Quito is the capital and the largest city of Ecuador, at an elevation of 2,850 metres above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, the one, closest to the equator. It is located in the Guayllabamba river basin, on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes Mountains. In 2008, the city was designated as the headquarters of the Union of South American Nations; the historic center of Quito has one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas. Quito and Kraków, were among the first World Cultural Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO, in 1978; the central square of Quito is located about 25 kilometres south of the equator. A monument and museum marking the general location of the equator is known locally as la mitad del mundo, to avoid confusion, as the word ecuador is Spanish for equator; the oldest traces of human presence in Quito were excavated by the American archaeologist Robert E. Bell in 1960 on the slopes of the Ilaló volcano, located between the eastern valleys of Los Chillos and Tumbaco.
Hunter-gatherers left tools made of obsidian glass dated back to 8000 BC. The archaeological site herein designated by the name of EI Inga was brought to the attention of Bell by Allen Graffham. While employed as a geologist in Ecuador, Mr. Graffham followed his amateur archaeological interest, he made surface collections at the site during 1956; the discovery of projectile points specimens exhibiting basal fluting, stimulated his interest, several visits were made to the site for collecting surface materials. Graffham's previous interest in Paleo-Indian remains and his experience with early man materials found in Kansas and Nebraska in the Central Plains led him to believe that the site was an important discovery; the second important vestige of human presence was found in the current neighborhood of Cotocollao, located in the NW of Quito. The prehistoric village covered over 26 hectares in an area irrigated by many creeks. Near the rectangular there are burials with pottery and stone offerings.
The Cotocollao people exported obsidian to the coastal region. Indigenous resistance to the Spanish invasion continued during 1534, with the conquistador Diego de Almagro founding Santiago de Quito on August 15, 1534 to be renamed San Francisco de Quito on August 28, 1534; the city was moved to its present location and was refounded on 6 December 1534 by 204 settlers led by Sebastián de Benalcázar, who captured Rumiñahui and ended any organized resistance. Rumiñahui was executed on January 10, 1535. On March 28, 1541, Quito was declared a city and on February 23, 1556, was given the title Muy Noble y Muy Leal Ciudad de San Francisco de Quito, starting at this point its urban evolution. In 1563, Quito became the seat of a Real Audiencia of Spain and became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru, until 1717 after the Audiencia was part of a newly created Viceroyalty of Nueva Granada, its administration on both Viceroyalties remained to Quito. The Spanish established Roman Catholicism in Quito; the first church was in fact built before the city had been founded.
In January 1535, the San Francisco Convent was constructed, the first of about 20 churches and convents built during the colonial period. The Spanish converted the indigenous population to Christianity and used them as labor for construction. In 1743, after nearly 300 years of Spanish colonization, Quito was a city of about 10,000 inhabitants. On August 10, 1809, an independence movement from Spanish domination started in Quito. On that date, a plan for government was established that placed Juan Pío Montúfar as president with various other prominent figures in other positions of government. However, this initial movement was defeated on August 2, 1810, when colonial troops came from Lima, killing the leaders of the uprising along with about 200 settlers. A chain of conflicts concluded on May 24, 1822, when Antonio José de Sucre, under the command of Simón Bolívar, led troops into the Battle of Pichincha, their victory marked the independence of the surrounding areas. In 1833, members of the Society of Free Inhabitants of Quito were assassinated by the government after they conspired against it, on March 6, 1845, the Marcist Revolution began.
In 1875, the country's president, Gabriel García Moreno, was assassinated in Quito. Two years in 1877, Archbishop José Ignacio Checa y Barba was killed by poisoning while he was celebrating Mass. In 1882, insurgents arose against the regime of dictator Ignacio de Veintimilla. However, this did not end the violence, occurring throughout the country. On July 9, 1883, the liberal commander Eloy Alfaro participated in the Battle of Guayaquil, after more conflict, became the president of Ecuador on September 4, 1895. Upon completing his second term in 1911, he moved to Europe; when he returned to Ecuador in 1912 and attempted a return to power, he was arrested on January 28, 1912. His body was dragged through the streets of Quito to a city park. In 1932, the Four Days' War broke out; this was a civil war that followed the election of Neptalí Bonifaz and the subsequent realization that he carried a Peruvian passport. On February 12, 1949, a realistic broadcast of H. G. Wells' nove
Thomas W. Lamb
Thomas White Lamb was an American architect, born in Scotland. He is noted as one of the foremost designers of cinemas in the 20th century. Born in Dundee, United Kingdom, Thomas W. Lamb came to the United States at the age of 12, he studied architecture at Cooper Union in New York and worked for the City of New York as an inspector. His architecture firm, Thomas W. Lamb, Inc. was located at 36 West 40th Street in Manhattan, New York. Lamb achieved recognition as one of the leading architects of the boom in movie theater construction of the 1910s and 1920s. Associated with the Fox Theatres, Loew's Theatres and Keith-Albee chains of vaudeville and film theaters, Lamb was instrumental in establishing and developing the design and construction of the large, lavishly decorated theaters, known as "movie palaces", as showcases for the films of the emerging Hollywood studios, his first theater design was the City Theatre, built in New York in 1909 for film mogul William Fox. His designs for the 1914 Mark Strand Theatre, the 1916 Rialto Theatre and the 1917 Rivoli Theatre, all in New York's Times Square, set the template for what would become the American movie palace.
Among his most notable theaters are the 1929 Fox Theatre in San Francisco and the 1919 Capitol Theatre in New York, both now demolished. Among his most noted designs that have been preserved and restored are the B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre in Boston, Warner's Hollywood Theatre in New York, the Hippodrome Theatre in Baltimore, the Loew's Ohio Theatre in Columbus, Ohio. Among Lamb's Canadian theaters that have been preserved are the Pantages Theatre in Toronto, and Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres. The Cinema Treasures website, which documents the history of film theaters, lists 174 theaters designed by Lamb's company. Aside from movie theaters, Lamb is noted for designing New York's Ziegfeld Theatre, a legitimate theater, as well as the third Madison Square Garden and the Paramount Hotel in midtown Manhattan. Lamb died in 1942 in New York City at the age of 71, his architectural archive is held by the Drawings and Archives Department of Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library at Columbia University.
During the last ten years of his practice, Lamb's associate was the architect John J. McNamara. After Lamb's death, McNamara continued as an architect of theaters under his own name. McNamara was responsible for renovating some of Lamb's older New York theaters, among his original designs was one for the 1969 Ziegfeld Theatre in Manhattan, which replaced Lamb's original building. Academy of Music, New York City, 1927 B. F. Keith Memorial Theatre, Massachusetts, 1928 Capitol Theatre, New York City, 1919 Capitol Theatre, Port Chester, New York, 1926 Cort Theatre, New York City, 1912 Eltinge 42nd Street Theatre, New York City, 1912 Fenway Theatre, Boston, 1915 Fox Theatre, San Francisco, California, 1929 Franklin Square Theatre, Massachusetts, 1927 Hippodrome Theatre, Maryland, 1914 Hippodrome, New York City, 1923 redesign Keith-Albee Theatre, Queens, New York, 1928 Keith-Albee Theatre, West Virginia, 1928 Keith-Albee Palace Theatre, Ohio, 1926 Keith-Albee Palace Theatre, Connecticut, 1927 Lincoln Theatre, Miami Beach, Florida, 1936 Loew's 72nd Street Theatre, New York City, 1930 Loew's 175th Street Theater, New York City, 1930 Loew's and United Artists' Ohio Theatre, Ohio, 1928 Loew's Grand Theatre, Georgia, 1932 redesign Loew's Midland Theatre, Kansas City, Missouri, 1927 Loew's Pitkin Theatre, New York, 1928 Loew's State Theatre, Playhouse Square, Ohio, 1920 Loew's State Theatre, Virginia, 1926 Loew's State Theatre, Times Square, New York City, 1924 Loew's State Theatre, New Orleans, Louisiana, 1926 Loew's Theatre, New Rochelle, New York,1925 Loew's State Theatre, New York, 1928 Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1925 Madison Theater, New York, 1929 Mark Strand Theater, New York City, 1914 Maryland Theatre, Maryland, 1915 Municipal Auditorium, Alabama, 1924 Ohio Theatre, Playhouse Square, Ohio, 1921 Orpheum Theatre, Massachusetts, 1915 redesign Palace Theater, Connecticut, 1922 Poli's Majestic Theatre, Connecticut, 1922 Poli's Palace Theatre, Connecticut, 1922 Pythian Temple, Manhattan, 1927, the spacious theater the building once housed is gone.
Proctor's 58th Street Theatre, New York City, 1928 Proctor's 86th Street Theatre, New York City, 1927 Proctor's Theatre, New York, 1926 Reade’s State Theatre, New Brunswick, New Jersey, 1921 Regent Theatre, New York City, 1913 Ridgewood Theatre, New York, 1916 Rivoli Theatre, New York City, 1917 Stanley Theatre, New York, 1928 State Theatre, Pennsylvania, 1922 Strand Theatre, New Jersey, 1922 Tivoli Theatre, Washington, DC, 1924 Victoria Theater, New York City, 1917 Warner Theatre, Connecticut, 1931 Warner's Hollywood Theatre, New York City, 1930 Ziegfeld Theatre, New York City, 1927 Elgin and Winter Garden Theatres, Toronto, 1913 The Sanderson Centre, Ontario, 1919. Pantages Theatre, Ontario, 1920 Uptown Theatre, Ontario, 1920.
Ecuador the Republic of Ecuador, is a country in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, the Pacific Ocean to the west. Ecuador includes the Galápagos Islands in the Pacific, about 1,000 kilometres west of the mainland; the capital city is Quito, the largest city. What is now Ecuador was home to a variety of Amerindian groups that were incorporated into the Inca Empire during the 15th century; the territory was colonized by Spain during the 16th century, achieving independence in 1820 as part of Gran Colombia, from which it emerged as its own sovereign state in 1830. The legacy of both empires is reflected in Ecuador's ethnically diverse population, with most of its 16.4 million people being mestizos, followed by large minorities of European and African descendants. Spanish is the official language and is spoken by a majority of the population, though 13 Amerindian languages are recognized, including Quichua and Shuar; the sovereign state of Ecuador is a middle-income representative democratic republic with a developing economy, dependent on commodities, namely petroleum and agricultural products.
It is governed as a democratic presidential republic. One of 18 megadiverse countries in the world, Ecuador hosts many endemic plants and animals, such as those of the Galápagos Islands. In recognition of its unique ecological heritage, the new constitution of 2008 is the first in the world to recognize enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights, it has the fifth lowest homicide rate in the Americas. Various peoples had settled in the area of the future Ecuador before the arrival of the Incas; the archeological evidence suggests that the Paleo-Indians' first dispersal into the Americas occurred near the end of the last glacial period, around 16,500–13,000 years ago. The first Indians who reached Ecuador may have journeyed by land from North and Central America or by boat down the Pacific Ocean coastline. Much migrations to Ecuador may have come via the Amazon tributaries, others descended from northern South America, others ascended from the southern part of South America through the Andes.
They developed different languages while emerging as unique ethnic groups. Though their languages were unrelated, these groups developed similar groups of cultures, each based in different environments; the people of the coast developed a fishing and gathering culture. Over time these groups began to interact and intermingle with each other so that groups of families in one area became one community or tribe, with a similar language and culture. Many civilizations arose in Ecuador, such as the Valdivia Culture and Machalilla Culture on the coast, the Quitus, the Cañari; each civilization developed its own distinctive architecture and religious interests. In the highland Andes mountains, where life was more sedentary, groups of tribes cooperated and formed villages. Through wars and marriage alliances of their leaders, a group of nations formed confederations. One region consolidated under a confederation called the Shyris, which exercised organized trading and bartering between the different regions.
Its political and military power came under the rule of the Duchicela blood-line. When the Incas arrived, they found that these confederations were so developed that it took the Incas two generations of rulers—Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac—to absorb them into the Inca Empire; the native confederations that gave them the most problems were deported to distant areas of Peru and north Argentina. A number of loyal Inca subjects from Peru and Bolivia were brought to Ecuador to prevent rebellion. Thus, the region of highland Ecuador became part of the Inca Empire in 1463 sharing the same language. In contrast, when the Incas made incursions into coastal Ecuador and the eastern Amazon jungles of Ecuador, they found both the environment and indigenous people more hostile. Moreover, when the Incas tried to subdue them, these indigenous people withdrew to the interior and resorted to guerrilla tactics; as a result, Inca expansion into the Amazon Basin and the Pacific coast of Ecuador was hampered.
The indigenous people of the Amazon jungle and coastal Ecuador remained autonomous until the Spanish soldiers and missionaries arrived in force. The Amazonian people and the Cayapas of Coastal Ecuador were the only groups to resist Inca and Spanish domination, maintaining their language and culture well into the 21st century. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the Inca Empire was involved in a civil war; the untimely death of both the heir Ninan Cuchi and the Emperor Huayna Capac, from a European disease that spread into Ecuador, created a power vacuum between two factions. The northern faction headed by Atahualpa claims that Huayna Capac gave a verbal decree before his death about how the empire should be divided, he gave the territories pertaining to present-day Ecuador and northern Peru to his favorite son Atahualpa, to rule from Quito. He willed that his heart be buried in Quito, his favorite city, the rest of his body be buried with his ancestors in Cuzco. Huáscar did not recognize his fa
Philadelphia Stock Exchange
Philadelphia Stock Exchange, now known as NASDAQ OMX PHLX, is the oldest stock exchange in the United States. It is now owned by The NASDAQ OMX Group. Founded in 1790, the exchange was named the Board of Brokers of Philadelphia referred to as the Philadelphia Board of Brokers. In 1875, the Board of Brokers changed its name to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange; the exchange merged with the Baltimore Stock Exchange in 1949 and was named the Philadelphia-Baltimore Stock Exchange. It merged with the Washington Stock Exchange in 1954, becoming known as the Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange. In 1969, the exchange acquired the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange. In 2007, PHLX was purchased by NASDAQ for $652 million. Over its 200 years the exchange has had various titles and has been located in various buildings around Philadelphia. Founded in 1790 as the "Board of Brokers," it was located at the Merchants Coffee House, now known as the City Tavern, at the corner of Second and Walnut Streets. In 1831, Stephen Girard’s Bank had formed the "Philadelphia Merchant’s Exchange Company" to erect a new building to house the Board of Brokers and other groups.
The Board of Brokers moved into the Merchants Exchange Building at 3rd and Dock Streets in 1834 following a fire at the coffee house. On June 20, 1857, the Board of Brokers of Philadelphia transacted no business in the stock board, as their annual dinner was held that day; as of January 1, 1874, the par price for membership in the Philadelphia Board of Brokers was $1,000, with 198 seats, "not others are attainable under $2,000 each." The board represented a market capital of around $350,000. In 1875, the Board of Brokers changed its name to the Philadelphia Stock Exchange. In 1876, the exchange moved to the rear of the Girard Bank Building the First Bank of the United States, it stayed there until 1888. From 1888 to 1902, the exchange moved to the Drexel Building, located near Fifth Street and Chestnut. Between 1902 and 1912, the exchange returned to the Merchants Exchange Building. In 1913, it moved to a building at 1411 Walnut Street, now a national landmark. In 1951, the exchange moved to the Central Penn Bank Building at 1401 Walnut Street.
It stayed there until 1966 when it moved to a newly constructed building at Sansom. The 1700 block of Ionic Street, a narrow thoroughfare just north of this building, was renamed Stock Exchange Place and was still signed as such as of 2017. In December 1968, in response to a fiscal crisis, Philadelphia imposed a $0.05 per share stock transfer tax for all transactions on the PHLX. On January 2, 1969, the PHLX moved its trading floor to an office building known as the Decker Building, just across a street from the city boundaries in Bala Cynwyd to avoid the tax. In February, a court ruled that the tax was illegal, the PHLX moved its trading floor back to its headquarters in the city. In 1981, the exchange moved to 19th and Market, where it stayed until 2017 when it moved to its current location in the newly built FMC Tower; the exchange merged with the Baltimore Stock Exchange in 1949. The exchange was named the Philadelphia-Baltimore Stock Exchange; the Baltimore Stock Exchange migrated out of its Baltimore Stock Exchange Building renamed the Totman Building, to a new home base in Philadelphia.
The exchange merged with the Washington Stock Exchange in 1954. The exchange was known as the Philadelphia-Baltimore-Washington Stock Exchange after those mergers. In 1969, the exchange acquired the Pittsburgh Stock Exchange, maintained an auxiliary trading floor in Pittsburgh until 1974. On October 22, 1981, trading was halted on both the Chicago Board of Trade and the Philadelphia Stock Exchange after anonymous callers said bombs had been placed in those buildings. In 2005, a number of large financial firms purchased stakes in the exchange as a hedge against growing consolidation of stock trading by the New York Stock Exchange and Nasdaq; these firms—Morgan Stanley, Credit Suisse First Boston, UBS, Merrill Lynch and Citadel LLC—collectively owned about 89% of the exchange. On October 20, 2007, The Wall Street Journal reported that the exchange was for sale by a group of its shareholders, was expected to be sold for about $600 million. On November 7, 2007, NASDAQ announced a "definitive agreement" to purchase PHLX for $652 million, with the transaction expected to close in early 2008.
On July 24, 2008, the acquisition was completed, creating the third-largest options market in the U. S; as of 2014, the exchange handles trades for 3,600 equity options, 15 index options, a number of FX options. The PHLX has more than 16% of United States market share in exchange-listed stock and ETF options trading; the exchange's normal trading sessions are from 9:30 am to 4:00 pm on all days of the week except Saturdays and holidays declared by the exchange in advance. Merchants' Exchange Building Philadelphia Bourse List of stock exchanges List of stock exchanges in the Americas List of stock exchange mergers in the Americas Domenic Vitiello with George E. Thomas; the Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the City It Made 256 pages Book Review of The Philadelphia Stock Exchange and the City It Made: http://planphilly.com/book-review-philly-stock-exchange-and-city-it-left-unfinished NASDAQ OMX U. S. Options Main Page PHLX Officers Article on PHLX history and sale NASDAQ OMX Group to Complete Acquisition of The Philadelphia Stock Exchange The Philadelphia Stock Exchange Papers, documenting the history and activities of the exchange from 1746–2005, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania
St. Joseph's House for Homeless Industrious Boys
St. Joseph's House for Homeless Industrious Boys is a historic charity building at 1511 and 1515-1527 West Allegheny Avenue in the Nicetown-Tioga neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it was designed by the Philadelphia architectural firm of Hoffman-Henon and built in 1929. It was added to the National Register in 1996
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which combines instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as the violin, viola and double bass, brass instruments such as the horn, trumpet and tuba, woodwinds such as the flute, oboe and bassoon, percussion instruments such as the timpani, bass drum, snare drum and cymbals, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called philharmonic orchestra; the actual number of musicians employed in a given performance may vary from seventy to over one hundred musicians, depending on the work being played and the size of the venue. The term chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles of about fifty musicians or fewer. Orchestras that specialize in the Baroque music of, for example, Johann Sebastian Bach and George Frideric Handel, or Classical repertoire, such as that of Haydn and Mozart, tend to be smaller than orchestras performing a Romantic music repertoire, such as the symphonies of Johannes Brahms.
The typical orchestra grew in size throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, reaching a peak with the large orchestras called for in the works of Richard Wagner, Gustav Mahler. Orchestras are led by a conductor who directs the performance with movements of the hands and arms made easier for the musicians to see by use of a conductor's baton; the conductor sets the tempo and shapes the sound of the ensemble. The conductor prepares the orchestra by leading rehearsals before the public concert, in which the conductor provides instructions to the musicians on their interpretation of the music being performed; the leader of the first violin section called the concertmaster plays an important role in leading the musicians. In the Baroque music era, orchestras were led by the concertmaster or by a chord-playing musician performing the basso continuo parts on a harpsichord or pipe organ, a tradition that some 20th century and 21st century early music ensembles continue. Orchestras play a wide range of repertoire, including symphonies and ballet overtures, concertos for solo instruments, as pit ensembles for operas and some types of musical theatre.
Amateur orchestras include those made up of students from an elementary school or a high school, youth orchestras, community orchestras. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα, the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus; the typical symphony orchestra consists of four groups of related musical instruments called the woodwinds, brass and strings. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes be grouped into a fifth section such as a keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and electric and electronic instruments; the orchestra, depending on the size, contains all of the standard instruments in each group. In the history of the orchestra, its instrumentation has been expanded over time agreed to have been standardized by the classical period and Ludwig van Beethoven's influence on the classical model. In the 20th and 21st century, new repertory demands expanded the instrumentation of the orchestra, resulting in a flexible use of the classical-model instruments and newly developed electric and electronic instruments in various combinations.
The terms symphony orchestra and philharmonic orchestra may be used to distinguish different ensembles from the same locality, such as the London Symphony Orchestra and the London Philharmonic Orchestra. A symphony orchestra will have over eighty musicians on its roster, in some cases over a hundred, but the actual number of musicians employed in a particular performance may vary according to the work being played and the size of the venue. Chamber orchestra refers to smaller-sized ensembles; the term concert orchestra may be used, as in the BBC Concert Orchestra and the RTÉ Concert Orchestra. The so-called "standard complement" of doubled winds and brass in the orchestra from the first half of the 19th century is attributed to the forces called for by Beethoven; the composer's instrumentation always included paired flutes, clarinets, bassoons and trumpets. The exceptions to this are his Symphony No. 4, Violin Concerto, Piano Concerto No. 4, which each specify a single flute. Beethoven calculated the expansion of this particular timbral "palette" in Symphonies 3, 5, 6, 9 for an innovative effect.
The third horn in the "Eroica" Symphony arrives to provide not only some harmonic flexibility, but the effect of "choral" brass in the Trio movement. Piccolo and trombones add to the triumphal finale of his Symphony No. 5. A piccolo and a pair of trombones help deliver the effect of storm and sunshine in the Sixth known as the Pastoral Symphony; the Ninth asks for a second pair of horns, for reasons similar to the "Eroica".
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound. In silent films for entertainment, the plot may be conveyed by the use of title cards, written indications of the plot and key dialogue lines; the idea of combining motion pictures with recorded sound is nearly as old as film itself, but because of the technical challenges involved, the introduction of synchronized dialogue became practical only in the late 1920s with the perfection of the Audion amplifier tube and the advent of the Vitaphone system. During the silent-film era that existed from the mid-1890s to the late 1920s, a pianist, theater organist—or in large cities, a small orchestra—would play music to accompany the films. Pianists and organists would play either from improvisation; the term silent film is a retronym—a term created to retroactively distinguish something. Early sound films, starting with The Jazz Singer in 1927, were variously referred to as the "talkies," "sound films," or "talking pictures." Within a decade, the widespread production of silent films for popular entertainment had ceased, the industry had moved into the sound era, in which movies were accompanied by synchronized sound recordings of spoken dialogue and sound effects.
Most early motion pictures are considered lost because the nitrate film used in that era was unstable and flammable. Additionally, many films were deliberately destroyed because they had little value in the era before home video, it has been claimed that around 75 percent of silent films have been lost, though these estimates may be inaccurate due to a lack of numerical data. The earliest precursors to film began with image projection through the use of a device known as the magic lantern, which utilized a glass lens, a shutter, a persistent light source to project images from glass slides onto a wall; these slides were hand-painted, after the advent of photography in the 19th century, still photographs were sometimes used. Thus the invention of a practical photography apparatus preceded cinema by only fifty years; the next significant step toward the invention of cinema was the development of an understanding of image movement. Simulations of movement date as far back as to 1828—only four years after Paul Roget discovered the phenomenon he called "Persistence of Vision."
Roget showed that when a series of still images is shown at a considerable speed in front of a viewer's eye, the images merge into one registered image that appears to show movement. This is an optical illusion, since the image is not moving; this experience was further demonstrated through Roget's introduction of the thaumatrope, a device that spun at a high speed a disk with an image on its surface. The three features necessary for motion pictures to work were "a camera with sufficiently high shutter speed, a filmstrip capable of taking multiple exposures swiftly, means of projecting the developed images on a screen." The first projected proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge between 1877 and 1880. Muybridge set up a row of cameras along a racetrack and timed image exposures to capture the many stages of a horse's gallop; the oldest surviving film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888. It was a two-second film of people walking in "Oakwood streets" garden, titled Roundhay Garden Scene.
The development of American inventor Thomas Edison's Kinetograph, a photographic device that captured sequential images, his Kinetoscope, a device for viewing those images, allowed for the creation and exhibition of short films. Edison made a business of selling Kinetograph and Kinetoscope equipment, which laid the foundation for widespread film production. Due to Edison's lack of securing an international patent on his film inventions, similar devices were "invented" around the world. In France, for example and Louis Lumière created the Cinématographe, which proved to be a more portable and practical device than both of Edison's as it combined a camera, film processor, projector in one unit. In contrast to Edison's "peepshow"-style kinetoscope, which only one person could watch through a viewer, the cinematograph allowed simultaneous viewing by multiple people, their first film, Sortie de l'usine Lumière de Lyon, shot in 1894, is considered the first true motion picture. The invention of celluloid film, strong and flexible facilitated the making of motion pictures.
This film was 35 mm wide and was pulled using four sprocket holes, which became the industry standard. This doomed the cinematograph; the art of motion pictures grew into full maturity in the "silent era". The height of the silent era was a fruitful period, full of artistic innovation; the film movements of Classical Hollywood as well as French Impressionism, German Expressionism, Soviet Montage began in this period. Silent filmmakers pioneered the art form to the extent that every style and genre of film-making of the 20th and 21st centuries has its artistic roots in the silent era; the silent era was a pioneering one from a technical point of view. Three-point lighting, the close-up, long shot and continuity editing all became prevalent long before silent films were replaced by "talking pictures" or "talkies" in the late 1920s; some scholars claim that the artistic quality of cinema decreased for several years, during the early 1930s, until film directors and production staff adapted to the new "talkies" around the late 1930s.