Life insurance is a contract between an insurance policy holder and an insurer or assurer, where the insurer promises to pay a designated beneficiary a sum of money in exchange for a premium, upon the death of an insured person. Depending on the contract, other events such as terminal illness or critical illness can trigger payment; the policy holder pays a premium, either or as one lump sum. Other expenses, such as funeral expenses, can be included in the benefits. Life policies are legal contracts and the terms of the contract describe the limitations of the insured events. Specific exclusions are written into the contract to limit the liability of the insurer. Modern life insurance bears some similarity to the asset management industry and life insurers have diversified their products into retirement products such as annuities. Life-based contracts tend to fall into two major categories: Protection policies – designed to provide a benefit a lump sum payment, in the event of a specified occurrence.
A common form—more common in years past—of a protection policy design is term insurance. Investment policies – the main objective of these policies is to facilitate the growth of capital by regular or single premiums. Common forms are whole life, universal life, variable life policies. An early form of life insurance dates to Ancient Rome; the first company to offer life insurance in modern times was the Amicable Society for a Perpetual Assurance Office, founded in London in 1706 by William Talbot and Sir Thomas Allen. Each member made an annual payment per share on one to three shares with consideration to age of the members being twelve to fifty-five. At the end of the year a portion of the "amicable contribution" was divided among the wives and children of deceased members, in proportion to the number of shares the heirs owned; the Amicable Society started with 2000 members. The first life table was written by Edmund Halley in 1693, but it was only in the 1750s that the necessary mathematical and statistical tools were in place for the development of modern life insurance.
James Dodson, a mathematician and actuary, tried to establish a new company aimed at offsetting the risks of long term life assurance policies, after being refused admission to the Amicable Life Assurance Society because of his advanced age. He was unsuccessful in his attempts at procuring a charter from the government, his disciple, Edward Rowe Mores, was able to establish the Society for Equitable Assurances on Lives and Survivorship in 1762. It was the world's first mutual insurer and it pioneered age based premiums based on mortality rate laying "the framework for scientific insurance practice and development" and "the basis of modern life assurance upon which all life assurance schemes were subsequently based". Mores gave the name actuary to the chief official—the earliest known reference to the position as a business concern; the first modern actuary was William Morgan, who served from 1775 to 1830. In 1776 the Society carried out the first actuarial valuation of liabilities and subsequently distributed the first reversionary bonus and interim bonus among its members.
It used regular valuations to balance competing interests. The Society sought to treat its members equitably and the Directors tried to ensure that policyholders received a fair return on their investments. Premiums were regulated according to age, anybody could be admitted regardless of their state of health and other circumstances; the sale of life insurance in the U. S. began in the 1760s. The Presbyterian Synods in Philadelphia and New York City created the Corporation for Relief of Poor and Distressed Widows and Children of Presbyterian Ministers in 1759. Between 1787 and 1837 more than two dozen life insurance companies were started, but fewer than half a dozen survived. In the 1870s, military officers banded together to found both the Army and the Navy Mutual Aid Association, inspired by the plight of widows and orphans left stranded in the West after the Battle of the Little Big Horn, of the families of U. S. sailors. The person responsible for making payments for a policy is the policy owner, while the insured is the person whose death will trigger payment of the death benefit.
The owner and insured may not be the same person. For example, if Joe buys a policy on his own life, he is both the insured, but if Jane, his wife, buys a policy on Joe's life, she is the owner and he is the insured. The policy owner is the guarantor and he will be the person to pay for the policy; the insured is a participant in the contract, but not a party to it. The beneficiary receives policy proceeds upon the insured person's death; the owner designates the beneficiary. The owner can change the beneficiary. If a policy has an irrevocable beneficiary, any beneficiary changes, policy assignments, or cash value borrowing would require the agreement of the original beneficiary. In cases where the policy owner is not the insured, insurance companies have sought to limit policy purchases to those with an insurable interest in the CQV. For life insurance policies, close family members and business partners will be found to have an insurable interest; the insurable interest requirement demon
Boardman Bikes, Ltd. is a British bicycle manufacturer, founded by the professional cyclist Chris Boardman, Sarah Mooney and Alan Ingarfield, launched in the United Kingdom and Ireland in 2007. Ingarfield is the Chairman of the company, Mooney is the CEO and Boardman heads Research & Development alongside the special projects program B56. In 2014 the UK bicycle and car parts retailer Halfords acquired Boardman Bikes for £20,000,000, they are sold by Halfords' sub-brand Cycle Republic. Boardman Bikes design road bicycles, time trial bicycles, mountain bikes, cyclo-cross bicycles, single-speed bicycles and hybrid bicycles; the Boardman Performance range includes the Pro and Comp levels of specification utilizing carbon fibre and alloy frame designs. The Boardman Elite range produces the AiR, AiR/TT, SLR and EM series and uses high grade UD carbon fibre frames and seat posts; the fi range of bikes was added to the line up in 2010 - with frames and components designed around the requirements of women cyclists.
Boardman Bikes have been ridden by riders who have won Olympic Gold, World and national titles across the road, MTB and triathlon disciplines. Current Sponsorship includes supplying bicycles to: Alistair Brownlee: Olympic Champion 2012, 2011 & 2009 ITU Triathlon World Champion, 2010 & 2011 ETU Triathlon Champion Jonathan Brownlee: Olympic Bronze Medallist 2012, 2011 & 2010 ITU Sprint World Champion, 2009 ETU Triathlon European Champion Pete Jacobs: 2012 Ironman World Champion and 2nd at the 2011 Ironman World Championship ONE Pro Cycling, who agreed a three-year deal to use Boardman Bikes from 2017Boardman has been known for his methodical, technology approach to racing from winning the Olympics on the Lotus 108 Bike, to becoming British Cycling's Director of Research and Development. Official website Boardman CX Comp 2014 Bike Review
The Pedersen bicycle called the Dursley Pedersen bicycle is a bicycle, developed by Danish inventor Mikael Pedersen and produced in the English town of Dursley. Though never hugely popular, they are still produced today, their unusual frame is described as pure cross, was marketed as cantilever, features a distinctive hammock-style saddle. Variations include lightweight racing and folding designs. Other Pedersen innovations include three-speed internally geared rear hubs. Pedersen received a patent in the United Kingdom for his bicycle in the early 1890s and constructed the first model out of wood, he formed the Pedersen Cycle Frame Co. Ltd and when that fell into financial difficulties, production was continued by the Dursley Pedersen Cycle Co; the design was licensed to other manufacturers, 30,000 units were produced by the early 1920s, but the design never caught on. In 1978, Jesper Sølling has been followed by others. Pedersen wrote, it provides suspension from road imperfections with much less weight, 4 ounces instead of 3 pounds of traditional leather and steel spring saddles of the day.
Pedersen developed a frame, a truss assembled from several thin tubes, around his new seat design. He attributed his inspiration to the Whipple-Murphy bridge truss; the design did not support seat height adjustment, after some adjustability was added, required the manufacture of eight different sizes. The non-standard frame design would not accommodate a traditional front fork. Instead, Pedersen developed a fork that consisted of thin tubes assembled into a truss, attached to the frame with bearings at two distinct points, instead of through a traditional head tube. Pedersen received patents for a chainwheel and bottom bracket combination and lightweight pedals. Evans, David; the Ingenious Mr Pedersen. A Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-0064-5. Town recalls pedal pioneer, Bristol Evening Post, 28 October 2005 Town welcomes family of legendary inventor, Gazette Series, 28 October 2005 Pedersen Bicycle, Denmark. Pedersen Bicycles, US distributor. Dursley Pedersen Cycles Pedersen Manufaktur Kalkhoff GbR Mikael Pedersen and The Dursley Pedersen Cycle Company
Islabikes is a manufacturer of bicycles for children. The business is located near Ludlow in Shropshire, England, it was founded in 2005 by competitive cyclist Isla Rowntree located at Claverley in east Shropshire until it moved in 2010. In November 2014 the company employed 40 people. Islabikes is known to produce light bikes where all components are designed for children. In 2011 Islabikes introduced one adult-sized model, but does not plan to expand further into adult bikes. Islabikes opened their North American headquarters in Portland and began sales in April, 2013; the bicycles are manufactured in Vietnam. The company donates a percentage of profits to charity World Bicycle Relief. Official website
Raleigh Bicycle Company
The Raleigh Bicycle Company is a bicycle manufacturer based in Nottingham, England. Founded by Woodhead and Angois in 1885, who used Raleigh as their brand name, it is one of the oldest bicycle companies in the world. After being acquired by Frank Bowden, it became The Raleigh Cycle Company in December 1888, registered as a limited liability company in January 1889. By 1913, it was the biggest bicycle manufacturing company in the world. From 1921 to 1935, Raleigh produced motorcycles and three-wheel cars, leading to the formation of Reliant Motors; the Raleigh division of bicycles is owned by the Dutch corporation Accell. In 2006, the Raleigh Chopper was named in the list of British design icons in the Great British Design Quest organised by the BBC and the Design Museum; the history of Raleigh bicycles started in 1885, when Richard Morriss Woodhead from Sherwood Forest, Paul Eugene Louis Angois, a French citizen, set up a small bicycle workshop in Raleigh Street, England. In the spring of that year, they started advertising in the local press.
The Nottinghamshire Guardian of 15 May 1885 printed what was the first Woodhead and Angois classified advertisement. Nearly two years the 11 April 1887 issue of The Nottingham Evening Post contained a display advertisement for the Raleigh ‘Safety’ model under the new banner ‘Woodhead and Ellis. Russell Street Cycle Works.’ William Ellis had joined the partnership and provided much-needed financial investment. Like Woodhead and Angois, Ellis's background was in the lace industry, he was a lace gasser, a service provider involved in the bleaching and treating of lace, with premises in nearby Clare Street and Glasshouse Street. Thanks to Ellis, the bicycle works had now expanded round the corner from Raleigh Street into former lace works on the adjoining road, Russell Street. By 1888, the company was employed around half a dozen men, it was one of 15 bicycle manufacturers based in Nottingham at that time. Frank Bowden, a recent convert to cycling who on medical advice had toured extensively on a tricycle, first saw a Raleigh bicycle in a shop window in Queen Victoria Street, about the time that William Ellis's investment in the cycle workshop was beginning to take effect.
Bowden described how this led to him visiting the Raleigh works: In the early part of 1887, while looking for a good specimen of the new safety bicycle, I came across a Raleigh in London. Its patent changeable gear and other special features struck me as superior to all the others I had seen, I purchased one upon which I toured extensively through France and England during 1887 and 1888. In the autumn of the latter year, happening to pass through Nottingham, with the idea of, if possible, getting a still more up-to-date machine, I called upon Messrs. Woodhead and Angois, the originators and makers of the Raleigh … It is clear from Frank Bowden's own account that, although he bought a Raleigh ‘Safety’ in 1887, he did not visit the Raleigh workshop until autumn 1888; that visit led to Bowden replacing Ellis as the partnership's principal investor, though Bowden did not become the outright owner of the firm. He concluded that the company had a profitable future if it promoted its innovative features, increased its output, cut its overhead costs and tailored its products to the individual tastes and preferences of its customers.
He bought out William Ellis's share in the firm and was allotted 5,000 £1 shares, while Woodhead and Angois between them held another 5,000 shares. In Frank Bowden's own lifetime, Raleigh publicity material stated that the firm was founded in 1888, when Bowden, as he himself confirmed, first bought into the enterprise. Thus, Raleigh's 30th anniversary was celebrated in 1918; the 1888 foundation date is confirmed by Bowden's great-grandson, Gregory Houston Bowden, who states that Frank Bowden "began to negotiate with Woodhead and Angois and in December 1888 founded'The Raleigh Cycle Company'." The December 1888 foundation date is confirmed by Nottinghamshire Archives. In recent years, the Raleigh company has cited 1887 as a foundation date but, whilst this pre-dates Bowden's involvement, the Raleigh brand name was created by Woodhead and Angois and the enterprise can, as demonstrated above, be traced back to 1885; the company established by Bowden in December 1888 was still owned with unlimited public liability.
In January 1889, it became the first of a series of limited liability companies with Raleigh in its name. It had a nominal capital of £20,000, half of, provided by Frank Bowden. Paul Angois was appointed director responsible for product design, Richard Woodhead was made director responsible for factory management, Frank Bowden became chairman and managing director; some shares were made available to small investors and local businessmen, but take-up was minimal, Bowden ended up buying most of the public shares. He subsequently supplied all the capital needed to expand the firm; when Frank Bowden got involved with the enterprise, the works comprised three small workshops and a greenhouse. As Woodhead and Ellis, the firm had expanded round the corner from Raleigh Street into Russell Street, where stood Clarke's five-storey former lace factory. To enable further expansion of the business, Bowden financed the renting of this property and installation of new machinery. Under Bowden's guidance, Raleigh expanded rapidly.
By 1891, the company occupied not only Clarke's factory but Woodroffe's Factory and Russell Street Mills. In November 1892, Raleigh signed a tenancy agreement for rooms in Butler's factory on the other side of Russell Street. Shortly after this, the company occupied Forest Road Mill. (Forest Road junctions with Russell Street at the op
A mountain bike or mountain bicycle is a bicycle designed for off-road cycling. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bicycles, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain; these include a front or full suspension, large knobby tires, more durable wheels, more powerful brakes, straight handlebars, lower gear ratios for climbing steep grades. Mountain bikes are specialized for use on mountain trails, single track, fire roads, other unpaved surfaces, although the majority of them are never used off pavement, it is common to find hybrid road bikes based on "mountain bike" frames for sale; this type of terrain has rocks, loose dirt, steep grades. Many trails have additional TTFs such as log piles, log rides, rock gardens, gap jumps, wall-rides. Mountain bikes are built to handle these types of terrain and features; the heavy-duty construction combined with stronger rims and wider tires has made this style of bicycle popular with urban riders and couriers who must navigate through potholes and over curbs.
Since the development of the sport in the 1970s, many new subtypes of mountain biking have developed, such as cross-country, all-day endurance, downhill, a variety of track and slalom types. Each of these place different demands on the bike, requiring different designs for optimal performance. MTB development has led to an increase in suspension travel, now up to 8 inches, gearing up to 27 speeds, to facilitate both climbing and rapid descents. Advancements in gearing have led to a "1x" trend, simplifying the gearing to one chainring in the front and a cassette at the rear with 9 to 12 sprockets; the expressions "all terrain bicycle", "all terrain bike", the acronym "ATB" are used as synonyms for "mountain bike", but some authors consider them passé. The original mountain bikes were modified heavy cruiser bicycles used for freewheeling down mountain trails; the sport became popular in the 1970s in Northern California, USA, with riders using older, single-speed balloon tire bicycles to ride down rugged hillsides.
These modified bikes were called "ballooners" in CA, "klunkers" in CO, "dirt bombers" in OR. Joe Breeze, a bicycle frame builder, used this idea and developed what is considered the first mountain bike, it was not until the late 1970s and early 1980s that road bicycle companies started to manufacture mountain bicycles using high-tech lightweight materials, such as M4 aluminum. The first production Mountain bike available was the 1979 Lawwill Pro Cruiser; the frame design was based on a frame that Don Koski fabricated from electrical conduit and a Schwinn Varsity frame. Mert Lawwill had Terry Knight of Oakland build the frames; the bikes sold for about $500 new and were made from 1979 though 1980. The first mass production mountain bike was the Specialized Stumpjumper, first produced in 1981. With the rising popularity of mountain bikes, Randolph Ross, executive vice president of Ross Bicycles Inc. was quoted in the New York Times saying I'd say these bikes are one of the biggest things that happened to the biking industry.
Its basic look constitutes "a total shift in image" for the industry. Throughout the 1990s and 2000s, mountain biking moved from a little-known sport to a mainstream activity complete with an international racing circuit and a world championship, in addition to various freeride competitions, such as the FMB World Tour and the Red Bull Rampage. Mountain bikes can be divided into three broad categories based on suspension configuration: Rigid: A mountain bike with large, knobby tires and straight handlebars, but with neither front nor rear suspension. Hard tail: A mountain bike equipped with a suspension fork for the front wheel, but otherwise a rigid frame. Full suspension: A mountain bike equipped with both front and rear suspension; the front suspension is a telescopic fork similar to that of a motorcycle, the rear is suspended by a mechanical linkage with components for absorbing shock. There are several different styles of mountain biking defined by the terrain, therefore the type of bikes employed.
Styles of mountain bike riding and mountain bikes have evolved in recent years leading to terms such as Freeride and "Trail bike" being used to categorise mountain bikes. Definitions for the most used terms are listed below. Cross country mountain bikes are designed around the discipline of cross country racing, placing emphasis on climbing speed and endurance, therefore demanding lightweight, efficient bikes. In the 1980s and early 1990s, XC mountain bikes consisted of a lightweight steel hardtail frame with rigid forks. Throughout the 1990s XC bikes evolved to incorporate lightweight aluminum frames and short travel front suspension forks. Full suspension designs have become more popular among racers and enthusiasts alike, the use of advanced carbon fiber composites has allowed bike designers to produce full-suspension designs under 10 kilograms. In recent years 29" wheels have replaced the original standard of 26"; the geometry of Cross Country bikes favours climbing ability and fast responses over descending and stability, as a result typical head angles are 70–71°.
Although intended for off-road use, Cross Country bikes are not designed for use on steep or rough terrain. Put in terms of rider emphasis, XC bikes are designed for 80% uphill or flat riding, 20% downhill. "Trail" Bikes are a development of XC bikes
Beckenham is a post town and district of London in the London Borough of Bromley, England. It borders Beckenham Place Park and Bellingham in the London Borough of Lewisham and is centred 8.4 miles south east of Charing Cross. Part of Kent, Beckenham was, until the coming of the railway in 1857, a small village, with most of its land being rural and private parkland. John Cator and his family began the building of villas which led to a rapid increase in population, between 1850 and 1900, from 2,000 to 26,000. Housing and population growth has continued at a lesser pace since 1900; the town has areas of commerce and industry, principally around the curved network of streets featuring its high street and is served in transport by three main railway stations — nine within the post town — plus towards its western periphery two Tramlink stations. In common with the rest of Bromley, the largest borough of London by area, Beckenham has several pockets of recreational land which are a mixture of sports grounds, fishing ponds and parks.
The place-name'Beckenham' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 862 as Biohhahema mearc. The settlement is referred to as Bacheham in the Domesday Book of 1086, in the Textus Roffensis as Becceham; the name is thought to derive from Beohha's homestead. The name of the small stream here – the River Beck – is most to have been named after the village. Although early written history tells little of the area, archaeological evidence at Holwood Park, where Stone Age and Bronze Age artifacts have been found, reveals some evidence of early settlers. A Roman camp was sited here, a Roman road, the London to Lewes Way passed through the district. With the arrival of the Normans, the Manor of Beckenham took on added importance, controlled much of what is modern Beckenham. St George's Church was built in the 12th century. In the Middle Ages, the manor lands were divided: at this time the estates of Kelsey and Langley came into being. Beckenham still remained a small village until well into the 19th century.
The beginning of its growth began when, in 1773, John Cator built Beckenham Place and became Lord of the Manor. After he died in 1807, his sons soon became aware that the area in such close proximity to London was ripe for development once the railway had arrived in 1857. Wide roads and large gardens epitomised these properties. Between and the early 20th century, further growth of Beckenham took place: the Shortlands area in 1863; the Manor of Foxgrove was broken up at some point: its name is commemorated in a local road. Beckenham is a suburb and a town in its own right with a non-bypassed non-pedestrianised high street on a route between the rest of the borough and South London and has spread about its centre on 15 pre-1850 houses which are listed buildings. See also: Municipal Borough of Beckenham The Municipal Borough of Beckenham came into being in 1935, it took over from what had been, since 1894, Beckenham Urban District Council and included parts of Hayes and West Wickham part of Bromley Rural District Council.
The new Borough status reflected the growth of Beckenham in less than fifty years. In 1965, as part of the creation of the Greater London Council, the Borough council was disbanded and Beckenham came under control of the newly constituted London Borough of Bromley. Councillors represent various parts of the Borough of Beckenham. Beckenham Town Centre Management coordinates business interests in the town; the original village of Beckenham was a cluster of development in its own fields at what is now the north. Around it were the great manorial estates: Beckenham and Langley Halls and Parks; the River Ravensbourne flows northwards at the eastern side of the town, towards its confluence with the River Thames. A small stream, the River Beck, passes through the town before joining the Ravensbourne further north; the area consists of many small hills. Despite its leafy image, its close proximity to Central London and nine railway stations within the post town, make Beckenham a good business location.
The town's busy high street contains many restaurants and upmarket chains, as well as family-run independents, the area has a good selection of well performing schools. Beckenham is the headquarters to Capita Registrars Limited who provide share registration services for more than half of the UK’s quoted companies, Proper Records, the UK's biggest independent music distributor and Vizual, a leading HR software developer. One of the interesting landmarks in Beckenham is the Chinese Garage, now a listed building, it is built in an unusual Japanese pagoda style and operated as a car dealership selling Peugeot and Kia cars. Its future is being decided. There is St George's Church, dating back to 1100 but rebuilt at the end of the 19th century; the lych gate dates from the 13th century, is one of the oldest in England. There are two old pubs, Ye Olde George Inn, the Three Tuns. Kelsey Park is another landmark, it was part of the Kelsey Estate. The only surviving buildings are the two Grade II listed lodge cottages at the entrance, which are over 200 years old.
Beckenham is served by nine rail stations - Beckenham Junction, Clock House, New Beckenham, Kent House, Elmers End, Eden Park and Beckenham Hill. Beckenham Jun