Pour Down Like Silver
Pour Down Like Silver is the third album by the British duo of singer-songwriter and guitarist Richard and vocalist Linda Thompson. It was recorded in the summer of 1975 and released in November 1975; the Thompsons had moved into a commune in London. The songs on this album reflect their new faith and the relief that Richard Thompson had found in that faith, it seems that conflicting pressures were bearing down on the duo at the time. Linda Thompson:'... At one point our Sheikh forbade Richard to do music... On the other hand, he always encouraged me, "you have a voice and you've got to sing".' Jo Lustig:'Richard came to me and said "look, my Mullah doesn't want me to play electric guitar. I don't know what I'm going to do about my career... I'm not going to be working."'And there was a recording contract. The Thompsons owed Island Records an album; the compromise seems to have been that the album to be delivered was to have a strong spiritual aspect. Linda Thompson:'Pour Down Like Silver was when Sheikh Abdul Q'adir said we could make music as long as it was to God...
"Dimming of the Day", "Beat the Retreat", "Night Comes In", they're all about God, considering they're all about God some of them aren't bad.' Despite these surrounding constraints and conflicts, the album is recognisably a Richard and Linda Thompson album in terms of melodies and the lyrical style. Pour Down Like Silver was recorded at Sound Techniques studio with John Wood engineering. Richard Thompson would have been familiar with both engineer and studio from his time with Fairport Convention. Joe Boyd, who had both produced and managed Fairport, did the vast majority of his production work at Sound Techniques and with Wood at the controls. Richard Thompson had left Fairport Convention in 1971 with a considerable reputation as an electric guitar soloist. However, the first few albums of his post-Fairport career had placed more emphasis on the vocals and the songs themselves; as noted above, Thompson was under increasing pressure from his spiritual teacher to abandon the electric guitar. What recent live work there had been had placed the emphasis on acoustic guitar.
So it was notable that Pour Down Like Silver and the live shows either side of the album’s release saw Thompson’s electric guitar returning to the spotlight. Concert performances featured extended guitar solos on "The Calvary Cross" and on "Night Comes In" and "For Shame of Doing Wrong" from the newly released Pour Down Like Silver; the electric guitar is prominent indeed on the third Linda album. More so because of the sparser arrangements and production that distinguish this album from its more lush sounding predecessor. Subsequently, Thompson disclosed that this stark and simple production was more by accident than design. "It was a stark record, but I think it was by accident in a sense – we were intending to have Simon come and play rhythm guitar but he wasn’t available so everything ended up sounding stark and I was always going to overdub rhythm guitar and stuff, but we thought we’ll just leave it, what the hell."Thompson may be regarded as being a little too off-hand here. In fact he overdubbed mandolin and multiple guitar parts on some tracks, session musicians were called in.
Another noticeable instrumental element of the album is the accordion of John Kirkpatrick, prominent both on this album and during the Thompsons' live shows in 1975. The understated and elegant "Dimming of the Day" was sung by Linda Thompson on this album, but Richard Thompson has continued to feature it in his own live shows for many years - an indication of its deep personal significance; this song is an example of Thompson writing in a centuries-old Sufic tradition of expressing divine love in earthly terms. On the album "Dimming of the Day" segues into a solo guitar performance of Scots composer James Scott Skinner's "Dargai" that matches the mood of the song and serves to bring the album to a contemplative conclusion. "Night Comes In" is another song of profound personal significance and recounts Richard Thompson's formal initiation into the Sufi faith. The song is notable for several prominent passages of electric guitar playing notable for their lyrical intensity - the closing, multi-tracked solo.
"Hard Luck Stories" is the most musically upbeat song on the album, with sardonic lyrics and a incisive guitar solo. After this album and the following short tour and Linda Thompson took a sabbatical from recording and performing music. All songs written by Richard Thompson except "Dargai", written by J. Scott Skinner and arranged by Thompson. "Streets of Paradise" - 4.17 "For Shame of Doing Wrong" - 4.44 "The Poor Boy Is Taken Away" - 3.35 "Night Comes In" - 8.12 "Jet Plane in a Rocking Chair" - 2.48 "Beat the Retreat" - 5.52 "Hard Luck Stories" - 3.51 "Dimming of the Day"/"Dargai" - 7.16 Available on 2003 Island Reissue "Streets of Paradise" - 3.57 "Night Comes In" - 12.22 "Dark End of the Street" - 4.16 "Beat the Retreat" - 6.25 Richard Thompson - guitar, mandolin, Appalachian dulcimer, Hammered dulcimer, electric piano Linda Thompson - vocals Timi Donald - drums Pat Donaldson - bass guitar Dave Mattacks - drums Dave Pegg - bass guitar John Kirkpatrick - accordion, concertina Ian Whiteman - flute, shakuhachi Aly Bain - fiddle Nic Jones - fiddle Henry Lowther - trumpet Clare Lowther - cello Jack Brymer - clarinet Dargai by James Scott Skinner
Fotheringay was a short-lived British folk rock group, formed in 1970 by singer-songwriter and musician Sandy Denny on her departure from Fairport Convention. The band drew its name from her 1968 composition "Fotheringay" about Fotheringhay Castle, in which Mary, Queen of Scots had been imprisoned; the song appeared on the 1969 Fairport Convention album, What We Did on Our Holidays, Denny's first album with that group. The original Fotheringay released one, self-titled album but disbanded at the start of 1971 as Denny embarked on a solo career. 45 years a new version of the band re-formed featuring the three original surviving members together with other musicians, toured in 2015 and 2016. Two former members of Eclection, guitarist Trevor Lucas and drummer Gerry Conway, two former members of Poet and the One Man Band, Jerry Donahue and Pat Donaldson, completed the line-up responsible for what was intended to be the quintet's first album; this folk-based set included several Denny original compositions, notably "Nothing More", "The Sea" and "The Pond and The Stream", as well as versions of Gordon Lightfoot's "The Way I Feel" and Bob Dylan's "Too Much of Nothing".
Though during the year of its original release the album featured in two of the UK's music papers' Top 20s, it did not meet commercial expectations, pressures on Denny to undertake a solo career increased. She had been voted Britain's number 1 singer for two consecutive years in Melody Maker's readers poll; the album peaked at No. 18 in the UK Albums Chart. A special live performance by Fotheringay was recorded at Gruga-Halle in Essen, Germany, on 23 October 1970; the concert tapes were re-mastered by Fotheringay guitarist Jerry Donahue and the album released in 2011. Fotheringay disbanded in January 1971 during sessions for a projected second album; some of the songs surfaced on Denny's 1971 debut solo The North Star Grassman and the Ravens. Lucas and Donahue joined Fairport Convention in 1972 to record that band's Rosie album, on which some Fotheringay material was used. However, Conway began session work afterwards. Both Conway and Donaldson have worked amongst many others. Lucas and Donahue stayed with Fairport for another couple of years, the album Nine being released in 1973, while Denny rejoined in 1974.
This line-up recorded two additional albums: Rising for the Moon. Denny, along with Donahue and Lucas, left the band in December 1975. Conway joined a reformed Fairport in 1997. In 2007, the BBC announced that Donahue would be attempting to complete the abandoned projected second Fotheringay album, which he accomplished using unheard takes from the original archived tapes. Completed by the summer of the following year, Fotheringay 2 was released by Fledg'ling Records on 29 September 2008. A four-disc collection, Nothing More: The Collected Fotheringay, was released on 30 March 2015; this is the most comprehensive compilation of the group’s recordings, contains, in addition to all the tracks on Fotheringay and Fotheringay 2 as both final studio versions and demos/alternate takes, the complete live concert set from Rotterdam in 1970, seven Fotheringay tracks recorded in session for BBC radio, plus a DVD disc containing 4 performances by Fotheringay recorded for the German "Beat-Club" TV series in 1970, which augment the otherwise sparse known TV footage of Sandy Denny in particular.
In June 2015, the three surviving members of the original band - Jerry Donahue, Gerry Conway and Pat Donaldson - reunited for six tour dates in the UK. They were joined by Kathryn Roberts, Sally Barker and PJ Wright to provide the harmonious vocals in the absence of Denny and Lucas, they played at Wolverhampton on 28 June 2016. A further date at the Under The Bridge venue at Chelsea FC's Stamford Bridge ground in London was announced for 24 June 2016. Fotheringay Fotheringay 2 Fotheringay Essen 1970 Nothing More: The Collected Fotheringay No More Sad Refrains: The Life And Times Of Sandy Denny, Clinton Heylin. Fotheringay 2 Fotheringay at Fledg'ling Records
I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight
I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight is the second album released by Richard Thompson and the first including and credited with his wife, Linda Thompson as Richard and Linda Thompson. It was released by Island Records in the UK in 1974. Although never commercially successful and critically ignored upon its release, it is now considered by a number of critics to be a masterpiece and one of the finest works of both Richard and Linda singularly or together; the album has been included on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. After the marked lack of success achieved by his first album, Henry the Human Fly, British singer/songwriter/guitarist Richard Thompson started a personal and professional relationship with Linda Peters, a session singer. I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight was the first album by the duo of Richard and Linda Thompson. Sessions for the album took place in Spring 1973 at the Sound Techniques studio, in Chelsea, London with house engineer John Wood co-producing with Thompson.
The album, provisionally titled Hokey Pokey, was recorded on a shoestring budget in a matter of days, but because of vinyl shortages, the album was not released until 1974. Where his first album was treated harshly by the critics, the second was hailed as a masterpiece, it is now regarded as one of the Thompsons' finest achievements. In the sleeve notes for the 2004 CD re-release, David Suff writes: "Throughout the album Richard's sombre, dark songs are driven by his masterful understated guitar and Linda's haunting spiritual vocals; the songs detail a beautiful yet desolate world of life before the fall, the lives of the homeless, the thief and the inebriate. The songs are English in their mood and responsibility, wry observations of the hopelessness of the human condition." Considering the song "End of the Rainbow", Suff writes: Richard denies that the song is pessimistic, "there's always hope in the third verse of my songs" yet the overall effect is a magnificent evocation of disillusionment.
Thompson's songs are despairing but not self-pitying, leaving the listener with an abiding sense of peace and, paradoxically hope. Ignored by reviewers, I Want to See the Bright Lights Tonight came to be regarded. Robert Christgau rated it when it was re-released as one-half of Live! Noting that " don't sentimentalize about time gone—they encompass it in an endless present." When it was re-released in 1984, along with other albums in the Thompsons' catalogue, Kurt Loder writing in Rolling Stone described it as a "timeless masterpiece" with "not a single track that's less than luminous". More recent reviews are complimentary. AllMusic notes that the album is "nothing short of a masterpiece" and calls it "music of striking and unmistakable beauty". Q: "After his 1971 departure from Fairport Convention, Richard Thompson found his ideal foil in recent bride Linda. A hugely inventive guitarist, he gives full vent to his talent on this dark. Indeed, he never quite recaptured the murky demons inside the likes of'Withered and Died' again."
In 2003 the album was placed at number 479 on Rolling Stone magazine's list of the 500 greatest albums of all time. The album appeared in the Mojo "100 Greatest Albums Ever Made"; the title track has been covered by, among others, Lucy Kaplansky, Dori Freeman, Weddings Parties Anything, Arlo Guthrie, Matt Pond PA, Ocean Colour Scene, Julie Covington and Sleater-Kinney. Caitlin Cary, Kate Rusby and Elvis Costello have all covered "Withered and Died". Kelly Willis has sung an acapella version in concert. Costello has covered "The End of the Rainbow," as has Barbara Manning. Maria McKee covered "Has He Got a Friend for Me" on her first solo album Maria McKee; the Fatima Mansions covered "The Great Valerio" on their 1991 mini-album Bertie's Brochures. All tracks written by Richard Thompson. Bonus tracks were recorded at the Roundhouse, London, on 7 September 1975. Richard Thompson – guitar, Hammered dulcimer, tin whistle, electric piano, harmonium Linda Thompson – vocals Timmy Donald – drums Pat Donaldson – bass guitar John Kirkpatrick – accordion, concertina Simon Nicol – dulcimer Brian Gulland – krummhorn Richard Harvey – krummhorn Royston Wood – harmony bass vocals Trevor Lucas - harmony vocals The CWS Silver Band Bonus tracks: Richard and Linda Thompson with John Kirkpatrick, Dave Pegg and Dave Mattacks.
John Wood - producer and engineer Richard Thompson - producer Cover design - unknown2004 CD re-release: Tim Chacksfield - research and project co-ordination Joe Black - project co-ordination for Universal David Suff - sleeve note and archive assistance Phil Smee - CD package design Richard Thompson – The Biography by Patrick Humphries. Schirmer Books. 0-02-864752-1 The Great Valerio – A Study of the Songs of Richard Thompson by Dave Smith. 1001 Albums by Robert Dimery and Michael Lydon
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
Charles Hardin Holley, known as Buddy Holly, was an American musician, singer-songwriter and record producer, a central and pioneering figure of mid-1950s rock and roll. He was born in Lubbock, Texas, to a musical family during the Great Depression, learned to play guitar and sing alongside his siblings, his style was influenced by gospel music, country music, rhythm and blues acts, he performed in Lubbock with his friends from high school. He made his first appearance on local television in 1952, the following year he formed the group "Buddy and Bob" with his friend Bob Montgomery. In 1955, after opening for Elvis Presley, he decided to pursue a career in music, he opened for Presley three times that year. In October that year, when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets, he was spotted by Nashville scout Eddie Crandall, who helped him get a contract with Decca Records. Holly's recording sessions at Decca were produced by Owen Bradley, who had become famous for producing orchestrated country hits for stars like Patsy Cline.
Unhappy with Bradley's musical style and control in the studio, Holly went to producer Norman Petty in Clovis, New Mexico, recorded a demo of "That'll Be the Day", among other songs. Petty became the band's manager and sent the demo to Brunswick Records, which released it as a single credited to "The Crickets", which became the name of Holly's band. In September 1957, as the band toured, "That'll Be the Day" topped the UK singles charts, its success was followed in October by another major hit, "Peggy Sue". The album Chirping Crickets, released in November 1957, reached number five on the UK Albums Chart. Holly made his second appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show in January 1958 and soon after, toured Australia and the UK. In early 1959, he assembled a new band, consisting of future country music star Waylon Jennings, famed session musician Tommy Allsup, Carl Bunch, embarked on a tour of the midwestern U. S. After a show in Clear Lake, Iowa, he chartered an airplane to travel to his next show, in Moorhead, Minnesota.
Soon after takeoff, the plane crashed, killing Holly, Ritchie Valens, The Big Bopper, pilot Roger Peterson in a tragedy referred to by Don McLean as "The Day the Music Died". During his short career, Holly wrote and produced his own material, he is regarded as the artist who defined the traditional rock-and-roll lineup of two guitars and drums. He was a major influence on popular music artists, including Bob Dylan, The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, Eric Clapton, Elton John, he was among the first artists inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, in 1986. Rolling Stone magazine ranked him number 13 in its list of "100 Greatest Artists". Holly was born Charles Hardin Holley on September 7, 1936, in Texas. O." Holley and Ella Pauline Drake. His elder siblings were Larry and Patricia Lou. Buddy Holly was of English and Welsh descent but had small amounts of Native American ancestry as well. From early childhood, he was nicknamed "Buddy". During the Great Depression, the Holleys moved residence within Lubbock.
O. changed jobs several times. Buddy Holly was baptized a Baptist, the family were members of the Tabernacle Baptist Church; the Holleys had an interest in music. O. were able to sing. The elder Holley brothers performed in local talent shows. Since he could not play it, his brother Larry greased the strings; the brothers won the contest. During World War II, Larry and Travis were called to military service. Upon his return, Larry brought with him a guitar he had bought from a shipmate while serving in the Pacific. At age 11, Buddy abandoned them after nine months, he switched to the guitar after he saw a classmate singing on the school bus. Buddy's parents bought him a steel guitar, but he insisted that he wanted a guitar like his brother's, his parents bought the guitar from a pawnshop, Travis taught him to play it. During his early childhood, Holley was influenced by the music of Hank Williams, Jimmie Rodgers, Hank Snow, Bob Wills, the Carter Family. At Roscoe Wilson Elementary, he became friends with Bob Montgomery, the two played together, practicing with songs by the Louvin Brothers and Johnnie & Jack.
They both listened to the radio programs Grand Ole Opry on WSM, Louisiana Hayride on KWKH, Big D Jamboree. At the same time, Holley played with other musicians he met in high school, including Sonny Curtis and Jerry Allison. In 1952, Holley and Jack Neal participated as a duo billed as "Buddy and Jack" in a talent contest on a local television show. After Neal left, he was replaced by Montgomery and they were billed as "Buddy and Bob"; the two soon started performing on the Sunday Party show on KDAV in 1953 and performed live gigs in Lubbock. At that time, Holley was influenced by late-night radio stations that played blues and rhythm and blues. Holley would sit in his car with Curtis and tune to distant radio stations that could only be received at night, when local transmissions ceased. Holley modified his music by blending his earlier country and western influence with R & B. By 1955, after graduating from high school, Holley decided to pursue a full-time career in music, he was further encouraged after seeing Elvis Presley performing live in Lubbock, whose act was booked by Pappy Dave Stone of KDAV.
In February, Holley opened for Presley at the Fair Park Coliseum
Folk rock is a hybrid music genre combining elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the United States and the United Kingdom in the mid-1960s. In the U. S. folk rock emerged from the folk music revival and the influence that the Beatles and other British Invasion bands had on members of that movement. Performers such as Bob Dylan and the Byrds—several of whose members had earlier played in folk ensembles—attempted to blend the sounds of rock with their preexisting folk repertoire, adopting the use of electric instrumentation and drums in a way discouraged in the U. S. folk community. The term "folk rock" was used in the U. S. music press in June 1965 to describe the Byrds' music. The commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's "Mr. Tambourine Man" and their debut album of the same name, along with Dylan's own recordings with rock instrumentation—on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde —encouraged other folk acts, such as Simon & Garfunkel, to use electric backing on their records and new groups, such as Buffalo Springfield, to form.
Dylan's controversial appearance at the Newport Folk Festival on 25 July 1965, where he was backed by an electric band, was a pivotal moment in the development of the genre. During the late 1960s in Britain and Europe, a distinct, eclectic British folk rock style was created by Pentangle, Fairport Convention and Alan Stivell. Inspired by British psychedelic folk and the North American style of folk rock, British folk rock bands began to incorporate elements of traditional British folk music into their repertoire, leading to other variants, including the overtly English folk rock of the Albion Band and Celtic rock. In its earliest and narrowest sense, the term "folk rock" refers to the blending of elements of folk music and rock music, which arose in the U. S. and UK in the mid-1960s. The genre was pioneered by the Byrds, who began playing traditional folk music and songs by Bob Dylan with rock instrumentation, in a style influenced by the Beatles and other British Invasion bands; the term "folk rock" was coined by the U.
S. music press to describe the Byrds' music in June 1965, the month in which the band's debut album was issued. Dylan contributed to the creation of the genre, with his recordings utilizing rock instrumentation on the albums Bringing It All Back Home, Highway 61 Revisited, Blonde on Blonde. In a broader sense, folk rock encompasses inspired musical genres and movements in different regions of the world. Folk rock may lean more towards either folk or rock in instrumentation and vocal style, choice of material. While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences; the term is not associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots. There are some exceptions; the American folk-music revival began during the 1940s. In 1948, Seeger formed the Weavers, whose mainstream popularity set the stage for the folk revival of the 1950s and early 1960s and served to bridge the gap between folk, popular music, topical song.
The Weavers' sound and repertoire of traditional folk material and topical songs directly inspired the Kingston Trio, a three-piece folk group who came to prominence in 1958 with their hit recording of "Tom Dooley". The Kingston Trio provided the template for a flood of "collegiate folk" groups between 1958 and 1962. At the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly, Brownie McGhee, Josh White came to the fore. Many of these urban revivalists were influenced by recordings of traditional American music from the 1920s and 1930s, reissued by Folkways Records. While this urban folk revival flourished in many cities, New York City, with its burgeoning Greenwich Village coffeehouse scene and population of topical folk singers, was regarded as the centre of the movement. Out of this fertile environment came such folk-protest luminaries as Bob Dylan, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Peter and Mary, many of whom would transition into folk rock performers as the 1960s progressed.
The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material. The influence of this folk-protest movement would manifest itself in the sociopolitical lyrics and mildly anti-establishment sentiments of many folk rock songs, including hit singles such as "Eve of Destruction", "Like a Rolling Stone", "For What It's Worth", "Let's Live for Today". During the 1950s and early 1960s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival, was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Both viewed British folk music as a vehicle for leftist political concepts and an antidote to the American-dominated popular music of the time. However, it wasn't until 1956 and the advent of the skiffle craze that the British folk revival crossed over into the mainstream and connected with British youth culture. Skiffle renewed popularity of folk music forms in Britain and led directly to the progressive folk movement and the attendant B
The piano is an acoustic, stringed musical instrument invented in Italy by Bartolomeo Cristofori around the year 1700, in which the strings are struck by hammers. It is played using a keyboard, a row of keys that the performer presses down or strikes with the fingers and thumbs of both hands to cause the hammers to strike the strings; the word piano is a shortened form of pianoforte, the Italian term for the early 1700s versions of the instrument, which in turn derives from gravicembalo col piano e forte and fortepiano. The Italian musical terms piano and forte indicate "soft" and "loud" in this context referring to the variations in volume produced in response to a pianist's touch or pressure on the keys: the greater the velocity of a key press, the greater the force of the hammer hitting the strings, the louder the sound of the note produced and the stronger the attack; the name was created as a contrast to harpsichord, a musical instrument that doesn't allow variation in volume. The first fortepianos in the 1700s had smaller dynamic range.
An acoustic piano has a protective wooden case surrounding the soundboard and metal strings, which are strung under great tension on a heavy metal frame. Pressing one or more keys on the piano's keyboard causes a padded hammer to strike the strings; the hammer rebounds from the strings, the strings continue to vibrate at their resonant frequency. These vibrations are transmitted through a bridge to a soundboard that amplifies by more efficiently coupling the acoustic energy to the air; when the key is released, a damper stops the strings' vibration, ending the sound. Notes can be sustained when the keys are released by the fingers and thumbs, by the use of pedals at the base of the instrument; the sustain pedal enables pianists to play musical passages that would otherwise be impossible, such as sounding a 10-note chord in the lower register and while this chord is being continued with the sustain pedal, shifting both hands to the treble range to play a melody and arpeggios over the top of this sustained chord.
Unlike the pipe organ and harpsichord, two major keyboard instruments used before the piano, the piano allows gradations of volume and tone according to how forcefully a performer presses or strikes the keys. Most modern pianos have a row of 88 black and white keys, 52 white keys for the notes of the C major scale and 36 shorter black keys, which are raised above the white keys, set further back on the keyboard; this means that the piano can play 88 different pitches, going from the deepest bass range to the highest treble. The black keys are for the "accidentals". More some pianos have additional keys. Most notes have three strings, except for the bass; the strings are sounded when keys are pressed or struck, silenced by dampers when the hands are lifted from the keyboard. Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked. There are two main types of piano: the upright piano.
The grand piano is used for Classical solos, chamber music, art song, it is used in jazz and pop concerts. The upright piano, more compact, is the most popular type, as it is a better size for use in private homes for domestic music-making and practice. During the 1800s, influenced by the musical trends of the Romantic music era, innovations such as the cast iron frame and aliquot stringing gave grand pianos a more powerful sound, with a longer sustain and richer tone. In the nineteenth century, a family's piano played the same role that a radio or phonograph played in the twentieth century. During the nineteenth century, music publishers produced many musical works in arrangements for piano, so that music lovers could play and hear the popular pieces of the day in their home; the piano is employed in classical, jazz and popular music for solo and ensemble performances and for composing and rehearsals. Although the piano is heavy and thus not portable and is expensive, its musical versatility, the large number of musicians and amateurs trained in playing it, its wide availability in performance venues and rehearsal spaces have made it one of the Western world's most familiar musical instruments.
With technological advances, amplified electric pianos, electronic pianos, digital pianos have been developed. The electric piano became a popular instrument in the 1960s and 1970s genres of jazz fusion, funk music and rock music; the piano was founded on earlier technological innovations in keyboard instruments. Pipe organs have been used since Antiquity, as such, the development of pipe organs enabled instrument builders to learn about creating keyboard mechanisms for sounding pitches; the first string instruments with struck strings were the hammered dul