As the crow flies
As the crow flies, similar to in a beeline, is an idiom for the most direct path between two points. This meaning is attested from the early 19th century, appeared in Charles Dickens's novel Oliver Twist: We cut over the fields at the back with him between us – straight as the crow flies – through hedge and ditch. According to BBC Focus, "'As the crow flies' is a pretty common saying but it isn't accurate". Crows do not swoop in the air like swallows or starlings, but they circle above their nests. Crows do conspicuously fly alone across open country, but neither crows nor bees fly in straight lines. Before modern navigational methods were introduced, crows were kept upon ships and released when land was sought. Crows instinctively fly towards land. Geodesic Great-circle distance Dundes, Alan. "As the Crow Flies: A Straightforward Study of Lineal Worldview in American Folk Speech". In Lau, Kimberley J.. What Goes Around Comes Around: The Circulation of Proverbs in Contemporary Life. Utah State University Press.
Pp. 171–187. ISBN 978-0-87421-592-2. Winfield, Charles H.. Adjudged Words and Phrases: Being a Collection of Adjudicated Definitions of Terms Used in the Law, with References to Authorities. Jersey City, NJ: J. J. Griffiths. P. 45. OCLC 3364516. "As the crow flies" The Phrase Finder. "As the crow flies" World Wide Words
The Schalkenmehrener Maar is a maar 3 kilometres southeast of the town of Daun in the Eifel in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. |It is one of the Daun Maars or Daun Maar Group and is a double maar, comprising a western maar lake and an eastern dry maar. Both were formed around 10,500 years ago as the result of a phreatomagmatic explosion; the lake in the western part of the maar varies between 500 and 575 metres in diameter and is up to 21 metres deep. The height of the maar above sea level is 420 metres, it fills the more recent of the 2 maar basins. The eastern part of the maar is occupied by a raised bog. Botanically, three different zones can be distinguished: the shore area, the raised bog and the slopes of the maar basin. In the shore area, as well as the reeds there are communities of yellow iris, white water-lily, yellow loosestrife, purple loosestrife and club-rush; the slopes of the maar basin are dominated by a mix of dry woodland edge vegetation. In addition to Breckland thyme and oregano, there is restharrow, hare's-foot clover, hop trefoil, narrow-leaved everlasting pea, musk mallow, clustered bellflower, downy hemp-nettle and cubs, brown knapweed, greater knapweed, small scabious and large communities of rosebay willow-herb.
Neophytes that may be seen include large-flowered mountain trumpets. List of lakes of Germany Werner D’hein: Natur- und Kulturführer Vulkanlandeifel. Mit 26 Stationen der "Deutschen Vulkanstraße". Gaasterland-Verlag, Düsseldorf, 2006. ISBN 3-935873-15-8 Informationen über die Maare
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Landesstraßen are roads in Germany and Austria that are, as a rule, the responsibility of the respective German or Austrian federal state. The term may therefore be translated as "state road", they are roads that cross the boundary of a urban district. A Landesstraße is thus less important than a Bundesstraße or federal road, but more significant than a Kreisstraße or district road; the classification of a road as a Landesstraße is a legal matter. In the free states of Bavaria and Saxony – but not, however, in the Free State of Thuringia – Landesstraßen are known as Staatsstraßen; the abbreviation for a Landesstraße consists of a serial number. Staatsstraßen in Saxony are abbreviated using a capital S and the Staatsstraßen in Bavaria are prefixed with the letters St; the kilometrage is shown on white signs by the roadside with black letters, known as location signs, that replace the former kilometre stones. The beginning and end of a Landesstraße is specified using so-called hub numbers; that makes its location unambiguous, important for rapid assistance when there is an accident, for example.
The hub numbers are displayed on the upper part of the sign and indicate their direction. In the example in the photograph, therefore No. 6608 039 is left of the sign 6608 023 to the right. In the bottom right-hand corner of the sign can be seen the so-called Stationierungsrichtung or direction of signage, it runs in the example from right to left and indicates in which direction the road kilometres are counted. In Lower Saxony, this new system has been in place since 2007 and divides the Landestraßen into sections numbered 10, 20, etc; the location signs comprise two panels. The location panel displays the name of the state and county letters at the top, the road letter and number below; the classification panel shows the section number and direction of the start hub. The letters OD indicate a location post within a town or village and may be displayed in places other than on a white post. By the end of 2008 all the 8,000 kilometre posts on Lower Saxony's Landesstraßen had been replaced. In terms of their construction, Landesstraßen tend to be built to a lesser standard than Bundesstraßen and their cross-section is smaller.
In individual cases, the standard of construction may vary depending on when it was built and its importance as a route. However, Landesstraßen can be built as limited-access dual carriageways in densely populated areas. Due to the division of funding, the federal states try to get the more substantial Landesstraßen designated as Bundesstraßen, so that their subsequent improvement and maintenance is funded from the Federal budget; the Bundesstraßen are, intended as links between cities and radiate from them. It is not possible to have concentric roads, which link the satellite towns with one another, designated as Bundesstraßen, it is difficult to transfer responsibility for the short stub roads running from cities to nearby motorways to the Federal Authorities. Following German reunification the Bezirksstraßen of the GDR were classified as Landesstraßen without consideration for their condition; this leads to a wide range of road types falling within this category. On the one hand, there are inter-city roads.
On the other hand, due to the austere design of the country road network in the GDR there are today in the new federal states several unpaved roads and dirt tracks that are formally Landesstraßen. The upgrade of these roads is unlikely in view of the lack of their low importance. In Austria today all important roads, apart from autobahns and Schnellstraßen managed by the publicly owned ASFiNAG corporation, are called Landesstraßen. Since 2002 the former Bundesstraßen national highways are Landesstraßen, because they were placed under the responsibility of the federal states. Before 2002 there were two types of Bundesstraße: A white number an blue square sign identified the more common type that are at the same time priority roads, their vehicle users had the right of way by the blue sign. A black number on a yellow circular sign marks roads. Except in Vorarlberg, the former Bundesstraßen continue to be designated with the prefix B; the remaining Landesstraßen are prefixed with the letter L. On traffic signs the prefixes are not used, unlike the A and S.
Roads numbered with fewer digits are of more importance in the road network. The former designation of more important Landesstraßen in several states as Landeshauptstraßen is only seen now on road and street maps. Autobahn Bundesstraße Gemeindestraße Kreisstraße
Daun is a town in the Vulkaneifel district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the district seat and the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde of Daun; the town lies in the Vulkaneifel, a part of the Eifel known for its volcanic history and geological features, ongoing activity today, including gases that sometimes well up from the earth. Daun lies south of the High Eifel on the river Lieser. Found from 2.5 to 3.5 km southeast of Daun’s town centre are the Dauner Maare, a group of three volcanic lakes separated wholly by only the walls of tuff between them. The town is home to the Eifel-Vulkanmuseum. Daun has mineral water springs; the district seat of Daun has 8,514 inhabitants. Besides the main town called Daun, the municipal area includes these outlying centres that were self-administering municipalities: The first settlement in the area came as early as the 7th century BC by which time the Celts had settled the fortified basalt mountain in Daun; the Romans, used this prominent hill in the Lieser valley as a watch post, as witnessed by Roman finds.
The placename may have come from the Celtic-Roman word Dunum, meaning either “fence” or “fortified heights”, to say, a fort. In the late 10th century, a castle complex belonging to the free Lords of Daun arose here. In 1075, Daun had its first documentary mention in a townsman named Adalbero de Duna. In 1163, the free lords’ family died out. One of the family’s ministeriales, Richardus de Duna, took over his former Lord’s name and the coat of arms with the Daun fretting. In 1337, Daun is mentioned for the first time as being a town. In 1346 came a grant of town rights along with market rights, Daun became at the same time the location of a high court. In 1712, the Electoral-Trier Amtshaus was built by the Elector of Trier and Archbishop Karl-Josef on the Burgberg. After a transitory occupation by the French beginning in 1794, the village passed in 1815 to the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1817, Daun became seat of the district and an Amt mayoralty, at the same time a district administrator’s seat. Since 1947, it has been part of the newly founded state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Beginning in 1951, Daun could once more call itself a town. On 15 May 1895, Daun was linked to the German railway network with the Eifelquerbahn. On 1 December 1909, a further railway line, the Maare-Mosel-Bahn to Wittlich came into service. All public rail transport, ended in Daun more than a decade ago, although a two-hourly daytime service for tourists has been running in the summertime since 2005 on part of the Eifelquerbahn; the Maare-Mosel-Bahn, on the other hand, was torn up about a decade ago and has since become the Maare-Mosel-Radweg, a cycle path. In 1965, Daun became a garrison town, housing at the Heinrich Hertz Barracks, among others, two signal corps units and one signals intelligence unit; the council is made up of 12 council members, who were elected at the municipal election held on 25. May 2014, the mayor as chairman. Daun’s mayor is Martin Robrecht, his three deputies are Friedhelm Marder, Manfred Krag and Hans-Dieter Wilhelm; the town’s arms might be described thus: Or fretty gules.
The arms now borne by the town are the ones once borne by the Lords of Daun, date from the 13th century. When the Lords died out, the town passed to the Electorate of Trier, thus explaining the Cross of Trier that appeared in seals dating from the 16th and following centuries; the current arms, are the Lords’ original ones. The Armorial Wijnbergen, dating from c. 1270 - c. 1285, includes Ferry II of Daun, lord of Oberstein. Daun fosters partnerships with the following places: Carisolo, Italy since 4 April 2004 Gemünd Maar Schalkenmehren Maar Weinfeld Maar A maar is a broad-low relief volcanic crater filled with rainwater. Tuff rings sometimes surround a maar. There are many in the Volcanic Eifel. Daun Castle Electoral-Trier Amtshaus from 1712 Evangelical church Tithe barn from 1740 Burgmann houses: Waldenhof, Hof Rademacher Railway viaduct from 1909 Saint Nicholas’s Catholic Parish Church, west tower and crypt Romanesque, mid 13th century, new building work done between 1946 and 1969 Railway station building, roof with half-hipped gables, 1895 Former Evangelical graveyard with elaborate grave markers from the 19th century Former mayoral building Kampbüchelskreuz from about 1825 Former Kaiserbrunnen, 1911, warriors’ memorial from after 1945 Former district administrator’s office, 1830/31, today the Volcano Museum Former recreation home of the department store chain Leonhard Tietz, 1910 Former Amt court from 1860 Warriors’ memorial 1870/71 Former school building from about 1910/20 Volcano Museum, Daun – about volcanic and other geological phenomena.
Every other year, the Krimi-Festival Tatort Eifel is held in Daun, to which come notable crime fiction authors from all over German-speaking Europe. Within the framework of this festival, the Deutsche Kurzkrimi-Preis is awarded; the St.-Laurentius-Kirmes begins each year on the Saturday after the first Wednesday in August and lasts five days. It is among the Eifel’s biggest folk festivals. VulkanBike Eifel-Marathon (a mountainbike marathon through the Eifel mountains, also: VulkanBike
The Volcanic Eifel or Vulkan Eifel is a region in the Eifel Mountains in Germany, defined to a large extent by its volcanic geological history. Characteristic of this volcanic field are its typical explosion crater lakes or maars, numerous other signs of volcanic activity such as volcanic tuffs, lava streams and volcanic craters like the Laacher See; the Volcanic Eifel is still volcanically active today. One sign of this activity is the escaping gases, for example, in the Laacher See; the Volcanic Eifel stretches from the Rhine to the Wittlich Depression. It is bordered in the south and southwest by the South Eifel, in the west by the Luxembourg and Belgian Ardennes and in the north by the North Eifel including the Hohes Venn. To the east the Rhine forms its geographical boundary; the Volcanic Eifel is divided into three natural regions: Volcanic West Eifel (Manderscheid, Gerolstein, Obere Kyll, Volcanic High Eifel, Volcanic East Eifel The centre of the Volcanic Eifel is the region around Daun and Manderscheid and the areas within the Mayen-Koblenz district.
The landscape of the Volcanic Eifel is dominated by recent volcanism. Volcanic craters, thick pumice and basalt layers and maars create a diverse landscape, that witnesses to recent events in geological terms; the entire Volcanic Eifel covers an area of about 2000 km² and as of 2007 has a population of about 200,000. The following volcanoes belong to the Eifel, sorted by height in metres above sea level: Ernstberg, county of Vulkaneifel – west Scharteberg, county of Vulkaneifel. Geophysicists found that crust under the Eifel is thinner than most continental crust, suggesting that under the Eifel is a hot zone where magma is rising. Persistent small earthquakes and underground heating. Map of flood lake that may happen if the Rhine is blocked by a voluminous eruption in the Eifel Werner P. D’hein: Vulkanland Eifel. Natur- und Kulturführer, mit 26 Stationen der „Deutschen Vulkanstraße“. Gaasterland Verlag, Düsseldorf 2006, ISBN 3-935873-15-8, ISBN 978-3-935873-15-4 Wilhelm Meyer: Geologie der Eifel.
Schweizerbart’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Stuttgart 1986. ISBN 3-510-65127-8 Hans-Ulrich Schmincke. Vulkanismus. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. ISBN 978-3-534-17471-3. Homepage of Vulkaneifel district German Volcanological Society
Normalnull or Normal-Null is an outdated official vertical datum used in Germany. Elevations using this reference system were to be marked "Meter über Normal-Null". Normalnull has been replaced by Normalhöhennull. In 1878 reference heights were taken from the Amsterdam Ordnance Datum and transferred to the New Berlin Observatory in order to define the Normalhöhenpunkt 1879. Normalnull has been defined as a level going through an imaginary point 37.000 m below Normalhöhenpunkt 1879. When the New Berlin Observatory was demolished in 1912 the reference point was moved east to the village of Hoppegarten