AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas. It is the world's largest telecommunications company, the second largest provider of mobile telephone services, the largest provider of fixed telephone services in the United States through AT&T Communications. Since June 14, 2018, it is the parent company of mass media conglomerate WarnerMedia, making it the world's largest media and entertainment company in terms of revenue; as of 2018, AT&T is ranked #9 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. AT&T began its history as Southwestern Bell Telephone Company, a subsidiary of the Bell Telephone Company, founded by Alexander Graham Bell in 1880; the Bell Telephone Company evolved into American Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1885, which rebranded as AT&T Corporation. The 1982 United States v. AT&T antitrust lawsuit resulted in the divestiture of AT&T Corporation's subsidiaries or Regional Bell Operating Companies, resulting in several independent companies including Southwestern Bell Corporation.
In 2005, SBC purchased its former parent AT&T Corporation and took on its branding, with the merged entity naming itself AT&T Inc. and using its iconic logo and stock-trading symbol. In 2006, AT&T Inc. acquired BellSouth, the last independent Baby Bell company, making their joint venture Cingular Wireless wholly owned and rebranding it as AT&T Mobility. The current AT&T reconstitutes much of the former Bell System, includes ten of the original 22 Bell Operating Companies along with the original long distance division. AT&T can trace its origin back to the original Bell Telephone Company founded by Alexander Graham Bell after his patenting of the telephone. One of that company's subsidiaries was American Telephone and Telegraph Company, established in 1885, which acquired the Bell Company on December 31, 1899, for legal reasons, leaving AT&T as the main company. AT&T established a network of subsidiaries in the United States and Canada that held a government-authorized phone service monopoly, formalized with the Kingsbury Commitment, throughout most of the twentieth century.
This monopoly was known as the Bell System, during this period, AT&T was known by the nickname Ma Bell. For periods of time, the former AT&T was the world's largest phone company. In 1982, U. S. regulators broke up the AT&T monopoly, requiring AT&T to divest its regional subsidiaries and turning them each into individual companies. These new companies were known as Regional Bell Operating Companies, or more informally, Baby Bells. AT&T continued to operate long distance services, but as a result of this breakup, faced competition from new competitors such as MCI and Sprint. Southwestern Bell was one of the companies created by the breakup of AT&T Corp; the architect of divestiture for Southwestern Bell was Robert G. Pope; the company soon started a series of acquisitions. This includes the 1987 acquisition of Metromedia mobile business and the acquisition of several cable companies in the early 1990s. In the half of the 1990s, the company acquired several other telecommunications companies, including some Baby Bells, while selling its cable business.
During this time, the company changed its name to SBC Communications. By 1998, the company was in the top 15 of the Fortune 500, by 1999 the company was part of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. In 2005, SBC purchased AT&T for $16 billion. After this purchase, SBC adopted the better-known AT&T name and brand, with the original AT&T Corp. still existing as the long-distance landline subsidiary of the merged company. The current AT&T claims the original AT&T Corp.'s history as its own, though its corporate structure only dates from 1983. It retains SBC's pre-2005 stock price history, all regulatory filings prior to 2005 are for Southwestern Bell/SBC, not AT&T Corp. In September 2013, AT&T Inc. announced it would expand into Latin America through a collaboration with América Móvil. In December 2013, AT&T announced plans to sell its Connecticut wireline operations to Stamford-based Frontier Communications. AT&T purchased the Mexican carrier Iusacell in late 2014, two months purchased the Mexican wireless business of NII Holdings, merging the two companies to create AT&T Mexico.
In July 2015, AT&T purchased DirecTV for $48.5 billion, or $67.1 billion including assumed debt, subject to certain conditions. AT&T subsequently announced plans to converge its existing U-verse home internet and IPTV brands with DirecTV, to create AT&T Entertainment. In an effort to increase its media holdings, on October 22, 2016, AT&T announced a deal to buy Time Warner for $108.7 billion. AT&T owns a 2% stake in Canadian-domiciled entertainment company Lionsgate. On July 13, 2017, it was reported that AT&T would introduce a cloud-based DVR streaming service as part of its effort to create a unified platform across DirecTV and its DirecTV Now streaming service, with U-verse to be added soon. In October 2018, it was announced that the service Is set to launch in 2019On September 12, 2017, it was reported that AT&T planned to launch a new cable TV-like service for delivery over-the-top over its own or a competitor's broadband network sometime next year. On November 20, 2017, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim filed a lawsuit for the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division to block the merger with Time Warner, saying it "will harm competition, result in higher bills for consumers and less innovation."
In order for AT&T to acquire Time Warner, the Department of Justice stated that the company must
Target Corporation is the eighth-largest retailer in the United States, is a component of the S&P 500 Index. Founded by George Dayton and headquartered in Minneapolis, the company was named Goodfellow Dry Goods in June 1902 before being renamed the Dayton's Dry Goods Company in 1903 and the Dayton Company in 1910; the first Target store opened in Roseville, Minnesota in 1962 while the parent company was renamed the Dayton Corporation in 1967. It became the Dayton-Hudson Corporation after merging with the J. L. Hudson Company in 1969 and held ownership of several department store chains including Dayton's, Hudson's, Marshall Field's, Mervyn's. Target established itself as the highest-earning division of the Dayton-Hudson Corporation in the 1970s; the company has found success as a cheap-chic player in the industry. The parent company was renamed the Target Corporation in 2000 and divested itself of its last department store chains in 2004, it suffered from a massive and publicized security breach of customer credit card data and the failure of its short-lived Target Canada subsidiary in the early 2010s but experienced revitalized success with its expansion in urban markets within the United States.
As of February 2, 2019, Target operates 1,844 stores throughout the United States. The company is ranked No. 39 on the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Their retail formats include the discount store Target, the hypermarket SuperTarget, "flexible format" stores named CityTarget and TargetExpress before being consolidated under the Target branding. Target is recognized for its emphasis on "the needs of its younger, image-conscious shoppers", whereas its rival Walmart more relies on its strategy of "always low prices"; the Westminster Presbyterian Church in downtown Minneapolis burned down during the Panic of 1893. Without insurance coverage to cover the financial loss, the congregation found itself unable to rebuild; the church appealed to parishioner George Dayton to purchase an empty corner lot adjacent to the original church in its possession. Dayton convinced the Reuben Simon Goodfellow Company to move its nearby Goodfellows department store into the newly erected building in 1902, although its owner retired altogether and sold his interest in the store to Dayton.
The store was renamed the Dayton Dry Goods Company in 1903, was shortened to the Dayton Company in 1910. The company made its first expansion with the acquisition of the Minneapolis-based jeweler J. B. Hudson & Son right before the Wall Street Crash of 1929. Dayton died in 1938 and was succeeded by his son Nelson as the president of the $14 million business. Nelson died in 1950 and was replaced by his own son Donald, who with his cousins replaced the Presbyterian guidelines set by his predecessors with a more secular approach; the company acquired the Lipman's department store company during the 1950s and operated it as a separate division. John F. Geisse developed the concept of upscale discount retailing while working for the Dayton Company. Using his concepts, the company opened its first Target discount store at 1515 West County Road B in the Saint Paul suburb of Roseville, Minnesota; the name "Target" originated from publicity director Stewart K. Widdess, was intended to prevent consumers from associating the discount store with the department store.
It opened three additional units in the first year, reported its first gain in 1965 with sales reaching $39 million. That decade, B. Dalton Bookseller was formed as a subsidiary of the Dayton Company; the parent company acquired the jewelers Shreve & Co. and J. E. Caldwell, the Pickwick Book Shops, the electronics and appliances chain Lechmere, it went public with its first offering of common stock, built its first distribution center in Fridley, Minnesota. In 1969, the Dayton Company itself merged with the Detroit-based J. L. Hudson Company, together formed the Dayton-Hudson Corporation; the new company, at the time the 14th-largest retailer in the United States, consisted of Target and the department stores Dayton's, Diamond's, Hudson's, John A. Brown, Lipman's. Target reached $200 million in sales while Dayton-Hudson acquired Team Electronics and the jewelers C. D. Peacock, Inc. and Jessop and Sons in the 1970s. Target reported a decrease in profits in 1972, due to the rapid pace of expansion with the purchase and conversion of several former Arlan's department store locations.
New management marked down merchandise to reduce its overstock and only opened one new location that year, Target became Dayton-Hudson's top revenue producer in 1975. Dayton-Hudson was established as the seventh-largest general merchandise retailer in the United States with its acquisition of Mervyn's in 1978. Dayton-Hudson sold Lipman's to Marshall Field's and acquired the discount store chain Ayr-Way in 1980, expanded into the West Coast market with the purchase and conversion of several FedMart stores in 1982, it sold the Dayton-Hudson Jewelers subsidiary to Henry Sons of Montreal. The company founded the Plums off-price clothing store with four locations in the Los Angeles area in 1983. In 1985, the company started R. G. Branden's, a chain that
Serta is an American company based in Hoffman Estates, Illinois that specializes in developing and manufacturing mattresses. It was founded in 1931 in Illinois as Sleeper, Inc. by 13 mattress manufacturers who licensed the Serta name. Afterwards, it was controlled and operated as Serta International by its largest licensee, National Bedding Company. In 2005, two private equity groups teamed up to purchase National Bedding Co.--The Ares Corporate Opportunities Fund, the Los Angeles-based private equity fund of Ares Management. The American company Serta International is a subsidiary of the American company Serta Simmons Holdings LLC. Other licensees include Serta Dormae in Texas, Serta Restokraft in Michigan, Salt Lake Mattress in Utah. Serta is the largest mattress brand in the United States, offers four main types of mattresses - traditional inner spring, gel-infused memory foam, hybrid mattresses which combine both, the Salt Lake City plant produces a Talalay Latex collection. Serta products are used extensively in the lodging industry, with Hilton Worldwide and Wyndham Worldwide among its customers.
Serta mattresses are offered on cable home shopping channel ShopNBC. In August 2018, Serta Simmons Holdings LLC announced a merger with online retailer Needle; the company is famous for its "Counting Sheep" advertising campaign which were animated by Aardman Animations and first created in 2000. Bedding Bed Futon Serta website
The Willis Tower, built as and still referred to as the Sears Tower, is a 110-story, 1,450-foot skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At completion in 1973, it surpassed the World Trade Center in New York to become the tallest building in the world, a title it held for nearly 25 years; the building is considered a seminal achievement for architect Fazlur Rahman Khan. The Willis Tower is the second-tallest building in the United States and the Western hemisphere – and the 16th-tallest in the world. More than one million people visit its observation deck each year, making it one of Chicago's most popular tourist destinations; the structure was renamed in 2009 by the Willis Group as a term of its lease. As of April 2018, the building's largest tenant is United Airlines, which moved its corporate headquarters from the United Building at 77 West Wacker Drive in 2012, occupying around 20 floors. Other major tenants include the building's namesake Willis Group and law firms Schiff Hardin and Seyfarth Shaw.
Morgan Stanley plans to move to the building in 2019 and become its fourth-largest tenant by 2020. In 1969, Roebuck & Co. was the largest retailer in the world, with about 350,000 employees. Sears executives decided to consolidate the thousands of employees in offices distributed throughout the Chicago area into one building on the western edge of Chicago's Loop. Sears asked its outside counsel, Gluck, Weitzenfeld & Minow to suggest a location; the firm consulted with local and federal authorities and the applicable law offered Sears two options: the Goose Island area northwest of downtown, a two-block area bounded by Franklin Street on the east, Jackson Boulevard on the south, Wacker Drive on the west and Adams Street on the north, with Quincy Street running through the middle from east to west. After selection of the latter site, permits to vacate Quincy Street were obtained. Attorneys from the Arnstein firm, headed by Andrew Adsit, began buying the properties parcel by parcel. Sears purchased 15 old buildings from 100 owners and paid $2.7 million to the City of Chicago for the portion of Quincy Street the project absorbed.
Sears, which needed 3,000,000 square feet of office space for its planned consolidation and predicted growth, commissioned architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Their team of architect Bruce Graham and structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan designed the building as nine square "tubes", clustered in a 3×3 matrix forming a square base with 225-foot sides. All nine tubes would rise up to the 50th floor of the building, where the northwest and southeast tubes terminate; the northeast and southwest tubes reach the 66th floor. The remaining west and center tubes reach 108 floors; the Sears Tower was the first building to use this innovative design. It was both structurally efficient and economic: at 1,450 feet, it provided more space and rose higher than the Empire State Building and cost much less per unit area; the system would prove influential in skyscraper construction and has been used in most supertall buildings since, including the world's current tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. To honor Khan's contributions, the Structural Engineers Association of Illinois commissioned a sculpture of him for the lobby of the Willis Tower.
Sears decided to focus their initial occupancy on housing their merchandise group, renting out the remaining space to other tenants until needed. The latter floor areas had to be designed to a smaller footprint with a high window-space to floor-space ratio to be attractive to prospective lessees. Smaller floorplates required a taller structure to yield sufficient square footage. Skidmore architects proposed a tower with large, 55,000-square-foot floors in the lower part of the building with tapered floorplates in a series of setbacks, which would give the tower its distinctive look; as Sears continued to offer optimistic projections for growth, the tower's proposed floor count increased into the low hundreds, surpassing the height of New York's unfinished World Trade Center to become the world's tallest building. The height was restricted by a limit imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration to protect air traffic; the financing of the tower was provided by Sears. It was topped with two antennas for radio broadcasting.
Sears and the City of Chicago approved the design and the first steel was put in place in April 1971. The structure was completed in May 1973; the construction cost about US$150 million, equivalent to $850 million in 2019 dollars. By comparison, Taipei 101, built in 2004, cost the equivalent of US$2.21 billion in 2018 dollars. Black bands appear on the tower around the 29th–32nd, 64th–65th, 88th–89th, 104th–108th floors; these elements are louvres to ventilate the building's environmental support systems and obscure its belted trusses. Though regulations did not require a fire sprinkler system, the building was equipped with one from the beginning. There are around 40,000 sprinkler heads in the building, installed at a cost of $4 million. In February 1982, two television antennas were added to the structure, increasing its total height to 1,707 feet; the western antenna was extended, bringing the overall height to 1,729 feet on June 5, 2000, to improve reception of local NBC station WMAQ-TV. As the construction of the building neared the 50th floor, lawsuits for an injunction were filed seeking to stop the building from exceeding 67 floors.
The suits alleged that above that point television receptio
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Jackson Park (Chicago)
Jackson Park is a 500-acre park located at 6401 South Stony Island Avenue in the Woodlawn community on the South Side in Chicago, Illinois. It extends into the South Shore and Hyde Park nearby neighborhoods, bordering onto Lake Michigan and several other South Side neighborhoods. Named for Seventh President Andrew Jackson, it is one of two Chicago Park District parks with the name "Jackson", the other being Mahalia Jackson Park for the gospel music singer in the Auburn Gresham community on the far southwest side of Chicago; the parkland was first developed as the host site of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893, memorialized today by the Statue of The Republic. The Museum of Science and Industry resides in the remaining "palace" in the park from the Fair era, a Japanese garden traces its history to the Fair; the park includes woodland trails, playing fields, a beach, a golf course, a boat harbor. It is the potential future site of library. After the state legislature created the South Park Commission in 1869, the designers of New York's Central Park, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux, were hired to lay out the 1,055-acre park.
Lois Willie explained in her book Forever Open and Free, "Olmstead said Jackson Park should be water oriented, with a yacht harbor, winding walkways around the lagoons, small bridges, bathing pavilions, plenty of space for boating." However, their designs were not put into place at that time, Jackson Park remained untouched until Chicago was chosen to host the World's Fair several years later. One of the landmarks that recalls the 1893 Columbian Exposition is the Statue of The Republic, only it is now a replica one-third the size of the original The Republic statue; the designers used the Statue of Liberty as inspiration. Today the 1/3 size statue of The Republic stands at the site of the 1893 Expositions Administration Building. Known as "South Park", the landscape had eastern and western divisions connected by a grand boulevard named the Midway Plaisance; the eastern division became known as "Lake Park". The names "Jackson" and "Washington" were proposed. In the following year, Lake Park was renamed "Jackson Park" to honor Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States.
In 1890, Chicago won the honor of hosting the World's Columbian Exposition. In 1891, Jackson Park was selected as its site. Olmsted and Chicago's architect and planner, Daniel H. Burnham, with his partner John Wellborn Root, laid out the fairgrounds. A team of architects and sculptors created the "White City" of plaster buildings and artworks in Beaux-Arts style; the historic World's Fair opened to visitors on May 1, 1893. It was Root's last project, as he caught pneumonia and died in January 1891, two years before the fair's opening. After the fair closed, the site was transformed back into parkland, as the fair buildings were not designed to be permanent structures. Jackson Park featured the first public golf course west of the Alleghenies, which opened in 1899. Most of the park burned to the ground. A headline from January 9. 1894 read "THE WHITE CITY IN FLAMES. On May 16, 1896 the Jackson Park Yacht Club was organized with incorporation on June 3 but the original organization failed. Rights to the club were purchased and a new JPYC was formed with thirty-eight members with about twenty boats.
The Park Commission's aid was sought to dredge and clear a channel through the wreckage of the exposition. By 1901 membership had expanded to 149 with 105 boats. By 1902, with the club house built of scrap lumber on a purchased scow, the club joined the Lake Michigan Yachting Association. Over the next years the club grew in competitive yachts. By 1915 plans were underway for a new club house with sixteen life memberships the core of the funding for the new structure, dedicated on Memorial Day 1916 by Governor Edward F. Dunne, who arrived on William A. Lydon's 181 foot steam yacht Lydonia; the Palace of Fine Arts decayed after the fair until it was reopened as the Museum of Science and Industry in 1933. Sears, Roebuck & Company president Julius Rosenwald donated the initial investment. During World War II, vandals damaged the Japanese Garden; the Chicago Park District waited for decades before considering repairing it. The city of Osaka donated money for the refurbishment. During the Cold War, part of Jackson Park contained a Nike Surface-to-Air Missile site and the nearby "Point" was used as its radar station.
In the 1950s, Jackson Park's Wooded Island was leased to the Army to become the location of an anti-aircraft installation, but was protested against, as the Park District had given the Army other location options and Jackson Park's Wooded Island was spared. In 1965 the people of South Chicago were growing tired of the traffic jams on Lake Shore Drive, so the city made plans to widen the road, straighten its curves and run it straight through Jackson Park. Women and children conducted protests and rallies around tree stumps; the efforts brought results and the city halted roadwork after it had gone halfway through the park. In 1972 Jackson Park was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. While a comfort station and the North Pond Bridge, both of which date from the 1880s, are still in use, every structure built for World's Columbian Exposition was long ago destroyed by fire, demolished or moved elsewhere, except for the old Palace of Fine Arts, now the Museum of Sc
Woodfield Mall is a shopping mall located in the northwest Chicago suburb of Schaumburg, United States, at the intersection of Golf Road and Interstate 290. Woodfield Mall is the largest shopping mall in the state of Illinois and one of the largest shopping malls in the United States; the mall is located 27 miles from the Chicago Loop and attracts more than 27 million visitors each year. The mall features 234 stores and is anchored by J. C. Penney, Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Nordstrom, H&M, Improv Comedy Club and the country's largest Sears store at 416,000 square feet, though in 2015, a portion of the second level was subleased to Level 257, a Pac Man-themed restaurant, it has 8 other restaurants which are Red Robin, Uncle Julio’s, P. F. Chang's China Bistro, Rainforest Cafe, Panda Express, The Cheesecake Factory, Kinfork BBQ and Texas de Brazil; the mall was developed by Taubman Centers, who sold the mall to CalPERS, Miller Capital Advisory, GM Pension Trusts. Taubman continued to manage the mall until December 31, 2012, when GM Pension Trusts sold their stake in the mall to Simon Property Group, who took over management effective January 1, 2013.
Woodfield Mall opened on September 9, 1971, with 59 stores, growing to 189 stores with 1.9 million retail square feet by 1973, along with a large 135 feet water tower to supply water to the mall and the nearby village. It was the largest mall in the United States at the time of its opening, it is the 12th largest mall in America to this date. It is the largest mall in the Chicago area, with 234 stores and restaurants. Woodfield is part of a group of three malls located in Schaumburg, along with Woodfield Village Green, The Streets of Woodfield. Woodfield is a major tourist destination in the state of Illinois. In the year 2000, Chicago's visitors voted Woodfield Mall as their favorite suburban attraction. Woodfield Mall is named for former Sears board chairman General Robert E. Wood and Marshall Field and Company founder Marshall Field, it debuted on September 9, 1971, on 191 acres of prairie land occupied by farms, a village tavern. Singer Carol Lawrence, actor Vincent Price, two marching bands entertained at the debut.
At the time of its opening, it claimed to be the world's largest shopping center. By the end of September 1971, another 28 stores and restaurants had opened and that first business year finished with 138 specialty retailers. Many of those retailers—Johnston & Murphy, Stride Rite, New York & Company are still at Woodfield Mall today. 1,900,000 square feet of retail space, Woodfield Mall today is 2,150,557 square feet of retail space. In 1973, Lord & Taylor brought along 50 additional new retailers and a whole new wing. Sbarro opened in 1984 and A&W opened in 1985; the ice rink beneath the mall's Center Court was rebuilt as the Plitt Theatres Woodfield Mall Theatres. The 5-plex opened for business June 21, 1985; the mall had a pair of free-standing twin cinemas Woodfield Theatres 1 & 2 and Woodfield Theatres 3 & 4 at the perimeter of the mall near Golf Road, which have both since closed and been razed, replaced by additional retail The Woodfield Mall Cinemas closed in 2000. After it closed, the space was turned into a theme restaurant called Mars 2112, short-lived.
The former theater area was converted into an Improv Comedy Club in 2006, the first location in Illinois. The fourth cinematic venue in or around the mall replaced all of the previous movie houses; the Loews Theatres At The Streets of Woodfield, an outdoor shopping center next to Woodfield Mall, made its debut on December 10, 1999. The Streets of Woodfield was built between 1999 and 2000, replacing an another indoor mall, One Schaumburg Place which opened in 1991; the Streets of Woodfield featured Dick's Sporting Goods and GameWorks. The freestanding Loews Theatres complex was rebranded by the AMC Theatres chain in 2016. In 1994, Panera Bread and Hooters opened northwest of the mall. In celebration of its 20th anniversary in 1991, Woodfield added 23 more stores, including The Disney Store and in 1995, Woodfield grew again with a $110 million wing; this new wing included 50 new specialty stores. Rainforest Cafe was added to the mall in October of that same year. With its latest remodeling, Woodfield Mall encompassed 2,150,557 square feet and contained two hundred and eighty-eight stores and services.
In 1996, the mall received a larger replacement Lord & Taylor. Of these new for 1995 stores, nearly 40 debuted flagship concepts and designs, with about 27 of them the largest in their chains. In 1997, Joe's Crab Shack opened on the Northeast edge of the mall, but closed in 2017 as part of 41 Locations. IKEA opened a 3-story location across from Woodfield Mall on November 18, 1998. While all of this expansion continued at Woodfield Mall, the surrounding village of Schaumburg grew as well. In 1970, the population was 19,000. S. Census Bureau, Schaumburg had over 75,000 people in 2000. Schaumburg Mayor Al Larson observed that, "Woodfield established a focal point for development throughout all of the northwest suburbs. Without Woodfield, we wouldn't have office towers in Itasca or corporate development in Hoffman Estates." In 1995, Woodfield Associates commissioned a brand new $128,000 paint job for the mall water tower. Woodfield paid an additional $97,000 for the exterior painting. Both the interiors and exteriors of the water tower were repainted.
The tower was drained of water before the new paint job could be applied. After