West Harbour, Auckland
West Harbour is a suburb of Auckland, located to the west of Auckland City. It is named for its location on the western side of the Waitematā Harbour. West Harbour is under the governance of Auckland Council after the amalgamation of district councils in 2010. A suburb of the former Waitakere City territory district, however it has long been considered that this suburb does not form a part of West Auckland. Local features include many public reserves, two local primary schools, West Harbour School and Marina View School, a Church, farm land. West Harbour is home to Hobsonville Marina, a large marina catering to around 600 of private leisure boats and yachts, part of the route the Royal Family took during their 2014 visit; as the unique terrain of West Harbour, most of the houses have a magnificent sea view and city view, which makes the suburb become one of the exclusive suburb in Auckland City and home to hundreds of multi million houses and mansions. West Harbour has the highest median house price in Waitakere City.
Locally located State secondary schools are Massey High School, Rutherford College, Henderson High School, Liston College, Waitakere College and St Dominic's College
Sir John Phillip Key is a former New Zealand politician who served as the 38th Prime Minister of New Zealand and Leader of the New Zealand National Party. He was elected leader of the party in November 2006 and appointed Prime Minister in November 2008, resigning from both posts in December 2016. After leaving politics, Key was appointed to board of director and chairmanship roles in New Zealand corporations. Born in Auckland before moving to Christchurch when he was a child, Key attended the University of Canterbury and graduated in 1981 with a bachelor of commerce, he began a career in the foreign exchange market in New Zealand before moving overseas to work for Merrill Lynch, in which he became head of global foreign exchange in 1995, a position he would hold for six years. In 1999 he was appointed a member of the Foreign Exchange Committee of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York until leaving in 2001. Key entered the New Zealand Parliament representing the Auckland electorate of Helensville as one of the few new National members of parliament in the election of 2002 following National's significant defeat of that year.
In 2004, he was appointed Finance Spokesman for National and succeeded Don Brash as the National Party leader in 2006. After two years as Leader of the Opposition, Key led his party to victory at the November 2008 general election, he was subsequently sworn in as Prime Minister on 19 November 2008. The National government went on to win two more general elections under his leadership: in November 2011 and September 2014. Key was expected to contest for a fourth term of office at the 2017 general election, but on 5 December 2016 he resigned as Prime Minister and leader of the National Party, he was succeeded by Bill English on 12 December 2016. As Prime Minister, Key led the Fifth National Government of New Zealand which entered government at the beginning of the late-2000s recession in 2008. In his first term, Key's government implemented a GST rise and personal tax cuts. In February 2011, a major earthquake in Christchurch, the nation's second largest city affected the national economy and the government formed the Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Authority in response.
In its second term, Key's government implemented a policy of partial privatisation of five state-owned enterprises, while voters in a citizens-initiated referendum on the issue were 2 to 1 opposed to the policy. In foreign policy, Key withdrew New Zealand Defence Force personnel from their deployment in the war in Afghanistan, signed the Wellington Declaration with the United States and pushed for more nations to join the Trans-Pacific Partnership. Key was born in Auckland, New Zealand, to George Key and Ruth Key, on 9 August 1961, his father was an English immigrant and a veteran of the Spanish Civil War and World War II. Key and his two sisters were raised in a state house in the Christchurch suburb of Bryndwr, by his mother, an Austrian Jewish immigrant. Key is the third prime minister or premier of New Zealand to have Jewish ancestry, after Julius Vogel and Francis Bell, he attended Aorangi School, Burnside High School from 1975 to 1979, where he met his wife, Bronagh. He went on to attend the University of Canterbury and earned a Bachelor of Commerce degree in Accounting in 1981.
He attended management studies courses at Harvard University. Key's first job was in 1982, as an auditor at McCulloch Menzies, he moved to be a project manager at Christchurch-based clothing manufacturer Lane Walker Rudkin for two years. Key began working as a foreign exchange dealer at Elders Finance in Wellington, rose to the position of head foreign exchange trader two years then moved to Auckland-based Bankers Trust in 1988. In 1995, he joined Merrill Lynch as head of Asian foreign exchange in Singapore; that same year he was promoted to Merrill's global head of foreign exchange, based in London, where he may have earned around US$2.25 million a year including bonuses, about NZ$5 million at 2001 exchange rates. Some co-workers called him "the smiling assassin" for maintaining his usual cheerfulness while sacking dozens of staff after heavy losses from the 1998 Russian financial crisis, he was a member of the Foreign Exchange Committee of the New York Federal Reserve Bank from 1999 to 2001.
In 1998, on learning of his interest in pursuing a political career, the National Party president John Slater began working to recruit him. Former party leader Jenny Shipley describes him as one of the people she "deliberately sought out and put my head on the line–either or publicly–to get them in there". Auckland's population growth led to the formation for the 2002 general election of a new electorate called Helensville, which covered the north-western corner of the Auckland urban area. Key beat long-serving National MP Brian Neeson for the National Party Helensville selection. At the 2002 general election Key won the seat with a majority of 1,705, ahead of Labour's Gary Russell, with Neeson, now standing as an independent, coming third; the National Party was defeated in the 2002 election, receiving only 20.9% of the party vote – the party's worst-ever election result. Following the fallout a leadership coup against the incumbent Bill English was launched by Don Brash, another of the 2002 recruits, in October 2003.
English and his supporters offered Key the finance spokesman position for his vote and were confident they had the numbers with him on their side. Brash narrowly won 14 votes to 12 and at the time it was thought Key had changed his support to Brash; the votes were confidential, although Key stated that he did vote for English. Key won re-election at the
Treaty of Waitangi
The Treaty of Waitangi is a treaty first signed on 6 February 1840 by representatives of the British Crown and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. It is a document of central importance to the history and political constitution of the state of New Zealand, has been significant in framing the political relations between New Zealand's government and the Māori population; the Treaty was written at a time when British colonists were pressuring the Crown to establish a colony in New Zealand, when some Māori leaders had petitioned the British for protection against French forces. It was drafted with the intention of establishing a British Governor of New Zealand, recognising Māori ownership of their lands and other possessions, giving Māori the rights of British subjects, it was intended to ensure that when the declaration of British sovereignty over New Zealand was made by Lieutenant Governor William Hobson in May 1840, the Māori people would not feel that their rights had been ignored.
Once it had been written and translated, it was first signed by Northern Māori leaders at Waitangi, subsequently copies of the Treaty were taken around New Zealand and over the following months many other chiefs signed. Around 530 to 540 Māori, at least 13 of them women, signed the Treaty of Waitangi, despite some Māori leaders cautioning against it. An immediate result of the Treaty was that Queen Victoria's government gained the sole right to purchase land. In total there are nine signed copies of the Treaty of Waitangi including the sheet signed on 6 February 1840 at Waitangi; the text of the Treaty includes three articles. It is bilingual, with the Māori text translated from the English. Article one of the English text cedes "all powers of sovereignty" to the Crown. Article two establishes the continued ownership of the Māori over their lands, establishes the exclusive right of pre-emption of the Crown. Article three gives Māori people full protections as British subjects. However, the English text and the Māori text differ in meaning particularly in relation to the meaning of having and ceding sovereignty.
These discrepancies led to disagreements in the decades following the signing culminating in the New Zealand Wars. During the second half of the 19th century, Māori lost control of the land they had owned, some through legitimate sale, but due to unfair land deals or outright seizure in the aftermath of the New Zealand War. In the period following the New Zealand Wars, the New Zealand government ignored the Treaty and a court case judgement in 1877 declared it to be "a simple nullity". Beginning in the 1950s, Māori sought to use the Treaty as a platform for claiming additional rights to sovereignty and to reclaim lost land, governments in the 1960s and 1970s were responsive to these arguments, giving the Treaty an central role in the interpretation of land rights and relations between Māori people and the state. In 1975, the Treaty of Waitangi Act was passed establishing the Waitangi Tribunal as a permanent commission of inquiry tasked with interpreting the Treaty, researching breaches of the Treaty by the British Crown or its agents, to suggest means of redress.
In most cases, recommendations of the Tribunal are not binding on the Crown, but settlements totalling $1 billion have been awarded to various Māori groups. Various legislation passed in the part of the 20th century has made reference to the Treaty, but the Treaty has never been made part of New Zealand municipal law. Nonetheless, the Treaty is regarded as the founding document of New Zealand. Waitangi Day was established as a national holiday in 1974 and commemorates the date of the signing of the Treaty; the first contact between the Māori and Europeans was in 1642, when Dutch explorer Abel Tasman arrived and was fought off, again in 1769 when the English navigator Captain James Cook claimed New Zealand for Britain at the Mercury Islands. The British government showed little interest in following up this claim for over half a century; the first mention of New Zealand in British statutes is in the Murders Abroad Act of 1817, which clarified that New Zealand was not a British colony and "not within His Majesty's dominions".
Between 1795 and 1830 a steady flow of sealing and whaling ships visited New Zealand stopping at the Bay of Islands for food supplies and recreation. Many of the ships came from Sydney. Trade between Sydney and New Zealand increased as traders sought kauri timber and flax and missionaries purchased large areas of land in the Bay of Islands; this trade was seen as mutually advantageous, Māori tribes competed for access to the services of Europeans that had chosen to live on the islands because they brought goods and knowledge that were essential to the local iwi. At the same time, Europeans living in New Zealand needed the protection that Māori chiefs could provide; as a result of trade, Māori society changed drastically up to the 1840s. They changed their society from one of subsistence farming and gathering to cultivating useful trade crops; the Māori respected the British due to encouragement from missionaries and due to British status as a major maritime power, made apparent to Māori travelling outside New Zealand.
The other major powers in the area around the 1830s included American whalers, whom the Māori accepted as cousins of the British, French Catholics who came for trade and as missionaries. The Māori were still distrustful of the French, due to a massacre of 250 people that had occurred in 1772
Waitematā Harbour is the main access by sea to Auckland, New Zealand. For this reason it is referred to as Auckland Harbour, despite the fact that it is one of two harbours adjoining the city; the harbour forms the northern and eastern coasts of the Auckland isthmus and is crossed by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. It is matched on the southern side of the city by the shallower waters of the Manukau Harbour. With an area of 70 square miles, it connects the city's main port and the Auckland waterfront to the Hauraki Gulf and the Pacific Ocean, it is sheltered from Pacific storms by Auckland's North Shore, Rangitoto Island, Waiheke Island. The oldest Māori name of the harbour was Te Whanga-nui o Toi, named after Toi, an early Māori explorer; the name Waitematā means "Te Mata Waters", refers to Te Mata, which lies in mid-harbour off Kauri Point. A popular translation of Waitematā is "The Obsidian Waters", referring to obsidian rock. Another popular translation, derived from this, is "The Sparkling Waters", as the harbour waters were said to glint like the volcanic glass obsidian.
However, this is incorrect. The spelling Waitemata is common in English; the harbour is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf, extending west for eighteen kilometres from the end of the Rangitoto Channel. Its entrance is between Bastion Point in the south; the westernmost ends of the harbour extend past Whenuapai in the northwest, to Te Atatu in the west, as well as forming the estuarial arm known as the Whau River in the southwest. The northern shore of the harbour consists of North Shore. North Shore suburbs located closest to the shoreline include Birkenhead and Devonport. On the southern side of the harbour is Auckland CBD and the Auckland waterfront, coastal suburbs such as Mission Bay, Herne Bay and Point Chevalier, the latter of which lies on a short triangular peninsula jutting into the harbour; the harbour is crossed at its narrowest point by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. To the east of the bridge's southern end lie the marinas of Westhaven and the suburbs of Freemans Bay and the Viaduct Basin. Further east from these, close to the harbour's entrance, lies the Port of Auckland.
There are other wharves and ports within the harbour, notable among them the Devonport Naval Base, the accompanying Kauri Point Armament Depot at Birkenhead, the Chelsea Sugar Refinery wharf, all capable of taking ships over 500 gross register tons. Smaller wharves at Birkenhead, Beach Haven, Northcote and West Harbour offer commuter ferry services to the Auckland CBD; the harbour is a drowned valley system, carved through Miocene marine sediments of the Waitemata Group. Recent volcanism in the Auckland volcanic field has shaped the coast, most at Devonport and the Meola Reef, but in the explosion craters of Orakei Basin and in western Shoal Bay. In periods of low sea level, a tributary ran from Milford into the Shoal Bay stream; this valley provided the harbour with a second entrance when sea levels rose, until the Lake Pupuke volcano plugged this gap. The current shore is influenced by tidal rivers in the west and north of the harbour. Mudflats covered by mangroves flourish in these conditions, salt marshes are typical.
The harbour has long been the main anchorage and port area for the Auckland region before European colonial times. Well-sheltered not only by the Hauraki Gulf itself but by Rangitoto Island, the harbour offered good protection in all winds, lacked dangerous shoals or major sand bars that would have made entry difficult; the harbour proved a fertile area for encroaching development, with major land reclamation undertaken along the Auckland waterfront, within a few decades of the city's European founding. Taking the idea of the several Māori portage paths over the isthmus one step further, the creation of a canal that would link the Waitematā and Manukau harbours was considered in the early 1900s. Legislation was passed that would allow authorities to take owned land where it was deemed required for a canal. However, no serious work was undertaken; the act was repealed on 1 November 2010. While the harbour has numerous beaches popular for swimming, the older-style "combined sewers" in several surrounding western suburbs dump contaminated wastewater overflows into the harbour on 52 heavy-rain days a year, leading to regular health warnings at popular swimming beaches, until the outfalls have dispersed again.
A major new project, the Central Interceptor, starting 2019, is to reduce these outfalls by about 80% once completed around 2024. Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held in Auckland Libraries' heritage collections Photographs of Waitematā Harbour held at Auckland Museum
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
New Zealand Fire Service
The New Zealand Fire Service was New Zealand's main firefighting body from 1 April 1976 until 1 July 2017 - at which point it was dissolved and incorporated into the new Fire and Emergency New Zealand. The NZFS was somewhat unusual, internationally, in that it had jurisdiction over the entire country with no division by region or city, it was the result of the New Zealand Fire Service Act which nationalised the various District-level brigades which had developed across the country. The New Zealand Fire Service was predominantly configured as an Urban Rescue Service; the Fire Service Act placed responsibility on the NZFS for firefighting in gazetted Urban Fire Districts, totalling about 3% of New Zealand's land area but covering 85% of the country's population. The remainder of the land was covered by Rural Fire Authorities that acted under the Forest and Rural Fires Act. Fire Service brigades responded outside their Districts to deal with structure and rescue incidents, undertook the initial suppression attack on wildland fires.
Note: The New Zealand Department of Conservation was a RFA with responsibility for firefighting within recognised State areas, including National Parks, totalling about 30% of the country. The New Zealand Defence Force remains responsible for all Defence Areas as defined through the Defence Act. With these two agencies included, the NZFS and territorial local authority RFAs formed the bulk of the firefighting capability in New Zealand. There continues some contribution from Industry Fire Brigades; the entire organisation reported to the Minister of Internal Affairs, by way of the New Zealand Fire Service Commission. The Commission was composed of five members, the Minister was required by law to appoint at least one person, either a fire engineer or had experience as a senior operational fire fighter; the New Zealand Fire Service Commission was the National Rural Fire Authority. Beneath the Commission were the positions of Chief Executive and National Commander. At the time of dissolution both positions were filled by Paul McGill.
Where the Chief Executive did not have operational fire fighting experience, a separate National Commander was appointed to be the most senior operational fire fighter in the country. The National Commander may have taken control at a serious incident, though this happened rarely; the Chief Executive had a number of direct reports, though these were concerned with matters such as human resources and finance rather than operational matters. The country was broken into five fire regions: Region 1, Region 2, Region 3, Region 4, Region 5; each region was in the charge of a Fire Region Commander. All FRCs report directly to the National Commander, were promoted from the ranks of operational staff. A FRC could take control of a major incident, was responsible for any incident at which they are present if they were not the Officer-in-Charge. Reporting to the Fire Region Commander were the Area Commanders and Assistant Area Commanders who manage the 24 areas contained within the regions; the areas were: Region 1: Muri-Whenua, Whangarei-Kaipara, Auckland City, Counties-Manukau Region 2: Waikato, East Waikato, Bay of Plenty Coast, Central Lakes, Tairawhiti Region 3: Hawke's Bay, Wanganui, Hutt-Wairarapa, Wellington Region 4: Tasman-Marlborough, West Coast, Christchurch City, South Canterbury Region 5: Central-North Otago, East Otago, SouthlandAssistant Area Commanders were responsible for managing the career districts, while the Area Commanders had overall responsibility for the area as well as for the volunteer Chief Fire Officers of each volunteer fire districts within their areas.
These were the officers who are entrusted – via the Fire Service Act – with the powers that are exercised at the scene of an incident to'deal with' the emergency. These powers were far-reaching – they provide authority to commandeer, demolish or destroy whatever is required in the course of their duties, given no more suitable options; each Chief Fire Officer had a Deputy Chief Fire Officer and a number of Senior Station Officers and Station Officers reporting to them. The minimum number of firefighters required to man most appliances was four – an officer-in-charge, a driver/pump operator, two firefighters – although many appliances were equipped to carry an extra one or two firefighters, operational support staff, or observers. Station Officer – In charge of the crew and the officer with the delegated authority of the CFO at any response. Senior Firefighter – an SFF is an experienced Firefighter, in a position to provide leadership in the absence of a Station Officer. Suitably qualified SFFs may have stood in for an SO on a temporary basis.
Qualified Firefighter Firefighter – the baseline rank within the Fire Service. An SSO may have run in place of an SO at their own discretion. In career districts the SSOs were strategically located to provide a more experienced command officer, placed such that they are responded to most incidents of significance; the New Zealand Fire Service employed 1,713 professional career firefighters, 444 support staff and 80 communication centre staff. Each career fire station had a number of watches. Full-time career stations have four watches, brown and green, rotating on a "four-on four-off" schedule: two 10-hour day shifts, followed by two 14-hour night shifts, foll
Waitakere City is a former territorial authority district in the west of Auckland, New Zealand, governed by the Waitakere City Council from 1989 to 2010. It was New Zealand's fifth largest city, with an annual growth of about 2%. In 2010 the council was amalgamated with other regional authorities into one new Auckland Council; the name "Waitakere" comes from the Waitakere River in the Waitakere Ranges and was applied to Waitakere County, which covered much of the city. Before being settled by Europeans, the Māori iwi Te Kawerau a Maki and Ngāti Whātua had settled in the Waitakere area. In the 1830s, European settlers started to arrive, concentrating on timber milling, kauri gum digging and flax milling, with brickworks and pottery industries following later. In the 20th century and service trades started to grow, with population taking off after World War II due to improved transport links with Auckland City, such as the Northwestern Motorway, whose first section opened in 1952. Suburbs like New Lynn, Glen Eden and Henderson grew to prominence in the following decades.
In February 1993 the council developed the "Greenprint" as an Agenda 21 initiative and declared itself to be an eco-city. Waitakere City was formed by the amalgamation of Waitemata City with the boroughs of Henderson, New Lynn, Glen Eden in the 1989 nationwide re-organisation of local government. There were just two mayors of Waitakere City during its existence, Assid Corban from 1989 to 1992, Bob Harvey from 1992 to 2010. On 1 November 2010, the Waitakere City Council was abolished and Waitakere City was merged into a single Auckland city governed by Auckland Council. All council facilities and services were handed over to the new council; the elected Council consisted of 14 councillors representing the four wards. Each ward had an elected community board that considered local issues; this urban ward contained the old Henderson borough as well as the suburbs of Glendene, Te Atatu South, Te Atatu Peninsula. There were 40,086 residents in 2001, it was located to the west of Auckland city, some 10 kilometres from the city centre, along the western shores of the Waitematā Harbour and its southwestern arm, the Whau River.
Although this area was principally urban, it had some farms and lifestyle blocks in the north and west. The ward contained the suburbs of Whenuapai, West Harbour, Massey and Henderson North, it had a population of 51,369 in the 2001 census. It was located to the north of the Henderson Ward, along the Waitemata's northwestern shore, included one of New Zealand's largest concentrations of former military bases, with former large army and air force stations within the ward. Centred on the old boroughs of New Lynn and Glen Eden, it contained the suburbs of Kelston, Green Bay, Kaurilands and Woodlands Park; the ward had a population of 49,845 in 2001. New Lynn Ward was to the south of Henderson Ward, extended to the shore of the Manukau Harbour at its southern end. New Lynn itself is 10 kilometres southwest of Auckland city centre; this ward was by far the largest in area as it encompassed the sparsely populated Waitakere Ranges, as well as some of the urban fringes as the city expanded westward into former orchards and farms.
The population of 27,450 in 2001 was the smallest of the wards, but it was the fastest growing. It encompassed the suburbs and localities of Swanson, Henderson Valley, Oratia, Laingholm, Cornwallis, Whatipu, Piha, Bethells / Te Henga, Waitakere township. Many of these had volunteer fire brigades to protect their communities from the summer bush fires; this ward lay to the west of the three other wards, extended to the north as well. Its northern end, around Muriwai, was the furthest part of Waitakere from Auckland city centre, lying some 30 kilometres to the northwest of it. Significant industries in the first 150 years of European settlement after about 1850 included brick and pottery manufacturing, timber milling, kauri gum digging, farming, water supply and the twin Royal New Zealand Air Force bases of Whenuapai and Hobsonville. Waitakere City developed light manufacturing; the two commercial centres were New Lynn. Notable niche industries included boat-building and film and television production.
The largest sound stage in New Zealand was built in Henderson. However, Waitakere City's workforce was oriented towards Auckland City, with about 40% of all workers living in the city commuting into the Auckland City area for work from the late 2000s; the walking tracks and sights of the Waitakere Ranges attract thousands from the Auckland region in suitable weather, as do the black-sand surf beaches of Piha and Bethells. These beaches are notoriously dangerous for surfers and swimmers who must take great care to avoid their treacherous rips; the city has a football club playing in the New Zealand Football Championship, Waitakere United, as well several clubs competing in the regional Northern League competition. The Nelson Trusts Stadium holds many sports and entertainment events. There was extensive work by the council in the 2000s to pave and improve pathways around the streams in Henderson and there are now several miles of excellent walking / cycling tracks in the centre of Henderson and running north and south.
Together with major restoration works along the streams it is known as the Project Twin Streams. The area is home to one of the first and oldest baseball clubs in New Zealand, it is based in Te Atatu South at McCleod Park and features both junior and