It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after English and German. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is said to be roughly in between them, Dutch vocabulary is mostly Germanic and incorporates more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English. In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the official name for Dutch is Nederlands, and its dialects have their own names, e. g. Hollands, West-Vlaams. The use of the word Vlaams to describe Standard Dutch for the variations prevalent in Flanders and used there, however, is common in the Netherlands, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, one of the first names used for the non-Romance languages of Western Europe. It literarily means the language of the people, that is. The term was used as opposed to Latin, the language of writing. In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, later, theudisca appeared also in the Oaths of Strasbourg to refer to the Germanic portion of the oath. This led inevitably to confusion since similar terms referred to different languages, owing to Dutch commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English term came to refer exclusively to the Dutch. A notable exception is Pennsylvania Dutch, which is a West Central German variety called Deitsch by its speakers, Jersey Dutch, on the other hand, as spoken until the 1950s in New Jersey, is a Dutch-based creole. In Dutch itself, Diets went out of common use - although Platdiets is still used for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian Low Dietsch dialects in northeast Belgium, Nederlands, the official Dutch word for Dutch, did not become firmly established until the 19th century. This designation had been in use as far back as the end of the 15th century, one of them was it reflected a distinction with Hoogduits, High Dutch, meaning the language spoken in Germany. The Hoog was later dropped, and thus, Duits narrowed down in meaning to refer to the German language. g, in English, too, Netherlandic is regarded as a more accurate term for the Dutch language, but is hardly ever used. Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time Old English, Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did. During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from the western coast to the north of the Low Countries, on the other hand, Dutch has been replaced in adjacent lands in nowadays France and Germany. The division in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch is mostly conventional, one of the few moments linguists can detect somewhat of a revolution is when the Dutch standard language emerged and quickly established itself. This is assumed to have taken place in approximately the mid-first millennium BCE in the pre-Roman Northern European Iron Age, the Germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups, East, West, and North Germanic. They remained mutually intelligible throughout the Migration Period, Dutch is part of the West Germanic group, which also includes English, Scots, Frisian, Low German and High German
Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional variants. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as extinct languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them, as established by law and governmental policy, the two official forms of written Norwegian are Bokmål and Nynorsk. The official Norwegian Language Council is responsible for regulating the two forms, and recommends the terms Norwegian Bokmål and Norwegian Nynorsk in English. Two other written forms without official status also exist, one and it is regulated by the unofficial Norwegian Academy, which translates the name as Standard Norwegian. Nynorsk and Bokmål provide standards for how to write Norwegian, no standard of spoken Norwegian is officially sanctioned, and most Norwegians speak their own dialects in all circumstances. Thus, unlike in other countries, the use of any Norwegian dialect. Outside Eastern Norway, this variation is not used. From the 16th to the 19th centuries, Danish was the written language of Norway. As a result, the development of modern written Norwegian has been subject to strong controversy related to nationalism, rural versus urban discourse, historically, Bokmål is a Norwegianised variety of Danish, while Nynorsk is a language form based on Norwegian dialects and puristic opposition to Danish. The unofficial form known as Riksmål is considered more conservative than Bokmål, Norwegians are educated in both Bokmål and Nynorsk. A2005 poll indicates that 86. 3% use primarily Bokmål as their written language,5. 5% use both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and 7. 5% use primarily Nynorsk. Thus, 13% are frequently writing Nynorsk, though the majority speak dialects that resemble Nynorsk more closely than Bokmål. Broadly speaking, Nynorsk writing is widespread in western Norway, though not in major urban areas, examples are Setesdal, the western part of Telemark county and several municipalities in Hallingdal, Valdres, and Gudbrandsdalen. It is little used elsewhere, but 30–40 years ago, it also had strongholds in rural parts of Trøndelag. Today, not only is Nynorsk the official language of four of the 19 Norwegian counties, NRK, the Norwegian broadcasting corporation, broadcasts in both Bokmål and Nynorsk, and all governmental agencies are required to support both written languages. Bokmål is used in 92% of all publications, and Nynorsk in 8%
A. Hoen & Co.
A. Hoen & Co. was a Baltimore, Maryland-based lithography firm founded by Edward Weber in the 1840s as E. Weber & Company. When August Hoen took it over following Webers death, he changed the name, in 1877, Hoen entered a print produced by his patented lithocaustic process in the Centennial Exposition. This work, entitled The Continentals was commended for excellence in art by the judges. August Hoen patented his method in 1860. This covered etching with a mix of acid and gum arabic so that the lithographer could see the progress of shaded patterns as they were etched into the stone. He continued to explore methods of producing fine gradations in shading, in 1880, August Hoen was granted several patents for a methods of producing halftone prints using lithography. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, perfessor Bill The A. Hoen & Co
Hoensbroek Castle or Gebrook Castle is one of the largest castles in the Netherlands. It is situated in Hoensbroek, a town in the province of Limburg and this imposing watercastle is known as the most lordly stronghold between Rhine and Meuse. This so-called motte-and-bailey dated from around 1225, in 1250 a fortified manor was built on the location of the present castle. It contains at least 67 halls, rooms and living quarters, the first lord of Hoensbroek was Sir Herman Hoen, who gave the castle its name. He was a member of the family Hoen van den / tzo Broeck, later changed to Hoen van Hoensbroek, the name eventually passed to the later settlement of Hoensbroek. Sir Herman Hoens father, Claes, died in 1371 at the Battle of Baesweiler, the castle was the ancestral home of the knights Hoen van den Broeck, the Imperial baron Hoen van Hoensbroeck, and the Imperial counts and viscounts Van en tot Hoensbroeck for nearly six centuries. The family Van Hoensbroeck left the castle at the end of the 18th century, count Frans Lothar sold the castle in 1927 to the present day owners, the foundation Ave Rex Christe. It was thoroughly restored between 1930 and 1940, during and shortly after the second world war, the castle and accompanying buildings were used for diverse ends. In 1945, the castle was used for war orphans, under the Carmelite Sisters, from 1951 to 1973 the writer-poet Bertus Aafjes lived in parts of the castle. In the period 1986-1989 another restoration took place, since then it has formed a popular and educative museum destination, funded by the municipality. Over the centuries the castle has received extensive rebuilding and expansion three times, the different architectural styles from the different centuries are easy to separate from each other. The complex is surrounded by a moat and has four wings situated around a rectangular courtyard, the main building is reachable over a bridge. The main building has two square towers with union-tops, flanking the entrance, and two taller half-separate corner towers of irregular shape at the backside. The forecastles are both U-formed and enclose two large inner courts, from 1720 to 1722, Frans Arnold, Imperial count van Hoensbroek, had substantial reworking done, including the building of a new north-western wing. The interior, with its ceiling paintings from the 18th century. The son of Frans Arnold, Lotharius Frans, was the last lord of Hoensbroeck who resided in the castle, until 1787, just before the French revolution. Van Hoensbroeck List of castles in the Netherlands Venne, J. M. van de, peeters, Geschiedenis van Hoensbroek, Hoensbroek, Gemeentebestuur van Hoensbroek,1967
Hoensbroek is a Dutch town in the municipality of Heerlen. It is situated in the southeast of Limburg, a province in the southeast of the Netherlands, until 1982, Hoensbroek was a separate municipality. Hoensbroek is known for its castle, Kasteel Hoensbroek, named after Knight Hoen. Hoensbroek is also known for the fair on Ascension Day, the fair brings as many as 100,000 people every year to the town. In medieval times, the town was known under the name of Gebrook, meaning as much as Swampy Landscape and their family name eventually mingled with the original one, resulting in the name Hoensbroeck for the location and Van Hoensbroeck as the family name. The spoken dialect, Gerbrooker Plat, refers to the ancient name of Gebrook, the population of Hoensbroek is estimated to be around 25,000. Coal Mining The town remained modest until the early 20th century and this necessitated the construction of new residential areas, with the result that Heerlen & Hoensbroek grew closer to each other. Today Hoensbroek & Heerlen now form a contiguous and built-up area, only the tip, the former Oranje Nassau III mine, currently designed as a park, represents a kind of barrier between the towns. The mines in the area are now all closed, but many of the workers before landscaped areas still exist, the town can also be reached from Heerlen railway station and Sittard railway station. Bus, The town can be reached by bus, in city there are public buses from Veolia Transport Hoensbroek travel guide from Wikivoyage
Van Hoensbroeck is an aristocratic family with medieval origins in the town of Hoensbroek near Heerlen in Limburg, Netherlands. Nicolaes Hoen is the first known ancestor of the family, he was killed in the Battle of Baesweiler in 1371, during many centuries, the family owned and lived on Hoensbroek Castle, which can still be visited today. They played an important social and political role in the region, in the Netherlands a comital cadet branch survives. In Germany, the continues to thrive as Marquess & Marchioness. Otto Hupp, Münchener Kalender 1930, Regensburg 1930, J. M. van de Venne et al