The groundhog known as a woodchuck, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots. It was first scientifically described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758; the groundhog is referred to as a chuck, wood-shock, whistlepig, thickwood badger, Canada marmot, moonack, red monk and, among French Canadians in eastern Canada, siffleux. The name "thickwood badger" was given in the Northwest to distinguish the animal from the prairie badger. Monax is an Algonquian name of the woodchuck, which meant "digger". Young groundhogs may be called chucklings. Other marmots, such as the yellow-bellied and hoary marmots, live in rocky and mountainous areas, but the groundhog is a lowland creature, it is found through much of the eastern United States across Canada and into Alaska The groundhog is the largest sciurid in its geographical range. Adults are 16 to 20 inches long, including a six-inch tail. A large woodchuck thought to weigh twenty pounds when carried was half that weight when weighed by scale.
Woodchuck weight ranges from five to twelve pounds. Large individuals may weigh up to 15 pounds. Seasonal weight changes indicate circannual use of fat. Groundhogs attain progressivly higher weights each year for the first two or three years, after which weight plateaus. Groundhogs have four incisor teeth. Constant usage wears them down again by about that much each week. Unlike the incisors of many other rodents, the incisors of groundhogs are white to ivory-white. Groundhogs are well-adapted for digging, with curved, thick claws. Unlike other sciurids, the groundhog's tail is comparably shorter—only about one-fourth of body length; the etymology of the name woodchuck is unrelated to chucking. It stems from an Algonquian name for wuchak; the similarity between the words has led to the popular tongue-twister: How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? A woodchuck would chuck all the wood he could if a woodchuck could chuck wood! The groundhog prefers open country and the edges of woodland, is far from a burrow entrance.
Marmota monax has a wide geographic range. It is found in low-elevation forests, small woodlots, fields and hedgerows, it constructs dens in well-drained soil, most have summer and winter dens. Human activity has increased food abundance allowing M. monax to thrive. In the wild, groundhogs can live up to six years with three being average. In captivity, groundhogs live up to 14 years. Humans, dogs and foxes are about the only predators that can kill adult groundhogs although young may be taken by owls and hawks; the red fox is the major predator of Marmota monax. Woodchucks may suffer from parasitism and a woodchuck may die from infestation or from bacteria transmitted by vectors. In areas of intensive agriculture and dairying regions of the state of Wisconsin the southern parts, the woodchuck by 1950 had been extirpated. Jackson suggested the amount of damage done by the woodchuck had been exaggerated and that excessive persecution by people reduced its numbers in Wisconsin. In some areas marmots are important game animals and are killed for sport, food, or fur.
In Kentucky an estimated 267,500 M. monax were taken annually from 1964 to 1971 Woodchucks had protected status in the state of Wisconsin until 2017. Woodchuck numbers appear to have decreased in Illinois; the time spent observing groundhogs by field biologists represents only a small fraction of time devoted to the field research. W. J. Schoonmaker reports that groundhogs may hide when they smell or hear the observer. Ken Armitage, marmot researcher, states that the social biology of the groundhog is well understudied. Despite their heavy-bodied appearance, groundhogs are accomplished swimmers and climb trees when escaping predators or when they want to survey their surroundings, they prefer to retreat to their burrows. Groundhogs are agonistic and territorial among their own species, may skirmish to establish dominance. Outside their burrow, individuals are alert when not feeding, it is common to see one or more nearly-motionless individuals standing erect on their hind feet watching for danger.
When alarmed, they use a high-pitched whistle to warn the rest of the colony, hence the name "whistle-pig". Groundhogs may squeal when fighting injured, or caught by a predator. Other sounds groundhogs may make are a sound produced by grinding their teeth. David P. Barash wrote he witnessed only two occasions of upright play-fighting among woodchucks and that the upright posture of play-fighting involves sustained physical contact between individuals and may require a degree of social tolerance unknown in M. monax. He said it was possible to conclude, that upright play-fighting is part of the woodchuck's behavioral repertory but shown because of physical spacing and/or low social tolerance. Herbivorous, groundhogs eat wild grasses and other vegetation, including berries and agricultural crops, when available. In early spring and coltsfoot are important groundhog food items; some additional foods include sheep sorrel, timothy-grass, tearthumb, agrimony and black raspberries, plantain, wild lettuce, all varieties of clover, alfalfa.
Groundhogs occasionally eat grubs
A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae, in the eulipotyphlan family Erinaceidae. There are seventeen species of hedgehog in five genera found through parts of Europe and Africa, in New Zealand by introduction. There are no living species native to the Americas. Hedgehogs share distant ancestry with shrews, with gymnures being the intermediate link, they have changed little over the last 15 million years. Like many of the first mammals, they have adapted to a nocturnal way of life, their spiny protection resembles that of the unrelated porcupines, which are rodents, echidnas, a type of monotreme. The name hedgehog came into use around the year 1450, derived from the Middle English heyghoge, from heyg, because it frequents hedgerows, hoge, from its piglike snout. Other names include urchin and furze-pig. Hedgehogs are recognized by their spines, which are hollow hairs made stiff with keratin, their spines are not poisonous or barbed and unlike the quills of a porcupine, do not detach from their bodies.
However, the immature animal's spines fall out as they are replaced with adult spines. This is called "quilling". Spines can shed when the animal is diseased or under extreme stress. A defense that all species of hedgehogs possess is the ability to roll into a tight ball, causing all of the spines to point outwards; the hedgehog's back contains two large muscles. When the creature is rolled into a ball, the quills on the back protect the tucked face and belly, which are not quilled. Since the effectiveness of this strategy depends on the number of spines, some desert hedgehogs that evolved to carry less weight are more to flee or attack, ramming an intruder with the spines; the various species are prey to different predators: while forest hedgehogs are prey to birds and ferrets, smaller species like the long-eared hedgehog are prey to foxes and mongooses. Hedgehogs are nocturnal, though some species can be active during the day. Hedgehogs sleep for a large portion of the day under bushes, rocks, or most in dens dug in the ground, with varying habits among the species.
All wild hedgehogs can hibernate, though not all do, depending on temperature and abundance of food. Hedgehogs are vocal and communicate through a combination of grunts, snuffles and/or squeals, depending on species. Hedgehogs perform a ritual called anointing; when the animal encounters a new scent, it will lick and bite the source form a scented froth in its mouth and paste it on its spines with its tongue. The purpose of this habit is unknown, but some experts believe anointing camouflages the hedgehog with the new scent of the area and provides a possible poison or source of infection to predators poked by their spines. Anointing is sometimes called anting because of a similar behavior in birds. Like opossums and moles, hedgehogs have some natural immunity against some snake venom through the protein erinacin in the animal's muscular system, although it is available only in small amounts and a viper bite may still be fatal. In addition, hedgehogs are one of four known mammalian groups with mutations that protect against another snake venom, α-neurotoxin.
Pigs, honey badgers and hedgehogs all have mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that prevent the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding, though those mutations developed separately and independently. The olfactory regions have not been studied in the hedgehog. In mammals, the olfactory part of the brain is covered by neopallium; this difficulty is not insurmountable. Tests have suggested. Although traditionally classified in the now abandoned order Insectivora, hedgehogs are omnivorous, they feed on insects, snails and toads, bird eggs, mushrooms, grass roots, berries and watermelons. Berries constitute a major part of an Afghan hedgehog's diet in early spring after hibernation. During hibernation, the body temperature of a hedgehog can decrease to about 2 °C; when the animal awakes from hibernation, the body temperature rises from 2–5 °C back to its normal 30–35 °C body temperature. Depending on the species, the gestation period is 35–58 days; the average litter is 5 -- 6 for smaller ones.
As with many animals, it is not unusual for an adult male hedgehog to kill newborn males. Hedgehogs have a long lifespan for their size. Larger species of hedgehogs live 4–7 years in the wild, smaller species live 2–4 years, compared to a mouse at 2 years and a large rat at 3–5 years. Lack of predators and controlled diet contribute to a longer lifespan in captivity. Hedgehogs are born blind with a protective membrane covering their quills, which dries and shrinks over the next several hours; the quills emerge through the skin after they have been cleaned. Hedgehog bones have been found in the pellets of the European eagle owl. In Britain, the main predator is the badger. European hedgehog populations in the United Kingdom are lower in areas where badgers are numerous, British hedgehog rescue societies will not release hedgehogs into known badger territories. Badgers compete with hedgehogs for food; the most common p
Suidae is a family of artiodactyl mammals which are called pigs, hogs or boars. In addition to numerous fossil species, 17 extant species are recognized, classified into between four and eight genera; the family includes the domestic pig, Sus scrofa domesticus or Sus domesticus, in addition to numerous species of wild pig, such as babirusas and warthogs. All suids, or swine, are native to the Old World, ranging from Asia to Africa; the earliest fossil suids date from the Oligocene epoch in Asia, their descendants reached Europe during the Miocene. Several fossil species are known and show adaptations to a wide range of different diets, from strict herbivory to possible carrion-eating. Suids belong to the order Artiodactyla, are regarded as the living members of that order most similar to the ancestral form. Unlike most other members of the order, they have four toes on each foot, although they walk only on the middle two digits, with the others staying clear of the ground, they have a simple stomach, rather than the more complex, stomach found in most other artiodactyl families.
They are small to medium animals, varying in size from 58 to 66 cm in length, 6 to 9 kg in weight in the case of the pygmy hog, to 130–210 cm and 100–275 kg in the giant forest hog. They have large heads and short necks, with small eyes and prominent ears, their heads have a distinctive snout. Suids have a bristly coat, a short tail ending in a tassle; the males possess a corkscrew-shaped penis, which fits into a shaped groove in the female's cervix. Suids have a well-developed sense of hearing, are vocal animals, communicating with a series of grunts and similar sounds, they have an acute sense of smell. Many species are omnivorous, eating grass, roots, insects and frogs or mice. Other species are purely herbivorous, their teeth reflect their diet, suids retain the upper incisors, which are lost in most other artiodactyls. The canine teeth are enlarged to form prominent tusks, used for rooting in moist earth or undergrowth, in fighting, they have only a short diastema. The number of teeth varies between species, but the general dental formula is: 1–3.1.2–4.3030.1.020.3.
Suids are adaptable animals. Adult females and their young travel in a group, while adult males are either solitary, or travel in small bachelor groups. Males are not territorial, come into conflict only during the mating season. Litter size varies depending on the species; the mother prepares a grass nest or similar den. Suids are weaned at around three months, become sexually mature at 18 months. In practice, male suids are unlikely to gain access to sows in the wild until they have reached their full physical size, at around four years of age. In all species, the male is larger than the female, possesses more prominent tusks; the following seventeen extant species of suid are recognised: A partial list of genera, with extinct taxa marked with a dagger "†", are: Suidae Subfamily †Cainochoerinae Genus †Albanohyus Genus †Cainochoerus Subfamily †Hyotheriinae Genus †Aureliachoerus Genus †Chicochoerus Genus †Chleuastochoerus Genus †Hyotherium Genus †Nguruwe Genus †Xenohyus Subfamily †ListriodontinaeTribe †Kubanochoerini Genus †Kubanochoerus Tribe †Listriodontini Genus †Eurolistriodon Genus †Listriodon Tribe †Namachoerini Genus †Lopholistriodon Genus †Namachoerus Subfamily Suinae Tribe Suini Genus †Eumaiochoerus Genus †Hippopotamodon Genus †Korynochoerus Genus †Microstonyx Genus Porcula Genus Sus Tribe Potamochoerini Genus †Celebochoerus Genus Hylochoerus Genus †Kolpochoerus Genus Potamochoerus Genus †Propotamochoerus Tribe †Hippohyini Genus †Hippohyus Genus †Sinohyus Genus †Sivahyus Tribe Phacochoerini Genus †Metridiochoerus Genus Phacochoerus Genus †Potamochoeroides Genus †Stylochoerus Tribe Babyrousini Genus Babyrousa Subfamily †Tetraconodontinae Genus †Conohyus Genus †Notochoerus Genus †Nyanzachoerus Genus †Parachleuastochoerus Genus †Sivachoerus Genus †Tetraconodon Subfamily incertae sedis Genus †Hemichoerus Genus †Hyosus Genus †Kenyasus Genus †Schizochoerus Genus †Sinapriculus
House of Guitars
House of Guitars, Inc. is a store selling guitars and other music-related items in Irondequoit, a suburb of Rochester, New York. Billed as the "Largest Guitar Store in the World," it has a prodigious collection of new and vintage guitars and other musical instruments, a large collection of music recordings on vinyl records, cassette tapes and compact discs, music videos, T-shirts and other rock memorabilia; the store's slogan is "For the Rising Young Stars from Earth." An alternate slogan they have is "The Store That Ate My Brain." In numerous ads on late-night local television in the 1970s, the House of Guitars insisted, "The House Of Guitars Is Cooler Than Hollywood." The House of Guitars was founded in 1964 by brothers Armand and Blaine Schaubroeck in the basement of their mother's house in Irondequoit, New York. In 1972 the Schaubroeck brothers relocated the House of Guitars to its present-day location in the former Irondequoit Grange Hall building. At 645 Titus Avenue. Since the initial relocation in 1972, the House of Guitars has purchased three additional adjacent buildings, interconnecting these buildings for means of expansion.
This had led to what some consider a bizarre'maze' like layout, where separate store rooms containing music related equipment are connected via long hallways, sharp turns, un-level floors, et cetera....'30 years of Cool' have taken a toll on the three-story stone building that once was the Irondequoit Grange Hall. The floors creak loudly under trampled carpeting, so many bands have signed the walls that the messages are nearly illegible; the store is said to have obtained the first Vox amps. Schaubroeck had put in an order to Vox in England when The Beatles came to America, having known that George Harrison used Vox amps; the House of Guitars continues to be owned and operated by the Schaubroeck brothers at the present time. The store is divided into two distinct sections: the front part, facing Titus Avenue, houses all varieties of electric guitars, acoustic guitars and bass guitars as well as drums and amplifiers; the rear section, accessible from a back door near Grange Pl. or from the front through a short maze of corridors, houses the music collection.
At first sight, the music store appears as more of a rummage sale, with nearly everything arranged in a state of disarray, however asking an employee for help is an option, as most employees know where everything is. In addition to music on CD, cassette and vinyl records, the store sells videos, T-shirts, posters, music books and thousands of other rock memorabilia items; the angled ceilings are covered with signed photographs and drum pads, while the walls are covered in sharpie signatures from musicians who have visited in the past. House of Guitars has appeared in several magazines; this includes an August 1997 issue of People magazine, which features a page-long article on Armand Schaubroeck and The House of Guitars. In this article, Schaubroeck is quoted as saying, "If you want a hard-to-find guitar, we can hand it to you in six or seven different colors."One of the characters in the 1994 film PCU wore a House of Guitars T-shirt throughout the film. The Wall Street Journal published an article about the store on June 12, 1997.
HoG appeared in Details magazine as'Top Guitar shop' in February, 2002. In 2008, it was named in the Top 200 Largest Music Product Retailers. Several popular musical acts/bands have at one time or another shopped at the House of Guitars, including Metallica, Ozzy Osbourne, Mathew Sweet, Jon Bon Jovi, The Ramones and Mötley Crüe. Many national acts stop in when they have gigs in the Rochester area and the store holds events where fans can meet musicians for autograph signings and photo ops; the House of Guitars has employed a non-traditional approach to commercial sales. One example of this is their bizarre surrealist early television commercial ads of the 1960s–1980s, shot on 16mm film which can still be viewed on local area television from time to time
The domestic pig called swine, hog, or pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a domesticated large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of a distinct species; the domestic pig's head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, adult pigs weigh between 50 and 350 kg, with well-fed individuals exceeding this weight range. The size and weight of a hog depends on its breed. Compared to other artiodactyls, its head is long and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are herbivorous, but the domestic pig is an omnivore, like its wild relative; when used as livestock, domestic pigs are farmed for the consumption of their flesh, called pork. The animal's bones and bristles are used in commercial products. Domestic pigs miniature breeds, are kept as pets; the domestic pig has a large head, with a long snout, strengthened by a special prenasal bone and a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food, is a acute sense organ; the dental formula of adult pigs is 184.108.40.206.1.4.3.
The rear teeth are adapted for crushing. In the male the canine teeth can form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by being ground against each other. Four hoofed toes are on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two being used in soft ground. Most domestic pigs have rather a bristled sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds such as the Mangalitsa exist. Pigs possess both apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, although the latter appear limited to the snout and dorsonasal areas. Pigs, like other "hairless" mammals, do not use thermal sweat glands in cooling. Pigs are less able than many other mammals to dissipate heat from wet mucous membranes in the mouth through panting, their thermoneutral zone is 16 to 22 °C. At higher temperatures, pigs lose heat by wallowing in water via evaporative cooling. Pigs are one of four known mammalian species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom.
Mongooses, honey badgers and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding. These represent four independent mutations. Domestic pigs have small lungs in relation to their body size, are thus more susceptible than other domesticated animals to fatal bronchitis and pneumonia; the domestic pig is most considered to be a subspecies of the wild boar, given the name Sus scrofa by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. However, in 1777, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben classified the domestic pig as a separate species from the wild boar, he gave it the name Sus domesticus, still used by some taxonomists. Archaeological evidence suggests that pigs were domesticated from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BC in the Near East in the Tigris Basin, Çayönü, Cafer Höyük, Nevalı Çori being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans. Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus; those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.
There was a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago. DNA evidence from subfossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East; this stimulated the domestication of local European wild boar, resulting in a third domestication event with the Near Eastern genes dying out in European pig stock. Modern domesticated pigs have involved complex exchanges, with European domesticated lines being exported, in turn, to the ancient Near East. Historical records indicate that Asian pigs were introduced into Europe during the 18th and early 19th centuries. In August 2015, a study looked at over 100 pig genome sequences to ascertain their process of domestication, assumed to have been initiated by humans, involved few individuals, relied on reproductive isolation between wild and domestic forms; the study found that the assumption of reproductive isolation with population bottlenecks was not supported.
The study indicated that pigs were domesticated separately in Western Asia and China, with Western Asian pigs introduced into Europe, where they crossed with wild boar. A model that fitted the data included a mixture with a now extinct ghost population of wild pigs during the Pleistocene; the study found that despite back-crossing with wild pigs, the genomes of domestic pigs have strong signatures of selection at DNA loci that affect behavior and morphology. The study concluded that human selection for domestic traits counteracted the homogenizing effect of gene flow from wild boars and created domestication islands in the genome; the same process may apply to other domesticated animals. The adaptable nature and omnivorous diet of the wild boar allowed early humans to domesticate it readily. Pigs were used for food, but early civilizations used the pigs' hides for shields, bones for tools and weapons, bristles for brushes. In India, pigs have been domesticated for a long time in Goa and some rural areas, for pig toilets.
Though ecologically logical as well as economical
Red river hog
The red river hog known as the bush pig, is a wild member of the pig family living in Africa, with most of its distribution in the Guinean and Congolian forests. It is seen away from rainforests, prefers areas near rivers or swamps; the red river hog has striking orange to reddish-brown fur, with black legs and a tufted white stripe along the spine. Adults have white markings on the cheeks and jaws; the fur on the jaw and the flanks is longer than that on the body, with the males having prominent facial whiskers. Unlike other species of pig native to tropical Africa, the entire body is covered in hair, with no bare skin visible. Adults stand 55 to 80 cm tall, with a length of 100 to 145 cm; the thin tail ends in a tuft of black hair. The ears are long and thin, ending in tufts of white or black hair that may each 12 cm in length. Boars are somewhat larger than sows, have distinct conical protuberances on either side of the snout and rather small, sharp tusks; the facial protuberances are bony and protect the boar's facial tendons during head-to-head combat with other males.
Red river hogs have a dental formula of 3.1.3–220.127.116.11–4.3, similar to that of wild boar. Both sexes have scent glands close on the feet. There is a distinctive glandular structure about 2 cm in diameter on the chin, which has a tactile function. Females have six teats; the red river hog lives in rainforests, wet dense savannas, forested valleys, near rivers and marshes. The species' distribution ranges from the Congo area and Gambia to the eastern Congo, southwards to the Kasai and the Congo River; the exact delineation of its range versus that of the bushpig is unclear. Where the two meet, they are sometimes said to interbreed. Although numerous subspecies have been identified in the past, none are recognised; the species is omnivorous, eating roots and tubers, supplements its diet with fruit, herbs, dead animal and plant remains and lizards. It uses its large muzzle to snuffle about in the soil in search of food, as well as scraping the ground with their tusks and fore-feet, they can cause damage to agricultural crops, such as cassava and yams.
Red river hogs are active during the day, but are nocturnal or crepuscular. They live in small groups of six to ten animals, composed of a single adult male, a number of adult females and their young. However, much larger groups, some with over 30 individuals, have been noted in favourable habitats; the boar defends its harem aggressively against predators, with leopards being a common threat. They communicate continuously with grunts and squeals with a repertoire that can signal alarm, distress, or passive contact. Red river hogs breed seasonally, so that the young are born between the end of the dry season in February and the midpoint of the rainy season in July; the oestrus cycle lasts 34 to 37 days. The male licks the female's genital region before mating. Gestation lasts 120 days; the mother constructs a nest from dead leaves and dry grass before giving birth to a litter of up to six piglets, with three to four being most common. The piglets weigh 650 to 900 g at birth, are dark brown with yellowish stripes and spots.
They are weaned after about four months, develop the plain reddish adult coat by about six months. They live for about fifteen years in the wild
Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me