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Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of lymphoma in which cancer originates from a specific type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. Symptoms may include fever, night sweats, weight loss. There will be non-painful enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, under the arm, or in the groin; those affected may be itchy. There are two major types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. About half of cases of Hodgkin lymphoma are due to Epstein–Barr virus and these are the classic form. Other risk factors include a family history of the condition and having HIV/AIDS. Diagnosis is by finding Hodgkin cells such as multinucleated Reed–Sternberg cells in lymph nodes; the virus-positive cases are classified as a form of the Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. Hodgkin lymphoma may be treated with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant; the choice of treatment depends on how advanced the cancer has become and whether or not it has favorable features.

In early disease, a cure is possible. The percentage of people who survive five years in the United States is 86%. For those under the age of 20, rates of survival are 97%. Radiation and some chemotherapy drugs, increase the risk of other cancers, heart disease, or lung disease over the subsequent decades. In 2015, about 574,000 people globally had Hodgkin lymphoma, 23,900 died. In the United States, 0.2% of people are affected at some point in their life. The most common age of diagnosis is between 40 years old, it was named after the English physician Thomas Hodgkin, who first described the condition in 1832. People with Hodgkin lymphoma may present with the following symptoms: Lymphadenopathy: the most common symptom of Hodgkin is the painless enlargement of one or more lymph nodes; the nodes may feel rubbery and swollen when examined. The nodes of the neck and shoulders are most involved; the lymph nodes of the chest are affected, these may be noticed on a chest radiograph. Systemic symptoms: about one-third of people with Hodgkin disease may present with systemic symptoms, including:Itchy skin Night sweats.

Unexplained weight loss of at least 10% of the person's total body mass in six months or less. Low-grade fever. Fatigue. Systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, weight loss are known as B symptoms. Splenomegaly: enlargement of the spleen is present in people with Hodgkin lymphoma; the enlargement, however, is massive, the size of the spleen may fluctuate during the course of treatment. Hepatomegaly: enlargement of the liver, due to liver involvement, is infrequent in people with Hodgkin Lymphoma. Hepatosplenomegaly: the enlargement of both the liver and spleen caused by the same disease. Pain following alcohol consumption: classically, involved nodes are painful after alcohol consumption, though this phenomenon is uncommon, occurring in only two to three percent of people with Hodgkin lymphoma, thus having a low sensitivity. On the other hand, its positive predictive value is high enough for it to be regarded as a pathognomonic sign of Hodgkin lymphoma; the pain has an onset within minutes after ingesting alcohol, is felt as coming from the vicinity where there is an involved lymph node.

The pain has been described as stabbing or dull and aching. Back pain: nonspecific back pain has been reported in some cases of Hodgkin lymphoma; the lower back is most affected. Cyclical fever: people may present with a cyclical high-grade fever known as the Pel–Ebstein fever, or more "P-E fever". However, there is debate as to whether the P-E fever exists. Nephrotic syndrome can occur in individuals with Hodgkin lymphoma and is most caused by minimal change disease. Hodgkin lymphoma must be distinguished from non-cancerous causes of lymph node swelling and from other types of cancer. Definitive diagnosis is by lymph node biopsy. Blood tests are performed to assess function of major organs and to assess safety for chemotherapy. Positron emission tomography is used to detect small deposits. PET scans are useful in functional imaging. In some cases a Gallium scan may be used instead of a PET scan. There are two main types of Hodgkin lymphoma: classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

The prevalence of classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte Hodgkin lymphoma are 90% and 10%, respectively. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma can be subclassified into four pathologic subtypes based upon Reed–Sternberg cell morphology and the composition of the reactive cell infiltrate seen in the lymph node biopsy specimen. For the other forms, although the traditional B-cell markers are not expressed on all cells, Reed–Sternberg cells are of B cell origin. Although Hodgkin's is now grouped with other B-cell malignancies, some T-cell markers are expressed. However, this may be an artifact of the ambiguity inherent in the diagnosis. Hodgkin cells produce interleukin-21, once thought to be exclusive to T-cells; this feature may explain the behavior of classical Hod

Tommy Prothro

James Thompson "Tommy" Prothro Jr. was an American football coach. He was the head coach at Oregon State University from 1955 to 1964 and the University of California, Los Angeles from 1965 to 1970, compiling a career college football record of 104–55–5. Prothro moved to the professional ranks of the National Football League in 1971 as head coach of the Los Angeles Rams, a position he held for two seasons, he coached the San Diego Chargers from 1974 to 1978, tallying a career NFL mark of 35–51–2. Prothro was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1991. Prothro, a native of Memphis, was the son of major league baseball player and manager Doc Prothro, who played for three teams between 1920 and 1926 managed the Philadelphia Phillies from 1939 to 1941 before buying the minor league Memphis Chicks, his uncle, Clifton B. Cates, was commandant of the United States Marine Corps from 1948 to 1952; the younger Prothro found his niche in football, starting out as a quarterback for Wallace Wade's Duke Blue Devils.

In 1941, Prothro's versatility on the field helped him win the Jacobs award as the best blocker in the Southern Conference as the Blue Devils reached the 1942 Rose Bowl. During his time at the school, Prothro competed in baseball and lacrosse, graduated from the school in 1942 with a degree in political science. Prothro was selected in the fifth round of the 1942 NFL Draft by the New York Giants, but rejected the opportunity in favor of a budding coaching career and a brief attempt at professional baseball. Prothro spent that fall as an assistant coach at Western Kentucky University, he entered the U. S. Navy during World War II, serving for 39 months. Prothro was promoted to lieutenant and served as a gunnery officer aboard the USS Breton, an escort aircraft carrier. After the war, Prothro served from 1946 to 1948 as an assistant coach at Vanderbilt University, under head coach Red Sanders, coaching the freshmen during his first year; when Sanders became head coach at UCLA, he brought Prothro with him.

Over the next six years, Prothro used the single-wing formation as UCLA's backfield coach, helping the Bruins to an undefeated season and national championship in 1954. That success translated into his hiring as head coach at Oregon State College on February 1, 1955; the Beavers had won just one of nine games the previous season, but improved to six wins in Prothro's first season reached the 1957 Rose Bowl. In 1962, the Beavers won a 6–0 decision over Villanova University in the Liberty Bowl. Baker's 99-yard run remains an NCAA record. In 1964, Oregon State were admitted into the AAWU and tied for first place with USC. Due to their recent entry into that conference with schedules set years in advance, the Beavers and Trojans did not meet in 1964. Although Oregon State was assured of a better overall record than USC, the AAWU announced it would delay its decision regarding the Rose Bowl berth until after USC's final game vs. undefeated and top-ranked Notre Dame. This made USC fans infer that, if the Trojans had a strong showing against favored Notre Dame, they might somehow get the Rose Bowl berth despite Oregon State's better record.

USC upset Notre Dame, 20–17, USC fans were outraged when Oregon State was awarded the Rose Bowl anyway. This would be a factor two years later. In the 1965 Rose Bowl, the Beavers went ahead 7-0 in the second quarter, but went on lose big to Michigan 34–7. Ten days Prothro left Oregon State to replace Bill Barnes at UCLA. Prothro compiled a 63 -- 37 -- 2 mark with only one losing season, he was replaced by Dee Andros, the head coach at Idaho, whose Vandals had played Oregon State tough in 1964 in Corvallis, defeated 10-7 by a late third quarter OSU punt return. The previous year, he led Idaho to its first winning season in a quarter century. On January 11, 1965, he was hired as head coach at UCLA to replace William F. Barnes. In the 1965 football season, the Bruins lost their season opening game 13–3 at Michigan State, who rose to become the top-ranked team in the country; the unheralded Bruins would go on a seven-game undefeated streak, surprising national powers like Syracuse and Penn State. Going into the 1965 UCLA–USC rivalry football game ranked #7, the conference championship and 1966 Rose Bowl were on the line.

#6 USC, led by Heisman Trophy winner Mike Garrett led 16–6 until UCLA got a touchdown on a pass from Gary Beban to Dick Witcher with four minutes to play. After the two-point conversion made it 16–14, UCLA recovered an onside kick. Beban hit Kurt Altenberg on a 50-yard bomb and UCLA won, 20–16. Integrated UCLA faced all-white Tennessee in the newly built Liberty Bowl stadium in Memphis, Prothro's native city. On the last play of the game, Tennessee defensive back Bob Petrella intercepted a UCLA pass to save a Volunteer win by a score of 37–34. Tennessee's winning drive was aided by a controversial pass interference call, the clock had questionably stopped twice, a dropped pass that appeared to be a lateral was recovered by UCLA but was ruled an incomplete forward pass. After the game, Prothro stated, "For the first time in my life, I am ashamed to be a Southerner."The Bruins went to the 1966 Rose Bowl as a 14½ point underdog in a rematch with undefeated and #1 ranked powerhouse Michigan State.

UCLA, now dubbed "The Miracle Bruins" by Sports Illustrated, vanquished the favored Spartans 14–12. That victory gave UCLA an 8–2–1 mark, prevented the Spartans from winning the AP title, resulted in Prothro earning Coach of the Year accolades from his coaching colleagues. UCLA finished #4 that season, due

Badwater Basin

Badwater Basin is an endorheic basin in Death Valley National Park, Death Valley, Inyo County, noted as the lowest point in North America, with a depth of 282 ft below sea level. Mount Whitney, the highest point in the contiguous 48 United States, is only 84.6 miles to the northwest. The site itself consists of a small spring-fed pool of "bad water" next to the road in a sink; the pool does have animal and plant life, including pickleweed, aquatic insects, the Badwater snail. Adjacent to the pool, where water is not always present at the surface, repeated freeze–thaw and evaporation cycles push the thin salt crust into hexagonal honeycomb shapes; the pool is not the lowest point of the basin: the lowest point is several miles to the west and varies in position, depending on rainfall and evaporation patterns. The salt flats are hazardous to traverse, so the sign marking the low point is at the pool instead; the basin was considered the lowest elevation in the Western Hemisphere until the discovery of Laguna del Carbón in Argentina at −344 ft.

At Badwater Basin, significant rainstorms flood the valley bottom periodically, covering the salt pan with a thin sheet of standing water. Newly formed lakes do not last long though, because the 1.9 in of average rainfall is overwhelmed by a 150 in annual evaporation rate. This is the greatest evaporation potential in the United States, meaning that a 12 ft lake could dry up in a single year; when the basin is flooded, some of the salt is dissolved. A popular site for tourists is the sign marking "sea level" on the cliff above the Badwater Basin; the current best understanding of the area's geological history is that the entire region between the Colorado River in the east and Baja California in the southwest has seen numerous cycles since at least the start of the Pleistocene of pluvial lakes of varying size in a complex cycle tied to changing climate patterns, but influenced by the progressive depositing of alluvial plains and deltas by the Colorado River, alternating with periodic water body breakthroughs and rearrangements due to erosion and the proximity of the San Andreas Fault.

This has resulted in a high number of evaporating and reforming endorheic lakes throughout the Quaternary Period in the area, with an intertwined history of various larger bodies of water subsuming smaller ones during water table maxima and the subsequent splitting and disappearance thereof during the evaporative part of the cycles. Although these local cycles are now somewhat modified by human presence, their legacy persists. Throughout the Quaternary's wetter spans, streams running from nearby mountains filled Death Valley, creating Lake Manly, which during its greatest extents was 80 mi long and up to 600 ft deep. Numerous evaporation cycles and a lack of outflow caused an increasing hypersalinity, typical for endorheic bodies of water. Over time, this hypersalinization, combined with sporadic rainfall and occasional aquifer intrusion, has resulted in periods of "briny soup", or salty pools, on the lowest parts of Death Valley's floor. Salts began to crystallize, coating the surface with the thick crust, ranging from 3 to 60 in, now observable at the basin floor.

Death Valley pupfish List of elevation extremes by country List of elevation extremes by region John McKinney: California's Desert Parks: A Day Hiker's Guide. Wilderness Press 2006, ISBN 0-89997-389-2, S. 54–55 Don J. Easterbrook: Quaternary Geology of the United States. Geological Society of America 2003, ISBN 94-592-0504-6, S.63–64 Badwater Basin in the Encyclopædia Britannica

Kavya (film)

Kavya is a 1995 Indian Kannada romantic drama film directed and co-produced by Kodlu Ramakrishna and based on the novel written by Vijaya Thandavamurthy and Ramakrishna himself. The film cast includes Ramkumar and Sithara in the lead roles with Sudharani playing the titular role; the film was produced under Spandana Films banner and the original score and soundtrack were composed by Sadhu Kokila. Ramkumar Sudharani as Kavya Sithara Kalyan Kumar Ramakrishna Gorur Venkatram Girija Lokesh Chandrashekar Jaishree Sridhar Ramachandra The music of the film was composed by Sadhu Kokila and lyrics written by Prof. Doddarange Gowda and Geethapriya, it has a couplet written by poet Kuvempu. The soundtrack features one song sung by actor Rajkumar. Prof. Doddarange Gowda was awarded with the Karnataka State Film Award for Best Lyricist for the year 1995-96 for the song "Vandane Vandane" written by him. Tavarina Tottilu

Ford Theatre

Ford Theatre, spelled Ford Theater for the radio version and known as Ford Television Theatre for the TV version, is a radio and television anthology series broadcast in the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. At various times the television series appeared on all three major television networks, while the radio version was broadcast on two separate networks and on two separate coasts. Ford Theatre was named for its sponsor, the Ford Motor Company, which had an earlier success with its concert music series, The Ford Sunday Evening Hour. Ford Theater as a radio series lasted for only two seasons, its first season was broadcast from New York City on NBC with such actors as Ed Begley, Shirley Booth, Gary Merrill, Everett Sloane and Vicki Vola. This season ran from October 5, 1947, to June 27, 1948. Due to poor ratings, Ford moved the show to Hollywood and CBS for the second season, where top Hollywood actors headed the casts; this season, which lasted from October 8, 1948, to July 1, 1949, received much higher ratings.

However, with television rising in popularity, Ford decided to end its radio show and focus on television. The first Ford Theatre on U. S. television appeared on October 17, 1948, near the dawn of scheduled prime time network programming. It was an hour-long drama, broadcast live; this series used Broadway actors. The program began as a monthly series, switching to biweekly a year in alternation on Friday nights at 9:00 pm Eastern time with the 54th Street Revue. During this period, programming included adaptations of Little Women, with June Lockhart and Kim Hunter, One Sunday Afternoon, with Burgess Meredith and Hume Cronyn. During the following season, the final season for the program on CBS, the alternation in the same time slot was with Magnavox Theater. A half-hour filmed Ford Theatre returned to the airwaves on NBC for the 1951–52 season on Thursday nights at 9:30 pm Eastern. At this time, production was moved from New York to Hollywood, featured actors based there rather than on Broadway.

Some of these programs were comedies instead of dramas. Performers appearing during this era included Frank Bank, Scott Brady, Claudette Colbert, Charles Coburn, Ed Hinton, Vivi Janiss, Peter Lawford, Ida Lupino, Thomas Mitchell, Dennis Morgan, Karen Sharpe, Ann Sheridan, Barry Sullivan, Beverly Washburn. Appearing for the first time together were Ronald Reagan and Nancy Davis, in an episode entitled "First Born," which first aired on February 3, 1953. In October 1954, Ford Theatre became the first network television series to be filmed in color. During this period, Ford Theatre finished in the Nielsen ratings at number 30 for the 1952–1953 season, number seven in 1953–1954, number 9 in 1954–1955, number 13 in 1955–1956. After four seasons on NBC, the program was shown for a final season on ABC during the 1956–57 season; the time slot was changed to Wednesdays at 9:30 pm. The last prime time broadcast of Ford Theatre was on July 10, 1957. In 1954, Billboard voted it the best filmed network television drama series.

Brooks and Marsh, The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present Audio Classics Archive Radio Logs: The Ford Theater The Definitive: Ford Theater - the radio series Jerry Haendiges Vintage Radio Logs: Ford Theater "The Ford Theatre Hour" on IMDb "The Ford Television Theatre" on IMDb Ford Theatre at CVTA Ford Theater in the Internet Archive's Old-Time Radio Collection Episodes of the television version of Ford Theatre from the Internet Archive

Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino

Niccolò di Giovanni Fiorentino called Nicolas of Florence, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor and architect, active in Venice and Dalmatia. He is best known by his work on the Cathedral of St. James in Šibenik, in 1455. After the death of Giorgio da Sebenico, Niccolò finished the cathedral and its original stone dome following the original plans of Giorgio. Before 1457 he worked with Donatello in Padua, between 1457 and 1468 was active in Venice but moved after to Dalmatia where he worked until his death in 1506. Work on Šibenik cathedral inspired Niccolò for his work on the expansion of chapel of Blessed John from Trogir in 1468. Just like the Šibenik cathedral, it was composed of large stone blocks with extreme precision. In cooperation with a disciple of Giorgio, Andrea Alessi, Niccolò achieved close harmony of architecture and sculpture according to antique ideals. From inside, there is no flat wall. In the middle of chapel, on the altar, lies the sarcophagus of blessed John of Trogir. Surrounding this are reliefs of genies carrying torches as if peering out of the doors of the underworld.

Above them there are niches with sculptures of Christ and the apostles, among of which are putti, circular windows encircled with fruit garland, a relief of Nativity. All feature a coffered ceiling with an image of 96 portrait of angels' heads. With so many faces of smiling children, the chapel looks cheerful, unlike other European art of that time. Cathedral of St. James Renaissance architecture Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries.org: "European sculpture and metalwork" — a collection catalog with material on Fiorentino