The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul, has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by King Sejong the Great. It may be written as Hangeul following the standard Romanization, it is the official writing system of Korea, both North. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin Province, China, it is sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Indonesia. The Hangul alphabet consisted of 28 letters with 17 consonant letters and 11 vowel letters when it was created; as four became obsolete, the modern Hangul consists of total 24 letters with 14 consonant letters and 10 vowel letters. In North Korea the total is counted 40, it consists of 19 consonant letters and 21 vowel letters as it additionally includes 5 tense consonants and 20. The Korean letters are written in syllabic blocks with each alphabetic letter placed vertically and horizontally into a square dimension.
For example, the Korean word for "honeybee" is written 꿀벌, not ㄲㅜㄹㅂㅓㄹ. As it combines the features of alphabetic and syllabic writing systems, it has been described as an "alphabetic syllabary" by some linguists; as in traditional Chinese writing, Korean texts were traditionally written top to bottom, right to left, are still written this way for stylistic purposes. Today, it is written from left to right with spaces between words and western-style punctuation; some linguists consider it among the most phonologically faithful writing systems in use today. One interesting feature of Hangul is that the shapes of its consonants mimic the shapes of the speaker's mouth when pronouncing each consonant; the Korean alphabet was called Hunminjeong'eum, after the document that introduced the script to the Korean people in 1446. The Korean alphabet is called hangeul, a name coined by Korean linguist Ju Si-gyeong in 1912; the name combines the ancient Korean word han, meaning "great", geul, meaning "script".
The word han is used to refer to Korea in general, so the name means "Korean script". It has been romanized in multiple ways: Hangeul or han-geul in the Revised Romanization of Korean, which the South Korean government uses in English publications and encourages for all purposes. Han'gŭl in the McCune–Reischauer system, is capitalized and rendered without the diacritics when used as an English word, Hangul, as it appears in many English dictionaries. Hānkul in the Yale romanization, a system recommended for technical linguistic studies. In North Korea it is called Chosŏn'gŭl after Chosŏn, the North Korean name for Korea after the old name of Korea; the McCune–Reischauer system is used there. Until the mid-20th century, the Korean elite preferred to write using Chinese characters called Hanja, they referred to Hanja as jinseo or "true letters". Some accounts say the elite referred to the Korean alphabet derisively as'amkeul meaning "women's script", and'ahaetgeul meaning "children's script", though there is no written evidence of this.
Supporters of the Korean alphabet referred to it as jeong'eum meaning "correct pronunciation", gukmun meaning "national script", eonmun meaning "vernacular script". Before the creation of the new Korean alphabet, Koreans wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate the modern Korean alphabet by hundreds of years, including Idu script, Hyangchal and Gakpil. However, due to fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, the large number of characters, many lower class Koreans were illiterate. To promote literacy among the common people, the fourth king of the Joseon dynasty, Sejong the Great created and promulgated a new alphabet; the Korean alphabet was designed so that people with little education could learn to write. A popular saying about the alphabet is, "A wise man can acquaint himself with them before the morning is over; the project was completed in late December 1443 or January 1444, described in 1446 in a document titled Hunminjeong'eum, after which the alphabet itself was named.
The publication date of the Hunminjeongeum, October 9, became Hangul Day in South Korea. Its North Korean equivalent, Chosŏn'gŭl Day, is on January 15. Another document published in 1446 and titled Hunminjeong'eum Haerye was discovered in 1940; this document explains that the design of the consonant letters is based on articulatory phonetics and the design of the vowel letters are based on the principles of yin and yang and vowel harmony. The Korean alphabet faced opposition in the 1440s by the literary elite, including politician Choe Manri and other Korean Confucian scholars, they believed. They saw the circulation of the Korean alphabet as a threat to their status. However, the Korean alphabet entered popular culture as King Sejong had intended, used by women and writers of popular fiction. King Yeonsangun banned the study and publication of the Korean alphabet in 1504, after a document criticizing the king entered the public. King Jungjong abolished the Ministry of Eonmun, a governmental institution related to Hangul research, in 1506.
The late 16th century, saw a revival of the Korean alphabet as gasa and sijo poetry flourished. In the 17th century, the Korean alphabet novels became a major genre. However, the use of the Korea
Kim Il-sung was the first leader of North Korea which he ruled from the country's establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Premier from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to 1994, he was the leader of the Workers' Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994. Coming to power after the end of Japanese rule in 1945, he authorized the invasion of South Korea in 1950, triggering an intervention in defense of South Korea by the United Nations led by the United States. Following the military stalemate in the Korean War, a ceasefire was signed on 27 July 1953, he was the second longest-serving non-royal head of state/government in the 20th century, in office for more than 48 years. Under his leadership, North Korea became a communist state with a publicly owned and planned economy, it had close economic relations with the Soviet Union. By the 1960s, North Korea enjoyed a standard of living higher than the South, fraught with political instability and economic crises; the situation reversed in the mid-1970s, as a newly stable South Korea became an economic powerhouse fueled by Japanese and American investment, military aid and internal economic development while North Korea stagnated.
Differences emerged between North Korea and the Soviet Union, central among them Kim Il-sung's philosophy of Juche, which focused on Korean nationalism and self-reliance. Despite this, the country received funds and aid from the USSR until the dissolution of the USSR in 1991; the resulting loss of economic aid adversely affected the North's economy, causing widespread famine in 1994. During this period, North Korea remained critical of the United States defense force's presence in the region, which it considered imperialism, having seized the American ship USS Pueblo in 1968, he outlived Joseph Stalin by four decades and Mao Zedong by two and remained in power during the terms of office of six South Korean Presidents, ten U. S. Presidents and the rule of British monarchs George VI and his daughter Elizabeth II. Known as the Great Leader, he was the focus of a personality cult which dominated domestic politics in North Korea. At the 6th WPK Congress in 1980, his oldest son Kim Jong-il was elected as a Presidium member and chosen as his heir apparent to the supreme leadership.
Kim Il-sung's birthday is a public holiday in North Korea called the "Day of the Sun". In 1998, Kim Il-sung was declared "eternal President of the Republic". During his rule, North Korea was characterized as a totalitarian state with widespread human rights abuses, including mass executions and prison camps. Controversy surrounds Kim's life before the founding of North Korea, with some labeling him an impostor. Several sources indicate that the name "Kim Il-sung" had been used by a prominent early leader of the Korean resistance, Kim Kyung-cheon; the Soviet officer Grigory Mekler, who worked with Kim during the Soviet occupation, said that Kim assumed this name from a former commander who had died. However, historian Andrei Lankov has argued. Several witnesses knew Kim before and after his time in the Soviet Union, including his superior, Zhou Baozhong, who dismissed the claim of a "second" Kim in his diaries. Historian Bruce Cumings pointed out that Japanese officers from the Kwantung Army have attested to his fame as a resistance figure.
Historians accept the view that, while Kim's exploits were exaggerated by the personality cult, built around him, he was a significant guerrilla leader. He was born to Kim Kang Pan-sŏk, who gave him the name Kim Sŏng-ju. Kim's family is said to have originated from North Jeolla Province, his great-grandfather, Kim Ung-u, settled in Mangyong-dae in 1860. Kim is reported to have been born in the small village of Mangyungbong near Pyongyang on 15 April 1912. According to Kim, his family was not poor, but was always a step away from poverty. Kim said that he was raised in a Presbyterian family, that his maternal grandfather was a Protestant minister, that his father had gone to a missionary school and was an elder in the Presbyterian Church, that his parents were active in the religious community. According to the official version, Kim’s family participated in anti-Japanese activities and in 1920 they fled to Manchuria. Like most Korean families, they resented the Japanese occupation of the Korean peninsula, which began on 29 August 1910.
Another view seems to be that his family settled in Manchuria, as many Koreans had at the time to escape famine. Nonetheless, Kim's parents Kim's mother Kang Ban Suk, played a role in the anti-Japanese struggle, sweeping the peninsula, their exact involvement—whether their cause was missionary, nationalist, or both—is unclear nevertheless. Still, Japanese repression of opposition was brutal, resulting in the arrest and detention of more than 52,000 Korean citizens in 1912 alone; this repression forced many Korean families to settle in Manchuria. In October 1926 Kim founded the Down-with-Imperialism Union. Kim attended Whasung Military Academy in 1926, but finding the academy's training methods outdated, he quit in 1927. From that time, he attended Yuwen Middle School in China's Jilin province up to 1930, where he rejected the feudal traditions of older-generation Koreans and became interested in Communist ideologies.
Kaesong is a city in North Hwanghae Province in the southern part of North Korea, a former Directly Governed City and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty. The city is near the Kaesong Industrial Region close to the border with South Korea and contains the remains of the Manwoldae palace. Called Songdo while it was the ancient capital of Goryeo, the city prospered as a trade centre that produced Korean ginseng. Kaesong now functions as the DPRK's light industry centre. During the Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945, the city was known by the Japanese pronunciation of its name, "Kaijō". Between 1945 and 1950, Kaesong was part of South Korea and under its control; the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement left the city under North Korean control. It is the only city to have changed hands from South to North Korean control as a result of the armistice agreement. Due to the city's proximity to the border with South Korea, Kaesong has hosted cross-border economic exchanges between the two countries as well as the jointly run Kaesong Industrial Region.
As of 2009, the city had a population of 192,578. The earliest archaeological signs of habitation in the Kaesong area date from the Neolithic. Artifacts such as Jeulmun pottery, stone ware, stone axes have been excavated from Osongsan and Kaesong Nasong, the double-walled fortress of Kaesong; as Kaesong has been occupied by various states throughout centuries, its name has changed. It was in the realm of Mahan confederacy, was referred to as Busogap during the rule of Goguryeo. Before the strength of Baekje was retreated to the southwest of Jungnyeong, Mungyeong Saejae, Asan Bay in 475, the area had been a part of Baekje for about 100 years. However, it became a territory of Silla in 555, the 16th year of Jinheung of Silla's reign, its name was changed to Song'ak-gun during the period. According to the Samguk Sagi, when a castle was built in the site in 694, the third year of Hyoso of Silla's reign, Kaesong was referred to as "Song'ak". Therefore, it is assumed. Silla began to decline in late 9th century, a period of rival warlords ensued.
In 898, Kaesong fell under the hand of Gung Ye, the founder of his short-lived state and became a part of Goryeo in 919 by its founder, Wang Geon, enthroned as Taejo of Goryeo. Taejo established the capital in the south of Song'ak, incorporated Kaesong into Song'ak under the name of "Gaeju". In 919, Kaesong became the national capital. In 960, the 11th year of Gwangjong of Goryeo's reign, the city was renamed Gaegyeong, in 995, the 14th year of Seonjong of Goryeo's reign, it was elevated to "Gaesong-bu"; the Gaeseong-bu is a combined term of Song'ak-gun, Gaesong-gun, different from the region of the pre-1945 Gaesong-ri, Seo-myeon, Kaepung-gun. In 1010, the first year of Hyeonjong of Goryeo's reign, the palace and houses were burnt down during the second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, so in 1018, Gaesong-bu was relegated for the "bu" system, became to govern the three hyeon unites of Jeongju and Gangeum. In the late 12th century, there was instability in the countryside. A slave named Manjǒk led a group of slaves who gathered outside Kaesong in 1198.
The revolt plot was suppressed by Choe Chung-heon. When Yi Songgye overthrew Goryeo in 1392 and established the Joseon as Taejo of Joseon, he moved the Korean capital from Kaesong to Hanyang in 1394. Kaesong remained a part of Gyeonggi Province until the Korean War; when Korea was partitioned at the 38th parallel after World War II, Kaesong was on the southern side of the line. However, the battle of Kaesong-Munsan was won by the Korean People's Army in the first days of the Korean War; the city was recaptured by UN Forces on 9 October 1950 during the pursuit of the KPA that followed the successful Inchon landings. UN Forces abandoned the city 16 December 1950 during the withdrawal to the Imjin River following the Chinese People's Volunteer Army intervention in the war. Kaesong would remain under Chinese/North Korean control until the end of the war. Ceasefire negotiations began in Kaesong on 10 July 1951, but were moved to Panmunjom on 25 October 1951; the Korean Armistice Agreement signed on 27 July 1953 recognised North Korean control over Kaesong making it the only city to change control from South Korea to North Korea as a result of the war.
Postwar Kaesong and the part of Kyonggi Province that came to be occupied was organized into "Kaesong Region". In 1955, Kaesong became a "Directly Governed City". In 2002, Kaesŏng Industrial Region was formed from part of Kaesong. In 2003, the remaining part of Kaesong became part of North Hwanghae Province; the city is close to the Demilitarized Zone that divides South Korea. Located in the center of Korea, Kaesong is the southernmost city of North Korea, it is bordered by Kaepung, Changpung and Kumchon counties. Kanghwa Island of Incheon Municipality lies just south, beyond a narrow channel, it covers an area of 1,309 km ², the urban district is surrounded by Pongmyong mountains. The city center surrounds the much smaller Mt. Janam, on, located the city's iconic Kim Il Sung statue. In the northern part of Kaesong, the end of the Ahobiryŏng range creates the northernmost border of Kaesong City; this range consists of Mts. Chŏnma, Sŏnggŏ, Suryong, Chesŏk, Ogwan. With the exception of the mountainous northeastern region, most areas of Kaesong consist of low h
Nampo spelled Namp'o, is a city and seaport in South Pyongan Province, North Korea, which lies on the northern shore of the Taedong River, 15 km east of the river's mouth. Known as Chinnamp'o, it was a provincial-level "Directly Governed City" from 1980 to 2004, was designated a "Special City", in 2010, made a part of South P'yŏngan. Namp'o is 50 km southwest of P'yŏngyang, at the mouth of the Taedong River. Namp'o was a small fishing village that became a port for foreign trade in 1897, developing into a modern port in 1945 after World War II. With the rapid increase in state investment, the city's industrial capacity grew; some of the city's industrial facilities include the city's Smelter Complex, Glass Corporation, Shipbuilding Complex, Fishery Complex, other central and local factories. Namp'o is a center for the DPRK shipbuilding industry. North of the city are facilities for freight transportation, aquatic products, fishery, a sea salt factory. Apples grown in the city's Ryonggang district are a famous local product.
Namp'o is divided into 5 kuyŏk and 2 kun, which are in turn subdivided into tong and ri: The Youth Hero Motorway connects Namp'o to P'yŏngyang. Onch'ŏn Airport in Onch'ŏn-gun serves Namp'o Special City; the greater Namp'o area is densely served by the Korean State Railway, with 18 stations on the P'yŏngnam Line, the entirety of the Ryonggang Sŏhaekammun and Taean lines, one station on the Ŭllyul Line being located inside the boundaries of Namp'o-t'ŭkpyŏlsi. The West Sea Barrage of the port of Namp'o, built by erecting an 8-km long sea wall, has three lock chambers which allow the passage of ships up to 50,000 tons, 36 sluices. Namp'o Harbour is used as the primary port of call for receiving foreign food aid assistance into North Korea; the port of Namp'o has modern harbour facilities that can accommodate ships of 20,000 tonnes but is frozen during the winter. Namp'o serves as Pyongyang's port on the Yellow Sea. In 2008, the harbour received several batches of grain delivery. A South Korean-based relief organisation, Join Together Society, donated one batch of flour in October of the same year weighing 500 tons.
Institutes of higher learning in Namp'o include Namp'o University Sŏhae University Samgwang College Sunhwa College Namp'o University of Medicine Namp'o University of Agriculture Namp'o College of Shipping Industry Namp'o Building Materials College Namp'o University of Fisheries Saint Petersburg, Russia Chiautempan, Mexico Loja, Ecuador List of cities in North Korea Geography of North Korea Dormels, Rainer. North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 Korea Tourist Map North Korea Uncovered, North Korea Google Earth: labels most of Namp'o's infrastructure locations including hotels, nearby UNESCO sites, West Sea Barge, electricity grid, shipping facilities. Nampo City on YouTube North Korea – Passing through Nampo on YouTube Profiles of the cities of DPR Korea – Nampho, koreanologie.univie.ac.at.
P'yŏngsŏng is a city in North Korea, the capital city of South P'yŏngan province in western North Korea. The city is located about 32 kilometres northeast of P'yŏngyang, was formally established in December 1969, it has a population of 284,386. P'yŏngsŏng-si is divided into 20 tong and 14 ri: P'yŏngsŏng-si has two stations on the P'yŏngra Line of the Korean State Railway, one in P'yŏngsŏng-dong and one in Ponghak-tong. Due to location and good transport, P'yŏngsŏng-si is the location of many wholesale businesses importing products from China. Having been established with the idea of functioning as a center for North Korea's science and technology sectors, Pyongsong-si is the location of several colleges and research center: Pyongsong University of Science - reputed to include a nuclear physics department, the researchers of which contribute to North Korea's nuclear program; the department runs the Atomic Energy Research Institute. Pyongsong University of Medicine Space Science Research Institute Pernik, Bulgaria Dormels, Rainer.
North Korea's Cities: Industrial facilities, internal structures and typification. Jimoondang, 2014. ISBN 978-89-6297-167-5 City profile of Pyongsong
The Jurchen known by many variant names, were a tribal confederation of Tungusic and affiliated peoples, subdivided into three major groups: Jianzhou Jurchens. The Jurchen established the Jin dynasty, whose empire conquered the Northern Song in 1127, gaining control of most of North China. Jin control over China lasted until their 1234 conquest by the Mongols; the most widely-known of these peoples are the Jianzhou, who are commonly referred to as the Jurchen. In about 1630, the Jianzhou combined with their neighbors as the Manchu; the Yeren included the Nanai, Negidals and Nivkh. The Nivkh language is technically a non-Tungusic language isolate, although the Nivkh themselves share many cultural similarities with their neighbors; because the Haixi had poor relations with the Jianzhou, the Haixi were conquered and absorbed into the Manchu ethnicity. The Manchus would conquer the Ming and establish the Qing dynasty, which ruled China until Xinhai Revolution; the initial Khitan form of the name was said to be Lüzhen.
The variant Nrjo-tsyin appeared in the 10th century under the Liao dynasty. The Jurchens were interchangeably known as the Nrjo-drik; this is traditionally explained as an effect of the Chinese naming taboo, with the character 真 being removed after the 1031 enthronement of Zhigu, Emperor Xingzong of Liao, because it appeared in the sinified form of his personal name. Aisin-Gioro Ulhicun, argues that this was a folk etymology and the original reason was uncertainty among dialects regarding the name's final -n. Jurchen is an anglicization of Jurčen, an attempted reconstruction of this unattested original form of the native name, transcribed into Middle Chinese as Trjuwk-li-tsyin and into Khitan small script as Julisen; the ethnonyms Sushen and Jizhen recorded in geographical works like the Classic of Mountains and Seas and the Book of Wei are cognates. It was the source of Fra Mauro's Zorça and Marco Polo's Ciorcia, reflecting the Persian form of their name. Vajda considers that the Jurchens' name derives from the Tungusic words for "reindeer people" and is cognate with the names of the Orochs of Khabarovsk Province and the Oroks of Sakhalin.
Janhunen argues that these records reflect the Classical Mongolian plural form of the name, recorded in the Secret History as J̌ürčät, further reconstructed as *Jörcid, The modern Mongolian form is Jürčid whose medial -r- does not appear in the Jurchen Jucen or Jušen or Manchu Jushen. In Manchu, this word was more used to describe the serfs—though not slaves—of the free Manchu people, who were themselves the former Jurchens. To describe the historical people who founded the Jin dynasty, they reborrowed the Mongolian name as Jurcit. At the time of their notice by Chinese historians, the Jurchen inhabited the forests and river valleys of the land, now divided between China's Heilongjiang Province and Russia's Primorsky Krai province. In earlier records, this area was known as the home of the Sushen, the Yilou, the Wuji, the Mohe. Under the Qing and within modern scholarship, some sources stress the continuity between these earlier peoples with the Jurchen but this remains conjectural; the Tungusic Mohe tribes were subjects of the multi-ethnic kingdom of Balhae.
The Mohe enjoyed eating pork, practiced pig farming extensively, were sedentary. They used both dog skins for coats, they were predominantly farmers and grew soybean, wheat and rice in addition to hunting. By the 11th century, the Jurchens had become vassals of the Khitan rulers of the Liao dynasty; the Jurchens in the Yalu River region had been tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times out of expedience. They offered tribute to both courts out of political necessity and the attraction of material benefits. Wanyan Aguda, chief of the Wanyan tribe, unified the various Jurchen tribes in 1115 and declared himself emperor. In 1120 he seized Shangjing known as Linhuang Prefecture, the northern capital of the Liao dynasty. During the Jin–Song Wars, the Jurchens invaded the Northern Song dynasty and overran most of northern China; the Jurchens created the puppet regimes of Da Qi and Da Chu but adopted a dynastic name and became known as "Jin" 金, which means "gold", not to be confused with the earlier Jin 晋 dynasties named after the region around Shanxi and Henan provinces.
The Jin dynasty captured the Northern Song dynasty's capital, Bianjing, in 1127. Their armies pushed the Song all the way south to the Yangtze River and settled on a border with the Southern Song dynasty along the Huai River; the name of the Jurchen dynasty in Chinese — meaning "gold"—is derived from the "Gold River" in their ancestral homeland. The Jurchens who settled into urban communities intermarried with other ethnicities in China; the Jin rulers themselves came to follow Confucian norms. After 1189, the Jin dynasty became involved in conflicts with the Mongols. By 1215, after losing much territory to the Mongols, the Jurchens moved t