Bishopric of Constance
The Bishopric of Constance, or Prince-Bishopric of Constance, was a Prince-Bishopric and Imperial Estate of the Holy Roman Empire from the mid–12th century until its secularisation in 1802–1803. The much larger Roman Catholic Diocese of Konstanz existed from about 585 until its dissolution in 1821 and it belonged to the ecclesiastical province of Mainz since 780/782. They did not include the Imperial City of Constance nor Petershausen Abbey, in the south, the bishops territory bordered on the Landgraviate of Thurgau which was conquered by the Swiss Confederacy in 1460. While the Prince-Bishop was the ruler in his prince-bishopric, his powers in his diocese were limited to the pastoral duties exercised by any bishop. Originally subordinated to the Archdiocese of Besançon, Constance became suffragan to the Archdiocese of Mainz in 782, a deed by Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1155 confirmed the princely status of the bishop and of his bishopric as an Imperial Estate. The territory of the prince-bishopric contracted during the centuries under pressure from both the Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsburg.
Furthermore, the city of Konstanz was granted the status of an imperial city. In 1527, during the Protestant Reformation, the seat of the Prince-Bishop was finally moved to Meersburg across Lake Constance. In the course of the German Mediatisation in 1803, the Prince-Bishopric was dissolved, while Wessenberg was supported by the government of Baden, the Pope never recognized his election as he disagreed with Wessenbergs liberal views. By a bull of 16 August 1821, the pope dissolved the diocese in order to prevent Wessenberg from becoming bishop, gebhard I von Wetterau, von Tegerfelden 27. Conrad I36 Warmann von Dillingen 32, Franz Johann von Vogt von Altensumerau und Prasberg 96. Johann Franz I. von Praßberg und Altensummerau 97, Johann Franz Schenk von Stauffenberg 99. Karl Theodor von Dahlberg Ignaz Heinrich von Wessenberg, elected in 1817 but never recognised by Pius VII, caspar Burchard Tuberflug, O. P. Daniel Zehender, O. F. M
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe. It is a monarchy with the rank of principality, headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to the west and south and Austria to the east and it has an area of just over 160 square kilometres and an estimated population of 37,000. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz and its largest municipality is Schaan, the unemployment rate is one of the lowest in the world at 1. 5%. Liechtenstein has been known in the past as a tax haven, however. An alpine country, Liechtenstein is mainly mountainous, making it a winter sport destination, many cultivated fields and small farms are found both in the south and north. The country has a financial sector centered in Vaduz. Liechtenstein is a member of the European Free Trade Association, and while not being a member of the European Union and it has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland.
The oldest traces of human existence in Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era, neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BC. Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC possibly under influence from the Greek. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii, in 58 BC, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, bringing the region under closer control of the Roman Empire. By 15 BC, who was destined to be the second Roman emperor, Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia. The area was maintained by the Roman military, which maintained a large legionary camp called Brigantium near Lake Constance, a Roman road ran through the territory. In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni had settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century, Liechtenstein was at the eastern edge of Alemannia.
In the 6th century, the region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis Is victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504. The area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 AD following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein belonged to East Francia until it was reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 AD
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty. If the episcopal see is an archbishopric, the term is prince-archbishop. A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch, relations between a prince-bishop and the burghers were invariably not cordial. As cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared independent of the secular territorial magnates. The stem duchies of the German kingdom inside the Empire had strong and powerful dukes, unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary titles and lands to any descendants. This met with increasing opposition by the Popes, culminating in the fierce Investiture Controversy of 1076, the Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important bishops. The immediate territory attached to the episcopal see became a prince-diocese or bishopric, the German term Hochstift was often used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with Erzstift being used for prince-archbishoprics.
Emperor Charles IV by the Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed the status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of Mainz, Cologne. At the eve of the Protestant Reformation, the Imperial states comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities, with the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title finally became defunct. The bishops of Vienna and Wiener Neustadt didnt control any territory, upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the Orders State largely corresponded with the Diocese of Riga. Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the Terra Mariana confederation was established, by the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop.
The bishops pursued the conferment of the title by the Holy Roman Emperor to stress their sovereignty. In the original Prussian lands of the Teutonic Order, Willam of Modena established the suffragan bishoprics of Culm, Pomesania and Warmia. The bishops of Cetinje, who took the place of the earlier secular Voivodes in 1516 had a position of Slavonic. The title survived the union of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 until 1836, apart from territories formerly within the Holy Roman Empire, no French diocese had a principality of political significance linked to its see. However, a number of French bishops did hold a title, with a tiny territory usually about their seat, it was often a princely title
Lindau Abbey was a house of secular canonesses in Lindau on the Bodensee in Bavaria, which stands on an island in the lake. The community, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, is held to have been founded by Count Adelbert of Raetia in about 822. The town of Lindau grew round the foundation, the abbey was granted Imperial immediacy in 1466. During the Protestant Reformation on the mainland were the places in this region to remain Catholic. In 1806 the territory returned to Bavaria, the residential and service buildings were used for local government offices. The canonesses church became the present Roman Catholic minster-church of the Blessed Virgin Mary on the place in the Old Town of Lindau. The church building originated at the time as the religious community. The interior has Baroque ceiling paintings and Rococo decorations, Lindau has contained other religious houses. The church of the Minorites is still in existence as the Lindauer Stadttheater and these premises were sometimes known as the Kloster am Steg.
There was a house of the Beguines, founded in 1268, on 15 May 1525 it was dissolved and sold off. The buildings were bought in 1857 by the Sisters of Loreto, known locally as the English Ladies, of its successor establishments, the Insel-Institut was closed in 1991, but the Maria-Ward-Realschule continues as a Realschule for girls within the educational programme of the Diocese of Augsburg. Klöster in Bayern, Kanonissenstift Lindau Maria-Ward-Realschule Lindau home page Lindau municipal website, history
Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. It collapsed due to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria, the 1848 revolution, and the inability of the members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists were an attempt to establish a unified German state. Talks between the German states failed in 1848, and the Confederation briefly dissolved, but was re-established shortly after and it decidedly fell apart only after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks War of 1866. This led to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, a number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, which was renamed the German Empire. The War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806, following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, and the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, after the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia, joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania and the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine and these nations would join in the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to 1814. The German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition. The Confederation was formally created by a treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820, States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty.
The German Confederation ended as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 between Austrian Empire and its allies on one side and the Kingdom of Prussia and its allies on the other. In the Prague peace treaty, on 23 August 1866, Austria had to accept that the Confederation was considered to be dissolved, the following day, the remaining member states confirmed the dissolution. The treaty allowed Prussia to create a new Bundesverhältnis in the North of Germany, the South German states were proposed to create a South German Confederation but this did not come into existence. Prussia and its allies created the North German Confederation in 1867, because of French intervention it had to exclude, besides Austria, the South German states Bavaria, Württemberg and Hesse-Darmstadt. During November 1870 the four states joined the North German Confederation by treaty. The North German Confederation Reichstag and Bundesrat accepted to rename the North German Confederation as the German Empire, the new constitution of the state, the Constitution of the German Confederation, introduced the new name and title on 1 January 1871.
The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a small county in southwestern Germany. Its rulers belonged to the senior Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern, the senior Swabian branch is not as well known to history, as is the junior Franconian line which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and ruled Brandenburg-Prussia and the German Empire. The County of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was created in 1576, upon the partition of the County of Hohenzollern, the principality became a sovereign state in 1815 after the abolition of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 and an independent realm following the Napoleonic Wars in 1815. Its ruler, was deposed in the revolutions of 1848 and his son, Karl Anton, succeeded him, and turned to Prussia for aid. Prussian troops arrived in August 1849, and in a treaty signed in December Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was annexed by Prussia, the annexation of their state did not, mean the end of the importance of the House of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. The last prince, Karl Anton, served as Minister President of Prussia from 1858-61, french opposition to the candidacy of Carols elder brother Prince Leopold for the throne of Spain triggered the Franco-Prussian War, which led to the founding of the German Empire in January 1871.
From 1806 until 1813 the Hohenzollern lands were a realm of the Confederation of the Rhine, from 1815 until 1849 the principality was a sovereign country and a member of the German Confederation. In 1849 it lost its independence, and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia as the Province of Hohenzollern, the German Confederation was succeeded in 1866 by the North German Confederation, which itself was succeeded by the German Empire in 1871. In 1918, the kingdom of Prussia became the Free State of Prussia, in 1933 the republic was replaced by the Third Reich. After the defeat of the Nazis the province of Hohenzollern was merged with other territories into the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern and this state was part of the Allied Occupation Zones in Germany until 1952. In that year, the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern was merged into Baden-Württemberg, Prince Karl Eitel of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen reigned and, being childless, was succeeded by his nephew Ferdinand on the throne of Romania.
The modern state of Romania was formed by merger of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 under the Moldavian domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza and he was replaced by Karl Eitel of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in 1866, who mounted the throne as Carol I, Prince of Romania. During the Russo-Turkish War, Romania fought on the Russian side, in the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Romania was subsequently recognized as an independent state by the Great Powers. In return for reverting to the Russian Empire three southern Bessarabian districts that had been regained by Moldavia after the Crimean War in 1852, in 1881, the principality was raised to a kingdom and Prince Carol became King Carol I. He reigned until his death in 1914, and was succeeded by his nephew, shortly after taking the throne, Ferdinand, a Roman Catholic like his predecessor, agreed to have his children reared in the Romanian Orthodox Church. In 1918 Transylvania and Bessarabia were incorporated, in 1918-19, confirmed by the Treaty of Versailles of 1919 and the Treaty of Trianon of 1920, most of the Banat became part of Romania.
Also, Bukovina was incorporated in 1918 and his eldest son, Crown Prince Carol, having renounced his rights, Carols only son Michael ascended the throne. In 1930, Carol reclaimed the throne and was crowned Carol II, Carol was forced to abdicate in 1940, and Michael re-mounted the throne
The Imperial Abbey of Buchau was initially a monastery of canonesses regular, and a collegiate foundation, in Buchau in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. According to tradition, the monastery was founded around 770 on an island in the Federsee by the Frankish Count Warin, the abbey was put on a secure financial footing by Louis the Pious, who in 819 granted the nuns property in the Saulgau and in Mengen. In 857, Louis the German declared it a religious house of the Carolingian Imperial family. The abbey was initially a house of regular, but at a date it was converted into a collegiate foundation of secular canonesses who belonged to various noble families of Swabia. In 1347, Buchau Abbey gained Imperial immediacy and the abbess was raised to the rank of Princess-Abbess, from on and until 1803, Buchau Abbey and the Imperial City of Buchau, both self-governing entities fully independent of each other, were forced to cohabit. Unlike most of the other Free Imperial Cities, Buchau was to remain Catholic in the course of the Reformation, in 1415, the abbey became a secular foundation and from on the congregation was to be composed of an abbess, twelve choir women and two chaplains.
The abbess, as an Imperial Estate, had seat and voice in the Reichstag, buchay Abbey had a small territorial base and in 1625 the lordship of Strassberg became part of the Abbey. The lordship of Strassberg however was annexed to the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and it includes stucco sculptures by Johann Joseph Christian. Media related to Buchau Abbey at Wikimedia Commons Map of Swabia,1789 Das Damenstift Buchau am Federsee at Google Books, by Bernhard Theil,1994
Ellwangen Abbey was the earliest Benedictine monastery established in the Duchy of Swabia, at the present-day town of Ellwangen an der Jagst, Baden-Württemberg about 100 km north-east of Stuttgart. There is however evidence that the foundation dates back to 732. The first monks may came from the Abbey of St. Benignus at Dijon, Ellwangen in its early days was home to Abbots Lindolf and Erfinan, who were respected authors. Abbot Gebhard wrote part of the Life of Saint Ulrich there, Abbot Ermanrich wrote a biography of Saint Solus. The monk Adalbero was made Bishop of Augsburg in 894, Abbot Liutbert became Archbishop of Mainz, as did Abbot Hatto. Saint Gebhard, Abbot of Ellwangen, became Bishop of Augsburg in 995, Abbot Milo about the middle of the tenth century was one of the visitors appointed for the visitation of the Abbey of St. Gall. At the same however, the conventual life declined and the Benedictine occupation of Ellwangen came to an end in the first half of the fifteenth century. On 14 January 1460 with the consent of Pope Pius II it was converted into a college of secular Canons Regular under the rule of a provost.
The provost of Ellwangen achieved the status of a Prince of the Empire, as the head of a secular college of Augustinian canons, he was the only provost of princely rank in the whole Empire, beside the Provost of Berchtesgaden. In the late 16th and early 17th century, the Ellwangen territory became one of the areas of witch-hunting in Germany. In the course of the German Mediatisation of 1802, Ellwangen fell to the Duchy of Württemberg, most of the ecclesiastical buildings still exist, though they are no longer used for religious purposes. In the secularisation of 1802 the abbey was dissolved and its assets taken over by the Duchy of Württemberg, the present-day Late Romanesque St. Vitus Basilica was consecrated in 1233, after a 12th-century preceding building had been devastated by a blaze. Today it serves as the church of Ellwangen. A cloister was added in 1467 and in the 17th century the interior was refurbished in a Baroque style. From 1737 onwards it was decorated with further Rococo supplements.
In 1964 the church was elevated to the status of a Basilica minor by Pope Paul VI, Ellwangen Castle from 1460 on served as the residence of the Prince-provosts, it was rebuilt in a Baroque style about 1726. From 1802 a property of the House of Württemberg it was for a time the exile of Princess Catharina. The castle is today administrated by the State of Baden-Württemberg, it hosts a museum,4 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Province of Hohenzollern
The Province of Hohenzollern or the Hohenzollern Lands was a de facto province of the Kingdom of Prussia. Both used the same coat of arms as the one used by the Prussian royal family. Hohenzollern consisted of a district, the Regierungsbezirk Sigmaringen, the capital was Sigmaringen. The last census recorded 74,151 inhabitants in 1939, while Hohenzollern enjoyed all the rights of a full-fledged province of Prussia, including representation in the Prussian parliament, its military matters were governed by the Rhine Province. The Regierungsbezirk Sigmaringen was further subdivided into seven Oberamtsbezirke, although four of these remained by 1925. In 1946, the French military administration made it a part of the state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Hohenzollern has been part of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg since 1952