area was referred to as the Habsburg Netherlands, called the Seventeen Provinces up to 1581. After the political secession of the autonomous Dutch Republic in the north, the term "Low Countries" continued to be used to refer collectively to the region; the region was temporarily united politically between 1815 and 1839, as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands, before this split into the three modern countries of the Netherlands and Luxembourg. The Low Countries were part of the Roman provinces of Germania Inferior.
They were inhabited by Germanic tribes. In the 4th and 5th century, Frankish tribes had entered this Roman region and came to run it independently, they came to be ruled by the Merovingian dynasty, under which dynasty the southern part was re-Christianised. By the end of the 8th century, the Low Countries formed a core part of a much expanded Francia and the Merovingians were replaced by the Carolingian dynasty. In 800, the Pope appointed Charlemagne Emperor of the re-established Roman Empire. After the death of Charlemagne, Francia was divided in three parts among his three grandsons; the middle slice, Middle Francia, was ruled by Lothair I, thereby came to be referred to as "Lotharingia" or "Lorraine". Apart from the original coastal County of Flanders, within West Francia, the rest of the Low Countries were within the lowland part of this, "Lower Lorrain
The Dutch Revolt was the revolt of the northern Protestant Seven Provinces of the Low Countries against the rule of the Roman Catholic Habsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. The northern provinces separated from the southern provinces, which continued under Habsburg Spain until 1714; the religious "clash of cultures" built up but inexorably into outbursts of violence against the perceived repression of the Habsburg Crown. These tensions led to the formation of the independent Dutch Republic, whose first leader was William the Silent, followed by several of his descendants and relations; this revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces. King Philip was successful in suppressing the rebellion. In 1572, the rebels captured Brielle and the rebellion resurged; the northern provinces became independent, first in 1581 de facto, in 1648 de jure. During the revolt, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, better known as the Dutch Republic grew to become a world power through its merchant shipping and experienced a period of economic and cultural growth.
The Southern Netherlands remained under Spanish rule. The continuous heavy-handed rule by the Habsburgs in the south caused many of its financial and cultural elite to flee north, contributing to the success of the Dutch Republic; the Dutch imposed a rigid blockade on the southern provinces that prevented Baltic grain from relieving famine in the southern towns from 1587 to 1589. By the end of the war in 1648, large areas of the Southern Netherlands had been lost to France, which had, under the guidance of Cardinal Richelieu and Louis XIII of France, allied itself with the Dutch Republic in the 1630s against Spain; the first phase of the conflict can be considered the Dutch War of Independence. The focus of the latter phase was to gain official recognition of the de facto independence of the United Provinces; this phase coincided with the rise of the Dutch Republic as a major power and the founding of the Dutch Empire. In a series of marriages and conquests, a succession of Dukes of Burgundy expanded their original territory by adding to it a series of fiefdoms, including the Seventeen Provinces.
Although Burgundy itself had been lost to France in 1477, the Burgundian Netherlands were still intact when Charles V was born in Ghent in 1500. He was raised in the Netherlands and spoke fluent Dutch, French and some German. In 1506, he became lord of the Burgundian states, among. Subsequently, in 1516, he inherited several titles, including that of King of Spain, which had become a worldwide empire with the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In 1519, Charles became ruler of the Habsburg empire, he gained the title Holy Roman Emperor in 1530. Although Friesland and Guelders offered prolonged resistance all of the Netherlands had been incorporated into the Habsburg domains by the early 1540s. Flanders had long been a wealthy region, coveted by French kings; the other regions of the Netherlands had grown wealthy and entrepreneurial. Charles V's empire had become a worldwide empire with large European territories; the latter were, distributed throughout Europe. Control and defense of these were hampered by the disparity of the territories and huge length of the empire's borders.
This large realm was continuously at war with its neighbors in its European heartlands, most notably against France in the Italian Wars and against the Ottoman Empire in the Mediterranean Sea. Further wars were fought against Protestant princes in Germany; the Dutch paid heavy taxes to fund these wars, but perceived them as unnecessary and sometimes downright harmful, because they were directed against their most important trading partners. During the 16th century, Protestantism gained ground in northern Europe. Dutch Protestants, after initial repression, were tolerated by local authorities. By the 1560s, the Protestant community had become a significant influence in the Netherlands, although it formed a minority then. In a society dependent on trade and tolerance were considered essential. Charles V, from 1555 his successor Philip II, felt it was their duty to defeat Protestantism, considered a heresy by the Catholic Church and a threat to the stability of the whole hierarchical political system.
On the other hand, the intensely moralistic Dutch Protestants insisted their theology, sincere piety and humble lifestyle were morally superior to the luxurious habits and superficial religiosity of the ecclesiastical nobility. The harsh measures of suppression led to increasing grievances in the Netherlands, where the local governments had embarked on a course of peaceful coexistence. In the second half of the century, the situation escalated. Philip sent troops to make the Netherlands once more a Catholic region. Although failing in his attempts to introduce the Spanish Inquisition directly, the Inquisition of the Netherlands was sufficiently harsh and arbitrary in nature to provoke fervent dislike. Part of the shifting balance of power in the late Middle Ages meant that besides the local nobility, many of the Dutch administrators by now were not traditional aristocrats but instead stemmed from non-noble families that had risen in status over previous centuries. By the 15th century, Brussels had thus become the de facto